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Simple Software for Better Interview Skills. Learn how to land the xenia, job with Big Interviews powerful video tutorials and virtual interview practice software. The Art of Writing a Great Resume Summary Statement. Guest contributor and example, professional resume writer Kimberly Sarmiento will help you make your resume stand out with a summary statement. In resume writing, you know you need more than just a list of jobs and education, but how to begin? Or rather, how should your resume begin? First, nix the objective statement.

It is almost impossible to write an xenia hospitality objective statement without either telling the hiring manager something they already know or focusing on what you want to get from a job. Both are things you should absolutely avoid in a resume. Instead, use a summary statement or what I like to call your written elevator speech. Why You Should Use a Resume Summary Statement. Professionals who work with career coaches and those who have done some solid web research have come to understand that they need to master their Elevator Speech. This speech is a short summary of an what a chav employees value proposition and should be thought of as a sales pitch that is ready to go anytime you run into a potential hiring manager or networking contact. A carefully prepared Elevator Speech is hospitality, customized to the person giving the structure, speech and xenia hospitality, contains information that makes the professional stand out while still focusing on things the employer wants to know (excels in cutting costs, not excellent deep sea diver).

The same holds true for your Written Elevator Speech or resume summary statement. Essay? This speech is xenia hospitality, given at the top of your resume in the prime resume real estate where a recruiter or hiring manager always looks first. The summary statement serves as an introduction to the reader that seeks to most popular in india answer the question Tell me about yourself in just a few lines of text. The resume summary statement will help your resume stand out by: a. Xenia Hospitality? Catching the readers attention immediately. b. Ensuring a clear understanding of your top selling points at a glance (important when hiring managers are skimming through dozens of resumes at a time and attention spans are short) c. Putting emphasis on your career highlights and key strengths in an easy-to-scan format. d. Essay? Briefly communicating your professional objective if relevant (if the xenia, objective is not obvious) Every resume can benefit from most religion a summary statement. For some candidates, it can be critical. 1. Career Changers A summary statement can help a hiring manager quickly see your transferable skills.

Without a summary statement, a recruiter might look at your most recent experience, assume youre not a fit because your experience isnt traditional, and xenia hospitality, toss your resume. 2. Recent College Grads A summary statement can help you customize your resume for different opportunities. This is especially helpful if your background is somewhat general. You can use the summary to highlight skills and article, experience most relevant for each position. 3. Experienced Professionals with Diverse Backgrounds For experienced professionals, a summary statement can become the executive summary of your resume, tailored for hospitality each position. This allows you to pull the most relevant and impressive skills and career accomplishments and feature them at the top of your resume. Elements of a Strong Resume Summary Statement. The Basics Your summary statement should consist of a title and a few lines of text. The text can be in paragraph form and/or use bullets. The summary statement should appear directly below your contact information at Academic the top of the resume. and should reflect a general (or specific) idea of your career goals.

Your Title When working with my clients on their resumes, I typically recommend starting with a title that communicates their professional identity. Think of it as a headline that will catch the readers eye and help them see your fit for the position at hand. Examples include Social Media Brand Strategist, Senior Marketing Executive, Multifaceted Art Director, and Global Operations Professional. Hospitality? See Resume Summary Statement examples below for additional titles that may spark ideas for you. The Format The main body of your summary statement should be approximately 3-4 lines of text and should NOT be written with first-person pronouns. If you are tempted to make your summary statement longer to squeeze in more details, resist the temptation. Essay Spm? Industry research tells us that most hiring managers spend only seconds reviewing a resume before they make up their minds to call a candidate or not. We also know that when they see large chunks of text, their eyes will skip over it. Therefore, it is vital to limit the hospitality, length of Corruption, a summary statement to ensure it gets read.

Resume Summary Statement Examples. Below are several examples of written elevator speeches or summary/branding statements with titles. A versatile and creative writer fuses a background in journalism and academics with expertise in business writing to deliver quality, customized material spanning news, marketing, web content, curriculum, and career development. Xenia Hospitality? Provides sales support and highly-rated client service and excels in meeting deadlines in quick-turnaround settings. FINANCIAL OPERATIONS SUPPORT PROFESSIONAL. Blends academic training in economics and business administration with hands-on experience in sales and operations support to offer employers a track record of delivering on tasks accurately, efficiently, and quickly. Known for providing best-in-class customer service and communications in a variety of what is the, business settings. A proven leader of US and international sales organizations offers expertise in developing successful growth strategies and training both individual representative and team leaders in product benefits and customer service techniques. Hospitality? Also known for creating dynamic marketing/brand strategies that engage consumers and take away business from the competition. Effectively manages PL on multimillion-dollar, multi-product lines of Corruption Of Power, business.

How to Write Your Resume Summary Statement. Since you have limited space, its important to carefully plan what goes into your summary statement. Your statement must be concise AND represent the xenia hospitality, strongest elements of you as a professional. Here are three steps to writing a strong summary statement for phospholipids your resume: Step 1: First, think of xenia, three or four things that define you as a professional.

This can be a strong sales record, excellent customer service, expertise in drawing engineering plans, or an ability to manage large-scale technical projects. These professional traits will vary according to religion in india profession and skill level. Managers and executives should focus on business skills as well as technical expertise even if they fall into a technical industry. Entry-level and recent graduates can include academic training and xenia hospitality, experience to Essay support professional abilities. Step 2: Next, think of the things you enjoy the most in your work. When you write your summary statement, you arent just telling the hospitality, employer what you are good at, you are also telling them what you want to do day in and day out. Ergo, no matter how well you do something dont talk about it if you dont want to do it.

My wisest clients have pointed it out to me when I have focused too much on something they dont particularly enjoy and we rework their summaries accordingly. Step 3: Align your summary statement with the companys job requirements. Once you identify the skills you want to focus on, do a little research and see if they line up with job requirements listed for the positions you are seeking. If you are a project manager, you probably want to establish early that you are skilled at Corruption Of Power managing resources and xenia hospitality, ensuring assignments get completed on-time/on-budget. This might not be the thing you want to focus on the most, but it is popular religion, essential to work in. More Tips on Resume Summary Statements. 1. Customize for Your Experience Level.

Each of the above example statements effectively sets up the skill sets, achievements, and even certifications/degrees that the applicants highlight throughout their resumes. When writing your statement, it is important to consider where you are in hospitality, your professional progression. While a job description might want an Academic MBA, PMP, or other certifications, whether or not you mention such things in your opening statement will depend greatly on how much experience you have to back your application. When the job seeker is young and needs to rely on academic experience to strengthen their qualifications, it is best to call that out from the start. Consider the example below: Blends lab management experience with academic training at xenia the University of Corruption Essay, Florida to xenia hospitality offer solid skills in clinical experiments and research activities. Incorporates a background in office administration to provide employers with proven organization, communications, and on Marketing, scheduling expertise. In this instance, the job seeker focused on things learned through education and xenia hospitality, transferable skills that could be applicable from part-time work experience.

On the other hand, when the job applicant has strong experience, there is no need to rely on Essay the academic training any longer and it doesnt need to xenia be mentioned. 2. Focus on your most important selling points. Some requirements can be covered in the body of the resume and just arent important enough to place in Essay on Marketing Journals, that opening paragraph. One example I see a lot is proficiency in MS Office. Even if you are a technical professional, software and hardware skills need their own section on the resume and dont belong in xenia, the opening statement. The summary statement is for the strengths and accomplishments that truly make you stand out structure, as a candidate. Consider the following examples of resume summaries for technology professionals: A proven leader of IT startups and established operations offers expertise in defining technical strategies that support overall business objectives.

Supports efforts to develop and market technical solutions to both internal and external clients. Xenia? Oversees team development and most popular, vendor selection/maintenance for multimillion-dollar operations. COMPUTER/HARDWARE SPECIALIST /TEAM SUPERVISOR. Leverages technical expertise on xenia hospitality hardware setup/configuration to provide exceptional user support and resolve critical operational issues. Experience includes managing security and after-hour support for example classified materials and communications. Known for hospitality creating and implementing training that expands team member capabilities and instructs users on phospholipids system utilization/improvement. Works with government, civilian, and corporate stakeholders. Of course there are other things you might want to call to the readers attention early, including language proficiencies, award-winning performance, or being named on one or more US patents.

While these qualifications can be contained in xenia, the body of a resume (and should still be placed there) , it could be relevant to highlight them early to Language Essay establish your unique value as an employee. Please note again that none of these opening paragraphs are written with first person pronouns. While you do write the paragraph in present tense, you write it as if you are the understood subject of the resume. This allows the focus to remain on the employer. Use of I, me, my places the xenia, focus on the applicant and what a chav, the goal of the hospitality, resume is to sell the employer on what you can do for THEM. By telling the reader what you do and what a chav, what you are known for, you get the reader thinking about how you can do those things for them. This message should be reinforced throughout the xenia hospitality, resume as you use achievements and certifications to what most popular in india reinforce your opening paragraph and highlight examples of when you have done the xenia, things that summary statement promotes. Remember, aside from a cover letter, the summary statement is the very first thing the hiring manager reads about you. It is your handshake long before you meet the interviewer. It is your first impression long before you get a chance to pick out your best outfit.

It requires more than I am seeking a job as. It is what a chav, your first chance to answer the question Tell me about Yourself and you want to hospitality make the most of it. HUMOR: Also, if youre struggling for ideas, why not let Barney Stinson inspire you with some creative ways to highlight your awesomeness. Pamela Skillings is is the popular, co-founder of Big Interview. As an hospitality interview coach, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at Essay companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of hospitality, experience training and advising managers at organizations from American Express to the City of New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and Journals, an instructor at xenia hospitality the American Management Association. 20 Comment to The Art of Writing a Great Resume Summary Statement. Nice one Pamela. Essay Journals? One more thing I would like to hospitality add here is what most popular religion in india, one should never try to xenia hospitality add any fake information in their resume which can put them in Essay on Marketing, trouble. @terrylewis thats great. Hospitality? Maybe you can share it here once youre done.

@Arman thats correct. Faking info will very likely come back to what a chav bite you. Hospitality? So resist the temptation to be too creative. What an exceptional post Pamela. I have seen many articles on on Marketing Journals resume tips but nothing like this one. Just want to add more tip here that job seekers should never try to xenia add any fake information in their resumes just to impress the recruiter.

This is the part that is very difficult for me, i work in the service area, i work for Academic Language Essay a very prestigious hotel brand and i dont know how to convert what i do into a summary. I want to advance in my career, i want to move in int administrative part of the hotel, not front office. No Im not a front desk agent nor a concierge. I am having so much trouble coming with the hospitality, perfect resume so i can apply to better jobs.! Heres a way to what a chav possibly get unstuck and draft your summary statement: 1) Brainstorm a bit about the most important qualities required for the job(s) that you want. If theres a job description, scan it for keywords. 2) Think about your 3 most valuable transferable skills/strengths/areas of expertise and how they relate. 3) Draft a sentence about hospitality each of those three selling points. 4) Combine/arrange/edit them into a summary statement using the examples in the post for inspiration. Depending on your level of experience, your statement may be a few simple sentences or a brief bulleted list.

Please feel free to essay post a draft of your summary statement here and xenia, I would be happy to give some feedback. Keep track of the interviews. Maintain a record of the .information about the interview so that you can refer to it in future. Essay? Many times you would have more than one interview with an organisation and it would help if you have jotted down somewhere what happened in the previous interviews. As the human memory fades with time it is preferable that you record the xenia hospitality, information within 24 hours of the interview. While maintaining the summary of interviews include the following information: Name and what a chav, position of interviewer(s) After the Interview. It is xenia, not over until you finally get the job. So dont just sit back and Corruption Of Power, relax.

Now is the time to do the follow up procedures to xenia hospitality finally get selected and Journals, gain the job of xenia hospitality, your dreams. Corruption? Get Selected at Job Interviews. Job profile/description: duties, responsibilities, powers, salary, other benefits etc. Category: positive, negative, average. Date of xenia hospitality, contact with the what a chav, organisation. Specific points discussed: stressed on some qualifications, achievements more than others. Pamela you are geniusJust read your blog.It is simply amazing. Hospitality? Already started working on creating my own personal branding statement. It would be great if you can suggest what should be the caption or heading for personal branding statement.

For instance, the categories/headings which appear in a Resume/CV are Core Competencies, Professional Experience, Academics, Personal Information etc. Corruption? Is it a good idea to write heading Senior Banking Professional followed by branding statement under this heading. Since, I am a banker with 8 years of experience in executing cross- functional assignments in Retail ( Marketing Campaigns for Retail banking ), Corporate Banking (Commercial Credit to xenia hospitality SMEs ) and Strategy (Launch of Wealth Management Business) with MBA as background. Keeping my fingers crossed to discover a nice branding statement for me THANKS A LOT. Outstanding post Pamela! I am a young creative professional and Of Power Essay, find it very difficult to put my skills and experience into a summary when its such a broad field.

After reading your article I now have a better understanding of xenia, what companies look for in a resume. Example Spm? Thank you! Outstanding post Pamela and very helpful but I am some time confused that What type of xenia, CV format should I opt for HR post please help as I am working as an HR? What type of frequent question can be asked during an interview? How can we describe a healthy interview?

How can I create my own profession brand as an HR? It seems like the examples used are trying to show some corporate bean counter that you know a lot of big words. Academic? Is this really what sells? I dont want to jump through a bunch of xenia hospitality, hoops to dazzle some corporate sell out. What ever happend to keeping it simple? Great article. Im running into trouble highlighting my transferable skills that I got from being a corporate lawyer because I now want to work on research teams for news shows, or in production. Its difficult trying to connect the two. Can you write an example here.

Good article, exposed some weaknesses in my resume, Im make the changes today! Thanks. Helpful article, though I find myself wondering at Language the images you chose for the sections. They are all part of a larger work by xenia hospitality, Pablo Picasso, titled Guernica, which was his attempt at a propaganda piece criticizing war. The painting depicts innocent people being firebombed by German and Italian warplanes. Clearly shown are tormented soldiers, a dead child in the arms of a ravaged woman, and citizens and livestock burning alive. Perhaps this is a strange choice of artwork to use for this article.

Awesome. Example Article Spm? shares some other resume design skill in AmoLink resume. Hope its useful to xenia all of Essay, us. I found it odd also. This is why doing arts papers while studying for your business degree is so important. Something incredibly ironic about someone who is an xenia hospitality expert in selling yourself plastering her blog post with images from a painting as brutally about suffering as this. I guess whoever pieced this page together thought oh, its art, so it must be sophisticated. And they say Im irrational for thinking business people arent necessarily very bright.

Thank you for the inspiring article! I have been struggling to find a job that fits my professional profile and when I finally find it, I get no attention at all! Now, I migh have identified some of phospholipids structure, my common mistakes. Anyhow, I have a big problem. Hospitality? I am a BA in International Relations and I have no idea how to most popular religion in india name my professional title. Any ideas? I rarely get sidetracked by hospitality, advertisements or odd artwork in blog posts, mainly because Im inundated with it.

But my concentration was quickly. diverted to the slightly barbaric images as soon as I could make out an. Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview. As one of the country's top interview coaches, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and Language Essay, advising managers at organizations from hospitality American Express to Academic Language Essay the City of New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association.

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Art and Morality: Essays in the Spirit of George Santayana. Morris Grossman, Art and Morality: Essays in the Spirit of hospitality George Santayana , Martin A. Coleman (ed.), Fordham University Press, 2014, 315pp., $26.00 (pbk), ISBN 9780823257232. Reviewed by essay spm, Matthew Caleb Flamm, Rockford University. In a climate where print academic publications are increasingly financially unfeasible it is encouraging to see presses like Fordham University's backing a rich, eclectic collection like this one by Morris Grossman. Grossman died in 2012, and the book honors his scholarly career. As a brief preface by the editor Martin A. Coleman indicates, most of the essays are reprinted, revised versions of previously published journal and book articles. The earliest dated article chosen for inclusion is 1968, a piece examining How Sartre Must be Read. Most of the remaining selections are dated as having appeared in the seventies and eighties, a few in the nineties, one in 2005 and two non-dated pieces (presumably written for the volume). Career-crowning collections can be forced or failing of xenia hospitality their purpose, appearing to readers more as a motley assortment of pieces with little to no binding thematic connection. Thankfully this collection is not one of Essay on Marketing Journals those. It is xenia, put together with care and what appears to be an obviously engaged presence of the author throughout the process of preparing the various included pieces.

While the collection is unsuitable for introductory students of what a chav aesthetics, art, and philosophy, upper level students in those identified subject areas could definitely profit from its reading. For that matter the book is amenable to the intellectually curious beyond formal learning contexts. The wide range of subjects taken up is grounded in a substantive singular concern, aptly expressed in the title. As familiar readers know, Santayana concerned himself a great deal with the intersections of art and morality. Following suit, Grossman articulates his version of this concern in the introduction, identifying his intent to examine the rival claims of art and xenia hospitality, morality. (15) The exact meaning of rival in this characterization is Of Power Essay, important and makes a difference for xenia how readers are to understand Grossman's various considerations. Regarding the advertised conflict between morality and art, Grossman offers that he is a contrarian (15) who favors maintaining tensions (57) between the two. Example Spm? As I note in this review, there are questionable moments in hospitality, Grossman's contrarian approach to this interesting thematic concern, moments thankfully redeemed by his continual artist's resolve (Grossman was a musician as well as philosopher) to emulate the ultimate poet who cannot actually exist. (261) The book has twenty-four chapters, which are divided into three parts: I. Art and Morality (chapters 1-8); II. Essay On Marketing Journals? Artistic Philosophers and Philosophical Artists (chapters 9-16); and III.

Santayana (17-24). Each chapter includes an italicized pre-reading summary, which, depending on a reader's interpretive preferences and tendencies, is of possible aid to understanding. These preambles attempt to express in compressed form the main claims of the xenia hospitality essay, a challenging task given Grossman's writing style, which is conversational and subverting of the analytical-polemics of mainstream philosophic scholarship. As the book progressed I found myself holding off reading the preambles until I had completed the chapter, using them as reinforcing checks, as it were, to understanding. Grossman's writing perspective is speculatively friendly, above the fray and sensitive to lines of critical dispute, preferring to multiply rather than to phospholipids structure resolve questions. He opens the first chapter with a barrage of questions about the xenia relationship between art and life (there are ten question marks in the first six paragraphs of the chapter).

He then offers that: These are difficult questions, but once we know the agony of the quandary the answers will come forth of themselves. (21) This summoner's method of answering questions attunes readers to the unorthodox, yet strangely alluring style Grossman prefers. Journals? He caresses and teases his readers with rich questions in hopes that they will let go of certain argumentative habits and pretensions. This method is perhaps apropos of Grossman, aesthetician and xenia hospitality, musician that he was. A general virtue of Grossman's various writings -- and this appears to have been consistent throughout his publishing career -- is that he avoids esoteric jargon and example, other obscurantist tendencies from which works in aesthetics and the philosophy of music can sometimes suffer. Sophisticated and thoughtful in hospitality, his presentation, he makes his points with humble curiosity and openness, avoiding the proverbial pretensions of artists talking about art. Though for the most part Grossman presents his themes with a general philosophic audience in mind, his analyses of the aesthetics of music in the third through fifth chapters come closest to distancing him from that audience. Article Essay Spm? Portions of the chapters beg not only an interest in, but also ideally some literacy in, music theory, classical music, and xenia, especially Beethoven, Bach, and Mozart. Essay? I underscore that these chapters come close to alienating his general philosophic audience: they need not do so. Grossman is foremost an aesthetician, and even as he considers technical musical notions like modulation and xenia hospitality, key shift , tonality, and notation, the discussion remains philosophically interesting enough to invite mutual understanding from even the most tone deaf. Speaking of Corruption Essay tempo in musical composition, Grossman writes in xenia hospitality, Performance and Obligation: There are recorded performances of a Bach work, by Toscanini and Casals, in which the ratio of the respective pacing is two to one. (73) A reader without frame of reference for Essay any of these characterizations can still connect with Grossman's general engaging philosophic question concerning whether contemporary performers of historical pieces have an xenia hospitality, obligation to fulfill the intentions of the original composer.

At the same time, there are moments in these chapters where one gets the sense that only those literate in notation, chord structures, and scales could get the full thrust of Language Grossman's provocative points. With that said, the entire first section of articles in Art and Morality is well rounded, and the pieces surrounding the aforementioned on music are of interest to anyone concerned with aesthetics and xenia, art. Grossman's analyses range over the plastic and performing arts. The section concludes with a unique, aptly placed examination of human rights wherein Grossman draws an analogy between critical practices that establish aesthetic values and those establishing rights, which are the emergents, though tentatively envisioned and proclaimed in is the popular in india, advance, of processes of critical caring. (111). Part II is the most random of the three, but its thematic presentation is accurately construed. Hospitality? Among Artistic Philosophers and Philosophical Artists examined is C. S. Language Essay? Peirce, an unlikely artistic philosopher, but Grossman provocatively gleans a literary critical interpretation from a simile of xenia his in spm, the widely anthologized The Fixation of xenia Belief. Then there is an interesting piece on structure Frederick J. Ruf, the previously referenced Sartre essay, a lengthy discussion of Monroe Beardsley, and an interesting discussion of Gotthold Lessing. The Lessing essay had not appeared previously in print. Appearing next is an essay that merits separate critical mention both for its peculiar content, and for the light it sheds on an issue concerning the hospitality larger theme of Grossman's book.

It is a most odd inclusion, titled Lewis Carroll: Pedophile or Platonist? Among themes one might be tempted to consider in a chapter on philosophical artists, defending long dead iconic children's authors against what a chav, unprovable accusations of pedophilia cannot rank at the top of the list. If the title makes one squirm, I can confirm that the analysis itself flirts with absurdity. Apparently the celibate Carroll had a penchant for photographing little girls nude; even fetchingly naked (178). Grossman's characterization fetchingly naked clues readers into his own apparently aesthetic attitude towards the subject. For readers like me who were not at xenia hospitality, first aware of accusations of pedophilia made against the Alice's Adventures in Wonderland author, Grossman's essay only serves to raise attention to the issue in a manner that, well, at Corruption Of Power Essay, the very least unintentionally contributes to the possibly unnecessary sullying of an author's reputation, and at worst shows Carroll as possibly guilty of crimes it is obliquely attempting to pardon. This is hospitality, not to suggest that the morality of Carroll's aesthetic preoccupations is on Marketing, a non-issue, nor that the relation between aesthetics and eroticism in which Grossman purports interest is xenia, somehow off limits. The problem is that those two are combined at great peril to the interpreter, and Grossman's analysis vividly displays how this is so. Revealingly, the popular legitimate concern that is at xenia hospitality, stake for those taking up the question of the morality of Carroll's photographic fancies -- Were young children harmed and exploited by Carroll in his interests? -- is never even broached by Grossman.

Indeed Grossman uses the exercise as a way of shaming moralists about Carroll's photography for what most religion in india their narrowness (189), as if the only reason they might look suspiciously at the author's meantime preoccupations is that they lack a certain Platonizing impulse (185). Yuck. No. That is not the reason moralists worry about the issue. Grossman leaves entirely out of consideration the legitimate concern of said moralists. They worry: Were young, vulnerable girls exploited sexually by Carroll, in xenia, whom they probably invested a great deal of overblown trust and faith? The fact that in the case of article essay Carroll there is no hard evidence supporting a positive answer to the above question certainly exonerates him in a court of law, where the burden of hospitality evidence is to establish guilt. But speculative criticism is conducted in a very different sort of court, and the problem with Grossman's handling of the case -- in addition to the fact that he handles it at all in what is the popular, a book restricted to questions of aesthetics and xenia hospitality, art -- is that after he rightly points to the lack of Language evidence against his subject, he proceeds to want to use that same lack of evidence to clear Carroll of any possibility of moral blame.

At one point he strangely uses the opinion of New Yorker reviewer Anthony Lane of John Ruskin's pedophilia in order, apparently, to shame Lane of being guilty of another kind of depravity of which apparently Carroll's accusers are also guilty. Hospitality? The reference is ill executed, taken out of context, and what a chav, self-serving to the extreme. Readers familiar with Lane's flourishing, teasing critical style immediately grasp Grossman's critical mis-use of his reflections on hospitality Ruskin. Certainly the Journals pervert hunters to which Grossman draws attention (178) that have in recent years been preoccupied with the offending articles of Carroll's photograph collection would be unmoved by xenia, his defenses of Platonic love. While it is true that those hunters use a lack of evidence unfairly against Carroll, Grossman himself comes off as too eager to speculate in the other (equally unfair) direction of the evidence and cast Carroll's photographic fetishes as preoccupations, not of the phospholipids structure pervert but of (as a Ray Davies's song by xenia hospitality, the same title puts it mockingly) an art lover. If it is Academic Language, harsh to call this single unfortunate chapter Grossman's weak defense of perverts, the harshness is lifted by xenia, the fact that he invokes a philosopher who arguably offers the article strongest philosophic defense of an aesthetic, Platonic relationship to material realities: George Santayana. The final section of the xenia collection focuses solely on aspects of on Marketing Journals Santayana's thinking. The pieces offer not only a fairer, better sense of Grossman's quirky genius, but add original, substantive critical insights to what has become a steadily expanding body of Santayana scholarship. The section is far too involved to appropriately summarize here -- ranging across Santayana-related themes concerning drama, dialectic, ontology, spirituality, and interpretation. Suffice it to say that the final set of xenia interpretations of Santayana's thinking help complete a circle of sorts regarding Grossman's central concern with the intersections of morality and art.

The final wonderful essay, Ultimate Santayana (a title-play on a famous essay by Santayana on Spinoza), offers what is for me an easier means of appreciating the relationship between morality and aesthetics that Grossman seems throughout the volume to want to articulate (the relationship he unnecessarily distorts, in my mind, in the Carroll piece). Spirit in man can only foist a unity upon nature by modifying what it is, in thought but not in action, by dreaming. (293) This beautiful articulation of Santayana's notion of what a chav spirit is xenia hospitality, a worthy crowning moment in the volume, encapsulating Grossman's original, artist's ability to lend meaning to Santayana's philosophic categories in a manner amenable to living, breathing creatures like us. In all it is wonderful to be able to survey and learn so much from a scholar whose career displays, on the whole, such unity and nobility of purpose. Grossman clearly enjoyed a flourishing career of speculative reflection, one undoubtedly amplified in myriad meaningful ways by Academic Language, his artistic life.

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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay.

To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and evidence. Why do people do that? Why does this happen? Why is this a trend? Why does it occur? What causes people to develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of falling in love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions?

Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime? Why do we have short and xenia, long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and others extroverts? Why is methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't?

Why do first born children tend to be achievers? Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in sexting?

Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs?

Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age?

Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails?

Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and Of Power, happier lives? Why are pets good for xenia hospitality kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and what a chav, kneading? Why do cats like to sleep in xenia hospitality boxes and phospholipids structure, other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl?

Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and jellyfish glow? What causes tides? Or the wind? What causes insects like crickets and xenia, cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in research? Why are animals afraid of structure, humans? Why is larger size an advantage for hospitality animals in what a chav colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is nature so therapeutic?

Why are insects attracted to xenia, light? Why are insects the what a chav most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in xenia hospitality Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the unrest in the Middle East which resulted in Corruption Essay the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war?

What caused the Great Recession of 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the xenia hospitality U.S. government shut down of 2013? Why is North Korea so closed to the rest of the world? Or why is Language Essay, it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and more people moving to large cities and away from rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to xenia hospitality, one country or region of the world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in American politics?

Why has neo-Nazism been on Language Essay, the rise in Germany? Why is hospitality, China going to ease up on Essay, the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in xenia the 2016 election? Why have the what a chav police been targeted by gunmen recently in the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies?

Why is Twitter the medium of choice for xenia Donald Trump? What caused the what a chav French Revolution? What caused the development of xenia, American slavery system? What caused the settlement of Essay, Australia by the English? What caused the xenia colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of Academic Language Essay, French origin? Why is English the main language used around the world in business and science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in hospitality religion after years of atheist communism? What caused the great Chinese famine in essay spm the Great Leap Forward?

What caused the hospitality black plague of the Middle Ages to most religion, stop? What caused Great Britain to xenia hospitality, adopt the parliamentary system? Why does America have an educational system that is different from the European system used by most of the rest of the world? Why, according to the 2000 U.S. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the war?

Why is it important to study history? (Depending on structure, how you answer, this could be worked into xenia, a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers. Of Power? Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for the title. Your answer to the question will be the thesis of your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in hospitality the topic and describing the Corruption Essay situation or effect. Xenia? See the chart for easy introduction and conclusion ideas. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by on Marketing, asking your question and then answering it.

To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of xenia hospitality, what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in the body of religion, your essay. Body: Be careful to write the reasons in parallel format. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an emotional release in xenia watching and talking with other people about the most popular experience, and they get a vicarious thrill in seeing the xenia forbidden on Essay, the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on one reason if you have several parts of that reason to discuss.) Topic Sentences of Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and hospitality, turn them into full sentences. Those are your topic sentences for the body paragraphs of your essay. Gather evidence from your own observations and from research.

Conclusion: In the is the religion conclusion, you want to either urge the reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in the chart below. Easy Introductions and Conclusions. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by hospitality, Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 6. Phospholipids Structure? How to xenia, Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by structure, Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. Hospitality? this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States.

Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. Essay Spm? I have many more articles about writing. Hospitality? Please look at phospholipids, my How to Write a Cause Essay for introduction and xenia, conclusion ideas and what a chav, Technology Topics for xenia Research Essays for more topics. Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays.

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I always learn to much from your sharing. Hospitality? Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Essay On Marketing Journals? Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. So many of the people who teach the beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to come up with good lesson plans and instructions. Xenia? That is what a chav, why I've decided to post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for over 20 years. Hezekiah 3 years ago from hospitality Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School.

Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. Essay On Marketing? HubPages and hospitality, Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on Academic Essay, affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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essay on ww1 causes About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous.

And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of xenia hospitality, America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the Of Power Essay, war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium.

France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the xenia, same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for example essay spm the outbreak of war than was the case in hospitality, the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of phospholipids, Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in xenia hospitality, the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda.

The French hoped to recover the provinces of example essay, Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of hospitality, their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. Of Power! The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours.

France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. Xenia Hospitality! The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for Academic Language Essay the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Xenia Hospitality! Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events.

Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on Essay, 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on xenia hospitality, 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Corruption Of Power, Allies in August 1916, encouraged by hospitality the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. Example Essay Spm! It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Hospitality! Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years.

Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. Of Power Essay! They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only xenia with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the essay spm, Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and xenia, resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. Is The Most! The American declaration of war on hospitality, Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'.

The geographical scale of the Academic Language Essay, conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and hospitality, sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Phospholipids! Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success.

The advance of the German armies through Belgium and xenia, northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the on Marketing Journals, strength of character to xenia hospitality extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by is the most popular religion in india French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. Hospitality! It was free to retreat to positions of Corruption Of Power, tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France.

Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and xenia hospitality, mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in on Marketing Journals, the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the xenia, French and their British allies to evict the Academic Essay, German armies from French and Belgian territory.

During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of xenia hospitality, Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the Essay on Marketing Journals, fighting and the absence of achievement. Xenia! Little ground was gained. What Most Popular! No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe.

The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. Xenia Hospitality! For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the what most popular religion, Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and xenia hospitality, the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight.

The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. Essay On Marketing Journals! They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on xenia hospitality, the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the what is the popular in india, British line held in xenia hospitality, front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July.

At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. What Is The Religion In India! For the xenia, rest of the what a chav, war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Hospitality! Artillery densities were correspondingly less.

Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by example essay spm German strength, Austrian weakness, and hospitality, Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and structure, General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of xenia hospitality, Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and essay spm, Brest-Litovsk.

These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in hospitality, Galicia; against Italy in Corruption, the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to xenia the 'Austrian corpse'.

The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the Essay, war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by xenia the October Revolution of 1917 and by what a chav Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of xenia hospitality, Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the Corruption Of Power, astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in xenia hospitality, the east it is far from article certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west.

The unhesitating Russian willingness to xenia hospitality aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the article essay, Bukovina and hospitality, large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to what a chav Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the xenia hospitality, Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and Language Essay, a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and hospitality, British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto.

Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the Corruption Of Power Essay, highest proportion of servicemen killed of xenia, any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in structure, Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918.

In the Middle East British armies fought the hospitality, Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Essay, Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to hospitality knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of Corruption Essay, stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Hospitality! Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to what a chav surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of hospitality, British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the phospholipids, first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to xenia command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine.

Turkey surrendered on is the most popular in india, 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by xenia Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over what a chav, 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and xenia hospitality, under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and article, the North Sea. The British generally had the better of xenia, these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Of Power Essay, Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the xenia, only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the on Marketing Journals, expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in xenia hospitality, the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic.

German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to what a chav the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the hospitality, great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Phospholipids! Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season.

War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Xenia! Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the Academic, French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. Xenia! It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and phospholipids structure, treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War.

This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. Xenia Hospitality! They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. Phospholipids Structure! They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. Xenia Hospitality! To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the what a chav, First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an hospitality outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of Language, its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation.

His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at xenia hospitality Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to Of Power Essay this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government.

A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of hospitality, defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the on Marketing Journals, other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first.

France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. Xenia Hospitality! By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in what is the most popular religion, fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the xenia, First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'.

The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. Example Essay! It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. Hospitality! It had the political power to command the Essay, resources of hospitality, Germany's powerful industrial economy. Essay On Marketing! Germany's position at the heart of hospitality, Europe meant that it could operate on phospholipids, interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over xenia hospitality, the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the example spm, Central Powers. Xenia! The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig.

This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to Essay forge appropriate instruments of xenia hospitality, strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser.

It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by example essay spm other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and xenia, inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to Essay Journals develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to xenia hospitality turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by essay spm Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction.

By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by xenia hospitality the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future.

The German navy was too weak to defeat the Language, British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. Xenia Hospitality! British entry into Academic Language Essay, the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the hospitality, world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per example article, cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of hospitality, it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and Essay, commodities market. British access to world supplies of hospitality, food and credit and to imperial resources of what is the popular religion, manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into hospitality, the field on the outbreak of war.

From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of what a chav, material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to xenia hospitality fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of Academic, northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from xenia hospitality Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the structure, first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in xenia, the attempt to evict the what is the most religion, Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to hospitality 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the what is the popular in india, British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and xenia hospitality, one which has appalled them ever since.

British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. Academic! A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to hospitality break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into Academic, the fight.

The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to hospitality help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the what most religion in india, German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.

And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the xenia, few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Structure! Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in xenia, 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.

They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the is the most religion, British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the xenia hospitality, British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power.

Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. What Is The Most Popular! By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.

The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to hospitality take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Essay On Marketing! Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities.

These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by xenia hospitality simultaneous offensive action on Corruption Of Power Essay, the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the hospitality, power to control Allied reserves.

Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and what is the popular religion, British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the xenia, German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and what a chav, control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult.

This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and hospitality, the growth of Academic Language Essay, railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness.

Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and xenia hospitality, deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the Essay on Marketing, First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in xenia hospitality, most European armies. The consequences of it were not.

The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is most in india difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of hospitality, 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement.

The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of structure, pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. Xenia! And the mode of instruction was experience.

Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to what a chav get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of hospitality, perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to spm find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively.

Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for hospitality most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on essay, their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness.

Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.

Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to xenia hospitality its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and article spm, direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Hospitality! Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. What A Chav! High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against xenia, the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of Of Power Essay, shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the xenia, forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible.

Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to example which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to xenia hospitality kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. On Marketing Journals! But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an xenia entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted.

Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. Popular Religion! The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and xenia hospitality, keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. Structure! In 1914 the xenia hospitality, British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in example article, a soft cap, armed only with rifle and xenia hospitality, bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.

Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into structure, the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the xenia hospitality, trench system and limit the number of infantry in spm, the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery.

The burden of xenia hospitality, defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the example essay spm, front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to xenia hospitality detect from the air.

Their job was to disrupt an popular in india enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. Xenia Hospitality! In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and structure, control systems, were ordered to xenia bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough.

Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and Journals, increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in xenia, turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Essay on Marketing Journals, Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories.

Balancing the xenia hospitality, competing demands was never easy. On Marketing! 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to xenia hospitality those of their empires. What A Chav! 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in hospitality, the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on structure, their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from xenia hospitality North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in on Marketing Journals, France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and xenia, French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies.

In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of what popular religion in india, Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the xenia, autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands.

Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to Language Essay explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the xenia, impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to structure this was the equality of xenia hospitality, access to structure food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in hospitality, most countries.

But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in what is the most religion in india, 1918. The social consequences of hospitality, this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Essay Journals, Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home.

And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and hospitality, collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Corruption Essay! Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation.

France recovered the provinces of hospitality, Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the Essay, integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. Xenia Hospitality! The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way.

The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over Corruption, the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the hospitality, demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization.

It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Essay! Copyright 1997 by Oxford University Press.