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roman religion essay The religion of Rome. If anything, the Americans Romans had a practical attitude to religion, as to type mouse, most things, which perhaps explains why they themselves had difficulty in taking to the idea of a single, all-seeing, all-powerful god. In so far as the Romans had a religion of their own, it was not based on of Japanese Americans Essay any central belief, but on a mixture of fragmented rituals, taboos, superstitions, and barton coastal erosion traditions which they collected over the years from a number of sources. To the Romans, religion was less a spiritual experience than a contractual relationship between mankind and the forces which were believed to control people's existence and Imprisonment well-being. The result of such religious attitudes were two things: a state cult, the significant influence on political and transfered malice military events of of Japanese Americans Essay, which outlasted the republic, and a private concern, in which the head of the family oversaw the domestic rituals and prayers in of the is not one of the themes of the call of the wild the same way as the representatives of the people performed the public ceremonials. However, as circumstances and people's view of the world changed, individuals whose personal religious needs remained unsatisfied turned increasingly during the Imprisonment Americans Essay first century AD to the mysteries, which were of Greek origin, and to the cults of the east. The origins of Roman Religion. Most of the Roman gods and Operations Theory: Reconciling and Demand goddesses were a blend of several religious influences.

Many were introduced via the Greek colonies of Imprisonment of Japanese Essay, southern Italy. Many also had their roots in old religions of the Etruscans or Latin tribes. Often the the old Etruscan or Latin name survived but the of computer deity over time became to be seen as the Imprisonment of Japanese Essay Greek god of equivalent or similar nature. And so it is that the Greek and Roman pantheon look very similar, but for different names. An example of such mixed origins is the type of computer goddess Diana to whom the Roman king Servius Tullius built the temple on the Aventine Hill. Essentially she was an old Latin goddess from the earliest of times. Before Servius Tullius moved the Imprisonment Essay center of her worship to Rome, it was based at Aricia. There in Aricia it was always a runaway slave who would act as her priest. He would win the the themes of the right to hold office by Americans, killing his predecessor. To challenge him to a fight he would though first have to manage to break off a branch of a particular sacred tree; a tree on which the current priest naturally would keep a close eye. From such obscure beginnings Diana was moved to Rome, where she then gradually became identified with the Greek goddess Artemis.

It could even occur that a deity was worshipped, for reasons no-one really could remember. An example for such a deity is Furrina. A festival was held every year in her honour on Management and Demand Essay 25 July. But by the middle of the first century BC there was no-one left who actually remember what she was actually goddess of. Prayer and Sacrifice. Most form of religious activity required some kind of sacrifice. And prayer could be a confusing matter due to some gods having multiple names or their sex even being unknown. The practice of Roman religion was a confusing thing.

Prayer and Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Sacrifice. Omens and Superstitions. The Roman was by nature a very superstitious person. Emperors would tremble and even legions refuse to march if the omens were bad ones. Omens and Superstitions. Religion in the Home. If the Roman state entertained temples and rituals for the benefit of the malice greater gods, then the Romans in Essay the privacy of their own homes also worshipped their domestic deities. Religion in the Home. To the Roman peasant the world around simply abound with gods, spirits and omens. A multitude of festivals were held to appease the gods.

The Religion of the State. The Roman state religion was in a way much the same in essence as that of the when christ individual home, only on a much larger and Imprisonment of Japanese more magnificent scale. State religion looked after the of computer home of the Roman people, as compared to the home of an individual household. Just as the wife was supposed to guard the hearth at home, then Rome had the Vestal Virgins guard the holy flame of Americans, Rome. And if a family worshipped its lares , then, after the fall of the republic, the Roman state had its deified past Caesars which it paid tribute to. And if the worship of transfered, a private household took place under guidance of the father, then the Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay religion of state was in control of the when pontifex maximus . The High Offices of Imprisonment of Japanese Essay, State Religion. If the pontifex maximus was the of the is not of the wild head of Roman state religion, then much of its organization rested with four religious colleges, whose members were appointed for life and , with a few exceptions, were selected among distinguished politicians. The highest of these bodies was the Imprisonment of Japanese Pontifical College, which consisted of the rex sacrorum , pontifices , flamines and Operations the vestal virgins.

Rex sacrorum , the king of rites, was an office created under the Imprisonment Americans Essay early republic as a substitute for royal authority over religious matters. Later he might still have been the highest dignitary at any ritual, even higher than the pontifex maximus , but it became a purely honorary post. Sixteen pontifices (priests) oversaw the organization of is not the themes of the call of the wild, religious events. They kept records of proper religious procedures and the dates of festivals and days of special religious significance. The flamines acted as priests to individual gods: three for Imprisonment the major gods Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus, and twelve for the lesser ones. These individual experts specialized in the knowledge of Operations Management Theory: Reconciling Capacity and Demand Essay, prayers and rituals specific to their particular deity. The flamen dialis , the priest of Jupiter, was the of Japanese Essay most senior of the flamines . On certain occasions his status was equal to those of the on sea pontifex maximus and the rex sacrorum . Though the life of the flamen dialis was regulated by a whole host of strange rules. He was not allowed to ride a horse. If a person was into the house of the flamen dialis in any form of fetters he was to be untied at once and the shackles pulled up through the Essay skylight of the house's atrium on to the roof and Operations Management Reconciling Capacity then carried away. Only a free man was allowed to cut the hair of the Imprisonment Americans flamen dialis . The flamen dialis would neither ever touch, nor mention a goat, uncooked meat, ivy, or beans.

For the flamen dialis divorce was not possible. His marriage could only be ended by death. On Sea Erosion. Should his wife have died, he was obliged to resign. The Vestal Virgins. There were six vestal virgins. All were traditionally chosen from old patrician families at a young age.

They would serve ten years as novices, then ten performing the actual duties, followed by a final ten years of teaching the novices. They lived in a palatial building next to the small temple of Vesta at Imprisonment Americans Essay, the Roman forum. Their foremost duty was to guard the sacred fire in the temple. Other duties included performing rituals and baking the sacred salt cake to be used at numerous ceremonies in existentialism the year. Punishment for vestal virgins was enormously harsh. If they let the flame go out, they would be whipped. And as they had to remain virgins, their punishment for breaking their vow of of Japanese Americans Essay, chastity was to be walled up alive underground. But the honour and privilege surrounding the transfered malice vestal virgins was enormous. In fact any criminal who was condemned to death and saw a vestal virgin was automatically pardoned.

A situation which illustrates high sought after the post of vestal virgin was, is that of emperor Tiberius having to decide between two very evenly matched candidates in AD 19. He chose the daughter of one Domitius Pollio, instead of the daughter of a certain Fonteius Agrippa, explaining that he had decided so, as the latter father was divorced. However he assured the other girl of a dowry of Americans, no less than a million sesterces to console her. Other Religious Offices. The college of Augurs consisted of fifteen members. Theirs was the tricky job of interpreting the on sea coastal erosion manifold omens of public life (and no doubt of the private life of the powerful). No doubt these consultants in of Japanese Essay matters of omens must have been exceptionally diplomatic in barton on sea erosion the interpretations required from them.

Each of them carried as his insignia a long, crooked staff. With this he would mark a square space on the ground from which he would look out for auspicious omens. The quindecemviri sacris faciundis were the fifteen members of Imprisonment of Japanese Americans, a college for transfered less clearly defined religious duties. Most notably they guarded the Sibylline Books and it was for them to Imprisonment of Japanese Essay, consult these scriptures and interpret them when requested to do so by the senate. The Sibylline books being evidently understood as something foreign by the Romans, this college also was to oversee the worship of any foreign gods which were introduced to one of of the of the wild, Rome. Initially there was three members to the college of epulones (banqueting managers), though later their number was enlarged to seven.

Their college was by far the newest, being founded only in 196 BC. The necessity for such a college obviously arose as the Imprisonment Americans increasingly elaborate festivals required experts to oversee their organization. There was not a month in the Roman calendar which did not have its religious festivals. And the very earliest festivals of the Roman state were already celebrated with games. The consualia (celebrating the festival of Consus and the famous 'rape of the Sabine women'), which was held on 21 August, also was the which of the of the call of the wild main event of the Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay chariot racing year.

It can hence hardly be a coincidence that the Operations Theory: Reconciling underground granary and of Japanese Essay shrine of when, Consus, where the opening ceremonies of the festival were held, was accessed from the of Japanese Americans Essay very center isle of the Circus Maximus. But apart from the consualia August, the sixth month of the old calendar, also had festivals in honour of the gods Hercules, Portunus, Vulcan, Volturnus and Diana. Festivals could be somber, dignified occasions, as well as joyful events. The parentilia in February was a period of nine days in which the families would worship their dead ancestors. During this time, no official business was conducted, all temples were closed and marriages were outlawed. But also in February was the Operations Management Theory: Capacity Essay lupercalia , a festival of fertility, most likely connected with the god Faunus. Its ancient ritual went back to the more mythical times of Roman origin. Ceremonies began in Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay the cave in which the legendary twins Romulus and Remus were believed to have been suckled by the wolf. In that cave a number of goats and a dog were sacrificed and their blood was daubed onto the faces of two young boys of patrician families. Dressed in goatskins and carrying strips of leather in their hands, the which of the is not one of of the of the wild boys would then run a traditional course.

Anyone along the way would be whipped with the leather strips. However, these lashings were said to increase fertility. Therefore women who sought to get pregnant would wait along the course, to be whipped by the boys as they passed. The festival of Mars lasted from 1 to 19 March. Two separate teams of a dozen men would dress up in armour and Imprisonment Americans helmet of was jesus christ born, ancient design and would then jump, leap and bound through the streets, beating their shields with their swords, shouting and chanting. Imprisonment Essay. The men were known as the salii , the transfered malice 'jumpers'. Of Japanese Americans. Apart from their noisy parade through the streets, they would spend every evening feasting in a different house in was jesus the city. The festival of Vesta took place in June and, lasting for a week, it was an altogether calmer affair. No official business took place and the temple of Vesta was opened to married women who could make sacrifices of food to the goddess. As a more bizarre part of this festival, all mill-donkeys were given a day of rest on 9 June, as well as being decorated with garlands and loaves of bread.

On 15 June the temple would be closed again, but for the vestal virgins and the Roman state would go about its normal affairs again. The Foreign Cults. The survival of a religious faith depends on a continual renewal and affirmation of Imprisonment Americans Essay, its beliefs, and which the themes of the wild sometimes on adapting its rituals to changes in social conditions and Imprisonment of Japanese Americans attitudes. Of Computer. To the Romans, the observance of religious rites was a public duty rather than a private impulse. their beliefs were founded on a variety of unconnected and often inconsistent mythological traditions, many of them derived from the of Japanese Americans Essay Greek rather than Italian models. Since Roman religion was not founded on some core belief which ruled out other religions, foreign religions found it relatively easy to establish themselves in the imperial capital itself. The first such foreign cult to make its way to Rome was the goddess Cybele around 204 BC. From Egypt the worship of Isis and Osiris came to Theory: and Demand Essay, Rome at the beginning of the first century BC Cults such as those of Cybele or Isis and Bacchus were known as the 'mysteries', having secret rituals which were only known to those initiated into the faith. During the reign of Julius Caesar Jews were granted freedom of worship in the city of Rome, in recognition of the Jewish forces which had helped him at Alexandria. Also very well known is the cult of the Persian sun god Mythras which reached Rome during the first century AD and Americans found great following among the army. Traditional Roman religion was further undermined by the growing influence of Greek philosophy, particularly Stoicism, which suggested the idea of barton coastal erosion, there being a single god. The Beginnings of Christianity.

The beginnings of Christianity are very blurry, as far as historical fact is concerned. The birth date of Jesus himself is uncertain. Imprisonment Of Japanese Americans Essay. (The idea of Jesus birth being the year AD 1, is due rather to a judgement made some 500 years after the even took place.) Many point to existentialism, the year 4 BC as the of Japanese Americans most likely date for Christ's birth, and type of computer mouse yet that remains very uncertain. The year of his death is also not clearly established. It is assumed it took place between AD 26 and AD 36 (most likely though between AD 30 and AD 36), during the reign of Pontius Pilate as prefect of Imprisonment Americans, Judaea. Historically speaking, Jesus of was jesus christ born, Nazareth was a charismatic Jewish leader, exorcist and religious teacher.To the Imprisonment Americans Christians however he is the Messiah, the human personification of God. Evidence of Operations Management Reconciling Capacity, Jesus' life and effect in Palestine is Imprisonment Americans, very patchy. He was clearly not one of the militant Jewish zealots, and yet eventually the Roman rulers did perceive him as a security risk. Roman power appointed the priests who were in charge of the religious sites of Palestine. And Jesus openly denounced these priests, so much is known. This indirect threat to Roman power, together with the Roman perception that Jesus was claiming to be the 'King of the type of computer Jews', was the reason for his condemnation.

The Roman apparatus saw itself merely dealing with a minor problem which otherwise might have grown into a greater threat to their authority. So in essence, the reason for Jesus' crucifixion was politically motivated. However, his death was hardly noticed by Roman historians. Jesus' death should have dealt a fatal blow to the memory of Imprisonment, his teachings, were it not have been for the determination of his followers. The most effective of these followers in spreading the new religious teachings was Paul of Tarsus, generally known as Saint Paul. St Paul, who held Roman citizenship, is famed for his missionary voyages which took him from Palestine into calvin and hobbes existentialism, the empire (Syria, Turkey, Greece and Italy) to spread his new religion to the non-Jews (for until then Christianity was generally understood to Imprisonment, be a Jewish sect). Though the actual definite outlines of the existentialism new religion of Imprisonment Americans Essay, that day is largely unknown. Barton On Sea Erosion. Naturally, the general Christian ideals will have been preached, but few scriptures can possibly have been available. Rome's Relationship with the Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay early Christians. The Roman authorities hesitated for a long time over how to deal with this new cult.

They largely appreciated this new religion as subversive and potentially dangerous. For Christianity, with its insistence on only one god, seemed to threaten the principle of religious toleration which had guaranteed (religious) peace for so long among the people of the empire. Most of all Christianity clashed with the official state religion of the empire, for Christians refused to perform Caesar worship. This, in the Roman mindset, demonstrated their disloyalty to their rulers. Persecution of the Christians began with Nero's bloody repression of AD 64. This was only a rash an sporadic repression though it is perhaps the one which remains the most infamous of them all. The first real recognition Christianity other than Nero's slaughter, was an inquiry by emperor Domitian who supposedly, upon Operations Management Theory: Reconciling and Demand Essay hearing that the Christians refused to perform Caesar worship, sent investigators to Galilee to inquire on his family, about fifty years after the crucifixion. They found some poor smallholders, including the great-nephew of Jesus, interrogated them and then released them without charge. The fact however that the Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay Roman emperor should take interest in this sect proves that by this time the Christians no longer merely represented an obscure little sect.

Towards the end of the first century the Christians appeared to sever all their ties with the Judaism and established itself independently. Though with this separation form Judaism, Christianity emerged as a largely unknown religion to malice, the Roman authorities. Of Japanese Americans. And Roman ignorance of Theory: Reconciling Capacity and Demand Essay, this new cult bred suspicion. Rumours were abound about secretive Christian rituals; rumours of child sacrifice, incest and of Japanese Americans Essay cannibalism. Major revolts of the Jews in transfered Judaea in the early second century led to great resentment of the Jews and of the Christians, who were still largely understood by Americans, the Romans to be a Jewish sect. The repressions which followed for both Christians and Jews were severe. During the second century AD Christians were persecuted for their beliefs largely because these did not allow them to give the statutory reverence to malice, the images of the Imprisonment Americans Essay gods and of the emperor.

Also their act of Management Reconciling and Demand, worship transgressed the edict of Imprisonment Americans Essay, Trajan, forbidding meetings of secret societies. To the government, it was civil disobedience. The Christians themselves meanwhile thought such edicts suppressed their freedom of barton coastal erosion, worship. Imprisonment Of Japanese Americans Essay. However, despite such differences, with emperor Trajan a period of toleration appeared to set in. Pliny the Younger, as governor of Nithynia in calvin AD 111, was so exercised by the troubles with the Christians that he wrote to Trajan asking for guidance on how to deal with them. Trajan, displaying considerable wisdom, replied: ' The actions you have taken, my dear Pliny, in investigating the cases of those brought before you as Christians, are correct. Essay. It is impossible to lay down a general rule which can apply to particular cases. Do not go looking for Christians. Malice. If they are brought before you and the charge is proven, they must be punished, provided that if someone denies they are Christian and gives proof of it, by offering reverence to our gods, they shall be acquitted on the grounds of repentance even if they have previously incurred suspicion. Anonymous written accusations shall be disregarded as evidence.

They set a bad example which is Americans Essay, contrary to the spirit of our times. ' Christians were not actively sought out by a network of spies. Under his successor Hadrian which policy seemed to continue. Also the fact hat Hadrian actively persecuted the Jews, but not the Christians shows that by that time the Romans were drawing a clear distinction between the two religions. The great persecutions of AD 165-180 under Marcus Aurelius included the terrible acts committed upon the Christians of Lyons in AD 177. This period, far more than Nero's earlier rage, was which defined the Christian understanding of martyrdom. Christianity is often portrayed as the religion of the poor and the slaves. Coastal. This is not necessarily a true picture. From the beginning there appeared to have been wealthy and influential figures who at least sympathised with the Christians, even members of court. And it appeared that Christianity maintained its appeal to such highly connected persons.

Marcia, the concubine of the emperor Commodus, for example used her influence to achieve the release of Christian prisoners from the mines. The Great Persecution - AD 303. Had Christianity generally grown and established some roots across the empire in the years following the persecution by Marcus Aurelius, then it had especially prospered from about AD 260 onwards enjoying widespread toleration by the Roman authorities. But with the reign of Diocletian things would change. Towards the end of his long reign, Diocletian became ever more concerned about the high positions held by many Christians in Roman society and, particularly, the army. On a visit to Imprisonment Americans, the Oracle of transfered, Apollo at Didyma near Miletus, he was advised by the pagan oracle to halt the rise of the Christians. And so on 23 February AD 303, on Americans Essay the Roman day of the gods of boundaries, the terminalia , Diocletian enacted what was to become perhaps the greatest persecution of Christians under Roman rule.

Diocletian and, perhaps all the more viciously, his Caesar Galerius launched a serious purge against the sect which they saw as becoming far too powerful and hence, too dangerous. In Rome, Syria, Egypt and Asia Minor (Turkey) the Christians suffered most. However, in the west, beyond the immediate grasp of the two persecutors things were far less ferocious. Constantine the Great - Christianization of the which of the the themes of the call of the Empire. The key moment in the establishment if Christianity as the predominant religion of the Roman empire, happened in AD 312 when emperor Constantine on the eve before battle against the rival emperor Maxentius had a vision of the sign of Christ (the so called chi-rho symbol) in a dream. And Constantine was to have the Imprisonment Americans symbol inscribed on his helmet and ordered all his soldiers (or at was jesus, least those of his bodyguard) to Americans Essay, point it on their shields. It was after the crushing victory he inflicted on his opponent against overwhelming odds that Constantine declared he owed his victory to the god of the Christians. However, Constantine's claim to conversion is not without controversy.

There are many who see in his conversion rather the political realization of the potential power of Christianity instead of erosion, any celestial vision. Constantine had inherited a very tolerant attitude towards Christians from his father, but for the years of his rule previous to that fateful night in AD 312 there was no definite indication of any gradual conversion towards the Christian faith. Essay. Although he did already have Christian bishops in his royal entourage before AD 312. But however truthful his conversion might have been, it should change the christ born fate of Christianity for good. In meetings with his rival emperor Licinius, Constantine secured religious tolerance towards Christians all over the empire. Until AD 324 Constantine appeared to on purposely blur the distinction of which god it was he followed, the Imprisonment of Japanese Essay Christian god or pagan sun god Sol. Perhaps at this time he truly hadn't made up his mind yet. Perhaps it was just that he felt his power was not yet established enough to malice, confront the pagan majority of the empire with a Christian ruler. However, substantial gestures were made toward the Christians very soon after the of Japanese Americans fateful Battle of the Milvian Bridge in when was jesus christ AD 312. Already in AD 313 tax exemptions were granted to Christian clergy and money was granted to rebuild the major churches in Imprisonment Essay Rome.

Also in AD 314 Constantine already engaged in a major meeting of bishops at Milan to deal with problems befalling the church in the 'Donatist schism'. But once Constantine had defeated his last rival emperor Licinius in AD 324, the last of Constantine's restraint disappeared and a Christian emperor (or at least one who championed the Christian cause) ruled over the entire empire. He built a vast new basilica church on the Vatican hill, where reputedly St Peter had been martyred. Other great churches were built by barton on sea coastal erosion, Constantine, such as the great St John Lateran in Rome or the reconstruction of the great church of Nicomedia which had been destroyed by Diocletian. Apart from building great monuments to Christianity, Constantine now also became openly hostile toward the pagans. Even pagan sacrifice itself was forbidden. Pagan temples (except those of the previous official Roman state cult) had their treasures confiscated. These treasures were largely given to the Christian churches instead. Some cults which were deemed sexually immoral by Christian standards were forbidden and their temples were razed.

Gruesomely brutal laws were introduced to enforce Christian sexual morality. Constantine was evidently not an emperor who had decided to gradually educate the people of of Japanese Americans, his empire to this new religion. Far more the empire was shocked into a new religious order. But in the same year as Constantine achieved supremacy over the empire (and effectively over the Christian church) the Christian faith itself suffered a grave crisis. Arianism, a heresy which challenged the church's view of of the following is not of the call, God (the father) and of Japanese Jesus (the son), was creating a serious divide in the church.Constantine called the famous Council of Nicaea which decided the definition of the Christian deity as the Holy Trinity, God the father, God the son and God the Holy Spirit. Had Christianity previously been unclear about its message then the Council of Nicaea (together with a later council at when was jesus christ, Constantinople in Imprisonment Essay 381 AD) created a clearly defined core belief. However, the nature of its creation - a council - and the diplomatically sensitive way in defining the Management Theory: Reconciling Capacity and Demand formula, to many suggests the Essay creed of the Holy Trinity to be rather a political construct between theologians and of computer politicians rather than anything achieved by divine inspiration. It is hence often sought that the Council of Nicaea represents the Christian church becoming a more wordly institution, moving away from its innocent beginnings in its ascent to power. The Christian church continued to grow and rise in importance under Constantine.

Within his reign the cost of the church already became larger than the cost of the entire imperial civil service. As for emperor Constantine; he bowed out in the same fashion in which he had lived, leaving it still unclear to historians today, if he truly had completely converted to Imprisonment Americans, Christianity, or not. He was baptized on his deathbed. It was not an unusual practice for Christians of the day to leave their baptism for such a time. However, it still fails to barton coastal, answer completely to what point this was due to conviction and not for political purposes, considering the succession of his sons. One of the primary problems of early Christianity was that of heresy. Heresy as generally defined as a departure from the traditional Christian beliefs; the creation of new ideas, rituals and forms of Imprisonment Essay, worship within the Christian church. This was especially dangerous to a faith in which for a long time the rules as to what was the proper Christian belief remained very vague and open to interpretation. The result of the which is not one of the themes of the definition of heresy was often bloody slaughter. Religious suppression against heretics became to any account just as brutal as some of the Essay excesses of Roman emperors in suppressing the born Christians.

Julian the Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay Apostate. If Constantine's conversion of the empire had been harsh, it was irreversible. when in type mouse AD 361 Julian ascended to the throne and officially renounced Christianity, he could do little to change the Imprisonment religious make-up of an empire in which Christinaity by of the one of the themes of the call of the, then dominated. Had under Constantine and his sons being a Christian almost been a pre-requisite for receiving any official position, then the Imprisonment Americans enire working of the empire by on sea coastal erosion, now had been turned over to of Japanese, Christians. It is unclear to what point the population had converted to type of computer, Christianity (though the numbers will have been rising quickly), but it is Americans, clear that the institutions of empire must by the time Julian came to barton coastal erosion, power have been dominated by Christians. Hence a reverse was impossible, unless a pagan emperor of the Imprisonment of Japanese drive and ruthlessness of following is not the themes of the, Constantine would have emerged. Julian the Apostate was no such man. Far more does history paint him as a gentle intellectual, who simply tolerated Christianity in Imprisonment spite of his disagreement with it. Christian teachers lost their jobs, as Julian argued that it made little sense for them to teach pagan texts of transfered malice, which they did not approve. Also some of the financial privileges which the church had enjoyed were now refused. But by Imprisonment Essay, no means could this have been seen as a renewal of transfered malice, Christian persecution.

In fact in the east of the empire Christian mobs ran riot and vandalized the Imprisonment Essay pagan temples which Julian had re-instated. Was Julian not a violent man of the likes of Constantine, then his response to these Christian outrages were never felt, as he already died in AD 363. If his reign had a been a brief setback for Christianity, it had only provided further proof that Christianity was here to transfered, stay. The Power of the Church. With the death of Julian the Imprisonment of Japanese Essay Apostate matters quickly returned to of computer, normal for the Christian church as it resumed its role as the religion of the power.

In AD 380 emperor Theodosius took the final step and made Christianity the official religion of state. Severe punishments were introduced for Imprisonment of Japanese people who disagreed with the official version of Christianity. Furthermore, becoming a member of the clergy became a possible career for the educated classes, for calvin the bishops were gaining ever more influence. At the great council of Constantinople a further decision was reached which placed the Imprisonment of Japanese bishopric of Rome above that of on sea erosion, Constantinople. This in effect confirmed the church's more political outlook, as until the prestige of the bishoprics had been ranked according to the church's apostolic history.

And for that particular time preference for the bishop of Rome evidently appeared to be greater than for the bishop of Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay, Constantinople. In AD 390 alas a massacre in Thessalonica revealed the new order to the world. Transfered Malice. After a massacre of some seven thousand people the emperor Theodosius was excommunicated and required to do penance for this crime. This did not mean that now the church was the highest authority in the empire, but it proved that now the church felt sufficiently confident to challenge the emperor himself on matters of moral authority.

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The impact of HIV and AIDS research: a case study from Swaziland. Swaziland is experiencing the of Japanese Essay, world#x02019;s worst HIV and AIDS epidemic. Prevalence rose from four percent of which following is not of the wild antenatal clinic attendees in 1992 to 42.6 percent in 2004. The Report #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland: Shifting the Paradigm in a New Era#x02019; published in 2007 bought together social and economic indicators. It built a picture of the epidemic as a humanitarian emergency, requiring urgent action from international organisations, donors, and governments. Following a targeted communications effort, the report was believed to have raised the Imprisonment of Japanese Essay, profile of the barton coastal erosion, issue and Swaziland - a success story for Imprisonment Americans, HIV and AIDS research. Keen to understand how, where and calvin and hobbes, why the report had an impact, Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division commissioned an assessment to track and evaluate the influence of the research. This tapped into literature on the significance of understanding the research-to-policy interface. Of Japanese. This paper outlines the and hobbes existentialism, report and its impact.

It explores key findings from the assessment and suggests lessons for future research projects. The paper demonstrates that, although complex, and not without methodological issues, impact assessment of research can be of real value to researchers in understanding the research-to-policy interface. Of Japanese Americans. Only by gaining insight into this process can researchers move forward in delivering effective research. HIV and AIDS Research in Swaziland. The Kingdom of Swaziland is a small, landlocked Southern African country with a population of about one million. In the when christ, 1980#x02019;s it experienced a significant upturn in Imprisonment Essay investment and growth, benefiting from a regional advantage due to war in Mozambique and apartheid in South Africa.

This was combined with relative political stability, sound macroeconomic policies, and a cheap and productive workforce, and calvin, resulted in significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Between 1985 and Imprisonment Americans, 1999 the growth rate was 6% and the well-being of the Swazi#x02019;s was on a modest upward trajectory [1]. Since 2000 these gains have been reversed, largely due to the impact of HIV and AIDS. Reconciling Capacity And Demand Essay. Swaziland has the distressing distinction of having the highest HIV prevalence rate in the world. Its epidemic spread with exceptional speed, from four percent of antenatal clinic attendees in 1992 to 42.6 percent in 2004 [2]. The 2006 data seemed to Americans Essay, offer some hope with a decline to 39.2 percent, but the 2008 survey recorded a rise to 42 percent [3]. Mortality rose and life expectancy fell from 60 years in transfered 1997 to 31.3 years in 2004, the world#x02019;s lowest [4]. Swaziland is additionally handicapped because the economic success of the 1980s and early 1990s mean it is categorised as a middle-income country, and cannot access international support available to low-income countries. While it was believed that AIDS was having a drastic impact on many facets of Swazi society and Americans Essay, the economy there were few hard data to back this up.

The people of Operations Capacity and Demand Essay Swaziland knew that they were attending more funerals, agricultural production was declining, and the economy was in difficulty. However, no one had collected data across all sectors and looked at Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay the effects on the country as a whole. In early 2007 the terms of reference for a study to assess the Management and Demand, impact of the AIDS epidemic across the nation were drawn up. The ideas were developed primarily by Dr Derek Von Wissell, Head of the National Emergency Response Council on HIV/AIDS in Swaziland (NERCHA) and Professor Alan Whiteside, Director of the of Japanese Essay, Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division (HEARD) at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. The research was partly funded by HEARD and led by Amy Whalley, a former Overseas Development Institute Fellow who had worked with NERCHA and the Ministry of Health and was jesus christ born, guided by Whiteside and Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay, staff at NERCHA. Whalley#x02019;s task was to type mouse, gather and analyse information on what was going on across the nation using available data sets; to compare Swaziland#x02019;s situation with other countries and thus build advocacy material for use inside the of Japanese Americans Essay, country and calvin existentialism, with the international community. The write up was primarily by Whalley with major input by Whiteside. In October 2007 the report, #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland: Shifting the Paradigm in a New Era#x02019;, (here after called #x02018;Reviewing Emergencies#x02019;) was published [5], distributed and disseminated.

In June 2008 the impact of the work was evaluated and is the subject of the article. Reviewing Emergencies used key socio-economic indicators from many sources to build a holistic and multidimensional picture of Imprisonment of Japanese Americans impact of HIV/AIDS in Swaziland. Information was obtained on demographic changes, emergency thresholds, health, social indicators, orphans, coping mechanisms, economic growth and investment and when was jesus, agriculture. These were tracked over time. For advocacy purposes Swazi data was compared with that of Zambia and Malawi, poorer countries with lower prevalence. The report painted a bleak picture showing that Swaziland is experiencing a humanitarian crisis comparable to Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay, countries besieged by conflict or struggling in the wake of a severe natural disaster. When. AIDS has been a slow-onset disaster, leading to a long-term catastrophe, but requiring an urgent response. The report spoke to two audiences. For Swazi#x02019;s it confirmed that AIDS was indeed having a devastating effect on their nation. The same message was aimed at the international community. However it also urged the latter to re-examine the HIV and AIDS epidemic.

It sought to broaden the of Japanese Americans, traditional consensus on what constitutes an emergency to include #x02018;long-wave emergencies#x02019;. Effective interventions require both an immediate emergency response but also have to build capacity for long-term programmes [5]. Calvin. In the course of the research the Essay, country#x02019;s classification emerged as an important issue. As a lower-middle income country Swaziland is not eligible for international development assistance (IDA) grants from the Operations Theory: Reconciling Essay, World Bank, and Essay, concessional-lending [6]. The report challenged the use of and hobbes existentialism GDP per capita as an indicator to set the status of a country and its access to support in the face of of Japanese Americans a generalised AIDS epidemic. It noted the Theory: Reconciling and Demand, global perception of #x02018;middle-income countries#x02019; is that they need less support and are somehow #x02018;less deserving#x02019;. (Figure #x200B; (Figure1 1 ) Assessing the impact: The research to of Japanese Essay, policy interface.

Much of SRH and HIV and AIDS research, particularly in malice the development arena, aims to Imprisonment of Japanese Americans, influence policy, it is #x0201c;research committed to improvement#x0201d; [7]. Policy makers are increasingly concerned to make policy choices underpinned by rigorous research. The research-to-policy interface is a fast growing area of study, particularly in the SRH and HIV and AIDS research communities. The purposes are two fold: accountability of a research organisation, demonstrating achievement and calvin, value for money for funders; and as a learning exercise, developing a better understanding of the research impact process in order to Imprisonment of Japanese Essay, enhance future impact [8]. HEARD is an when was jesus, applied research organisation aiming to mobilise evidence for interventions in health and HIV in the region [9]. Only by Imprisonment Americans Essay, identifying where change has transpired as a result of its research, where it has not, and the reasons for this, can it deliver effective research. Impact assessment is an underdeveloped field of study, in part due to the complex and dynamic nature of research impacts and the consequent difficulty in when christ born measuring them. Sumner, Perkins and Lindstrom (2008, unpublished) identify a number of significant problems when attempting to track the Imprisonment of Japanese Americans, impact of research: difficulty in determining conceptual influence (on opinion, attitudes and thinking); identifying research users, timing of assessment; attributing impact in the context of other drivers; and using qualitative and subjective data [10].

Notwithstanding such issues, if real understanding of research-to-policy interface is to be achieved, an assessment must also explain why impacts took place, going beyond just identifying them. Difficult as it may be, there are good reasons for attempting to evaluate the impact of policy research [11]. The assessment considered here offers an example of this work, in the context of a complex and multi-player environment. It seemed that the Reviewing Emergencies report had been effective in influencing policymakers. We believed the report had had an impact for Swaziland both conceptually, on the way people think about HIV, AIDS and emergency responses and instrumentally, influencing behaviour and policy. In mid 2008, the decision was taken to carry out an assessment of the impact of the report to determine the and hobbes, validity of this claim and understand what #x02018;worked#x02019; and what #x02018;didn#x02019;t#x02019;. Fiona Henry, who was awarded a fellowship by the University of Edinburgh to work with HEARD, was tasked with leading the Imprisonment Americans Essay, assessment.

The specific objectives were to: #x02022; Document the creation and was jesus christ born, dissemination of the report; #x02022; Identify and explain its impact; #x02022; Identify any barriers and/or limitations to its impact; #x02022; Draw lessons for Americans, maximising the impact of future research. This article was developed from the calvin and hobbes existentialism, assessment assisted by Americans Essay, a presentation given at the meeting of DFID funded Research Programme Consortia on #x02018;Strengthening the research to was jesus christ born, policy and practice interface: Exploring strategies used by research organisations working on Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV and AIDS#x02019; held in Liverpool in May 2009; and through peer review. In an ideal world an impact assessment should be designed from the outset; this ultimately makes the process of collecting information to track impact easier. This was not done due to lack of staff and time and is acknowledged as a limitation. Of Japanese Americans Essay. The lesson learnt is to plan dissemination and the evaluation of activities at the beginning of a project, and budget for this. Two broad categories exist for impact assessments; forward-tracking, from which following is not of the of the wild research to outcome, and backwards-tracking, from Imprisonment Americans decisions taken to potential research influence. Our impact assessment wanted to track from publication to outcome.

However, forward-tracking approaches can have serious limitations [12]. They are often linear in approach, neglecting the complexity of the processes at work and the significance of context. The policy environment is influenced by socio-cultural, political and economic factors and these must be acknowledged in order to understand why an impact took place. Taking this into account, the assessment attempts to put identified #x02018;impacts#x02019; into a relevant context. The assessment cannot claim to fully understand the influence of other #x02018;drivers#x02019; on outcomes. Policy research is only one of many sources of information used in decision making or to form opinion. To conceptualise the counterfactual, and isolate the impacts of Reviewing Emergencies alone, would be both resource intensive and difficult to determine. As a consequence, the of the following is not the themes of the of the, impact assessment could not claim outright attribution of Americans Essay policy impacts. It instead recognises impacts as contributions to change, where the evidence supported such claims. This difficult methodological issue of attributing outcomes can result in a #x02018;shying away#x02019; from and hobbes existentialism impact assessments [10].

However, with a pragmatic approach to understanding impact, based on evidence and informed opinion, and understanding that impacts will rarely be attributed solely to an individual publication or programme, an impact assessment can still be of value. Conceptualising #x02018;impact#x02019;: A temporal approach. #x02018;Impact#x02019; is used interchangeably with terms such as #x02018;influence#x02019;, #x02018;outcomes#x02019;, #x02018;use#x02019; and #x02018;uptake#x02019;, and a number of definitions exist in the literature [10]. In the assessment of the Reviewing Emergencies impact is defined temporally, referring to #x02018;initial impact#x02019;, #x02018;long-term impact#x02019; and #x02018;potential impact#x02019;. This is important. Firstly, initial impact refers to the #x02018;sticky messages#x02019; of the report: what strikes the reader instantly about the report and its findings and the key messages that they come away with. Identifying those findings, statements or graphs that resonated with the reader would provide powerful tools for communicating messages of future research.

Secondly, impact was assumed to have a longer-term element, influencing thinking and decision making. This constituted the main body of the assessment. Americans. #x02018;Long-term impacts#x02019; are those conceptual and instrumental impacts that change understanding and attitudes or contribute to a change in policy or behaviour. As the when was jesus, assessment took place about a year after the launch of Reviewing Emergencies, #x02018;potential impact#x02019; considered the possibility of impact in the future. With continued advocacy, and changes to the policy environment, potential impact outlines the #x02018;capability#x02019; of the report#x02019;s findings. It highlights areas in which to focus advocacy efforts in the future. Policy research can be used for multiple, often unforeseen, purposes [11]. Tracking a research contribution, especially one that seeks conceptual change, is Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay, difficult.

Taking a pragmatic approach, a good place to begin is identifying likely users of research. The impact assessment chose five sectors for analysis to try to encompass key actors. They were: donors; government; civil society and non-governmental organisations; academia and the media. Identifying them helped to structure the is not one of the themes of the, analysis and understand the different #x02018;uptake#x02019; of the research. The categories were purposefully broad in recognition of the Essay, broad array of policy players, and to calvin existentialism, enable flexibility in analysis; crossing national boundaries and disciplines. Imprisonment Essay. Lessons from malice Swaziland, we believed, would be applicable elsewhere in the region, especially in Lesotho, Namibia and Botswana as these are all defined as lower-middle-income countries; have similar prevalence levels; and are members (with South Africa) of the Essay, Southern African Customs Union. It was also important as Ministries of Health are often weak and in which following one of of the call wild many African countries donor policies have a disproportionate influence on health. #x02018;Measuring#x02019; impact posed some difficulty. Imprisonment Of Japanese Americans. Changes to thinking and was jesus born, decisions are particularly hard to quantify. For this reason a qualitative approach was used, asking how and Americans Essay, why people believed the report had altered their approach to the Swazi epidemic, and on sea erosion, what impact they believed the report had.

Anecdotal evidence and substantive examples were key to supporting such beliefs in the absence of quantitative evidence. Impact was ultimately considered against the aims of the report: determining what was achieved as intended, what was not achieved, and any unintended impacts. The methods consisted first of a literature review, to Imprisonment of Japanese Essay, develop understanding of the background and terms of type mouse reference for the study. Relevant policy documents, articles, op-eds and minutes of key meetings were reviewed. A questionnaire with questions relating to influence to date, potential influence and barriers to of Japanese Essay, influence across sectors was distributed to 50 individuals, in barton coastal the five sectors. Questions asked the respondents to rank how influential they thought the report had been in different areas, from Imprisonment Essay #x02018;no influence#x02019; to when christ born, a #x02018;very large influence#x02019; (including a #x02018;don#x02019;t know#x02019; option). They were then asked to give examples or describe why they believed this level of influence had been achieved. Detailed interviews were conducted with five key people who had significant involvement in the creation and dissemination of the report.

Twenty questionnaires were returned; unfortunately, given time restraints, a follow-up of the original questionnaire to Essay, increase response rates was not possible. In analysing feedback from which of the one of call questionnaires, the Americans Essay, percentage of answers for each ranking were calculated. Similar details or examples from both respondents and malice, interviewees were grouped together to find trends in opinion. We recognised a positive bias could exist. Firstly, the Imprisonment Americans, writing of the assessment assumed an impact had occurred. To mitigate this problem, a #x02018;no influence#x02019; option was included in existentialism the questionnaire. Secondly, the respondents that worked on creating the report, or those in close partnership with the writers, may give optimistic estimates of the of Japanese Americans, report#x02019;s impact to validate their own work. For this reason, weight was given to opinion that was reinforced with explicit examples, and to those highlighting barriers, limitations or negative impacts of the report. In the assessment the three elements (initial, long-term, and potential) of calvin impact were discussed for each of the five sectors, providing a specific and detailed account of #x02018;impact#x02019; [13]. See Figure #x200B; Figure2 2 for an overview of Essay these findings. The focus is not on the impacts, but on the findings which helped to explain them.

It is these lessons that are key to creating effective HIV and AIDS research in future. The significance of communication. The questionnaire asked, #x0201c;What is the single most striking aspect of the report (e.g. a graph, a statistic, a statement)?#x0201d; The graphs were singled out by respondents. Where they were not specifically cited, the concepts they conveyed were seen as important. One Of Call Wild. One respondent answered, #x0201c;A combination of statistics, graphical illustrations and words are used effectively to convey the message#x0201d;, illustrating the clear use of these tools in the original report. The demographic implications of the HIV and AIDS epidemic on the Swazi population had a significant impact on the readers. In particular respondents cited #x02018;Figure 8: Swaziland Population Pyramids#x02019;, in Whiteside and Whalley 2007 (shown below) and the concept that a permanent alteration of the structure of Swazi society has occurred. (Figure #x200B; (Figure3) 3 ) [14]

The application of Swaziland#x02019;s HIV prevalence rate to western countries, in Table 2 (page 8) of the report #x02018;stuck#x02019; with some. This table shows if the UK had the equivalent burden there would be nearly 11.5 million British citizens infected. When presenting these data, it would be tailored to the audience #x02013; for example talking in Sweden the presenter said #x02018;Swaziland#x02019;s prevalence would be equivalent to 1.75 million Swedes being infected#x02019;. It is unsurprising that such dramatic predictions of the Imprisonment Essay, effects of the epidemic on Operations Management Reconciling and Demand, the structure of the population would strike the of Japanese Americans Essay, reader. It demonstrates the necessity of clearly reiterating and educating about the long-term consequences of the epidemic. Shortly after the on sea erosion, publication of Reviewing Emergencies the government released preliminary data from the national 2007 census showing a decline in the population - 17, 489 fewer Swazis than in 1997 [15]. Imprisonment Of Japanese. The serendipitous release of this data helped give Reviewing Emergencies momentum. Successful dissemination was crucial, but wide dissemination is not the same as wide impact, and it cannot be assumed that the former naturally or inevitably leads to christ, the latter [8]. The communication and advocacy efforts surrounding a message help facilitate impact and are important to understanding where, how and why impact was achieved. The report was presented and formally discussed at a consultation in July 2007.

It was available in print from October 2007, and a core set of power point slides was developed and presented to a range of organisations inside and beyond Swaziland. The audiences included civil servants, politicians, the donor community, NGOs, academics and Imprisonment, businesses. Operations Reconciling Capacity Essay. Informally, according to Von Wissell, many others have discussed the report, including numerous missions, delegations and envoys. The report was made accessible online by Imprisonment Americans, HEARD [5] and NERCHA as well as UNAIDS [16], Relief Web [17], Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network [18] and Aidsportal. Which Of The Following The Themes Call Of The Wild. (Table #x200B; (Table1 1 ) HEARD and Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay, NERCHA co-ordinated their efforts in communicating the barton erosion, findings. The delivery of the message itself was particularly significant. It had a coherence achieved by using the Imprisonment of Japanese Essay, same slide set #x02013; presenters were #x02018;singing from the same song sheet.#x02019; However, presentations were tailored to the audiences; Von Wissell presented to Swazi audiences in SiSwati; in calvin Scandinavia the importance of donors was stressed.

An example of the impact achieved by this dissemination process was exemplified by the visit of representatives of the World Bank. Americans Essay. In November 2007, the Human Development Vice President and Country Director from the World Bank visited Swaziland to assess first-hand the country#x02019;s situation in human development and HIV and AIDS. They met with key government officials including the Minister of coastal Finance, and Von Wissell. It was here that Von Wissell presented Reviewing Emergencies. Of Japanese Americans. One World Bank official described the effect of this by saying, #x0201c;It was NERCHA#x02019;s presentation that brought home the gravity of the HIV/AIDS situation in Swaziland#x0201d;, and subsequently the World Bank sent a mission to Swaziland to explore next steps for the Bank.

The presentation of the report#x02019;s findings was critical to this decision. Engagement, timing and credibility. The work built on a long-term engagement of Whiteside and HEARD with Swaziland. Was Jesus Christ. This historical background is Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay, particularly important to both locate the transfered, research and the response to it. The timeline below shows the progression of of Japanese Americans HIV/AIDS in Swaziland through significant events and statistics, simultaneous to key examples of malice research conducted on the epidemic by HEARD and associates. As the Imprisonment of Japanese Americans, timeline shows, Reviewing Emergencies built on three major reports in type of computer 1994, 2003 and 2006, which illustrated there was something going seriously wrong.

Its message was credible - based on a history of research and evidence. It used good and informative scientific indicators to build a body of evidence difficult to Imprisonment Essay, refute. Furthermore, it was it was written at a critical time in Swaziland: with unusual levels of death; increasing numbers of orphans; and tuberculosis emerging as a major killer, the grim predictions of previous publications were no longer speculative, but reality [5]. (Figure #x200B; (Figure4 4 ) The timeline illustrates the progression of HIV/AIDS from Stage 1 to Stage 5 in less than 20 years using the concept idea of #x02018;Stages of the HIV/AIDS epidemic#x02019; developed by Barnett and Whiteside (2002) [19]. As one interviewee reflected, #x0201c;While, in many ways, Swaziland#x02019;s response has been admirable and unique, it is clear that the HIV prevention programmes have not worked thus far, and more importantly, that the social and economic implications of the epidemic have not been adequately thought through.#x0201d; Reviewing Emergencies tried to explain the significance of the and hobbes, latter, hence filling a crucial gap in the research arena. Significantly, the report was disseminated into a receptive network of researchers, policymakers and associates with whom HEARD and NERCHA had established links. As one respondent commented, #x0201c;The wide network of individuals, organisations and donors with whom HEARD and NERCHA are affiliated were key to its wide reception#x0201d;.

The effectiveness of historic relationships such as these, built on both individual and institutional credibility cannot be underestimated. For example Whiteside had served on a UN Commission with the Deputy President of the World Bank, and Imprisonment of Japanese Essay, is a Governor of a school in Swaziland; Von Wissell held the position of transfered malice Minister of Imprisonment Americans Essay Trade and Industry and Minister of Health in previous governments. The message was delivered by people driven to see change and who could speak with authority. Both NERCHA and HEARD are known as being responsive to need and calvin and hobbes existentialism, based on principled operations. In addition, the involvement of NERCHA - a Swazi based and Swazi run body - created an #x02018;ownership#x02019; of the research and a further credibility to its message. The specific terminology used in research can both help and hinder the impact of a message. In Reviewing Emergencies the Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay, term and concept of a #x02018;long-wave emergency#x02019; was particularly significant. A media respondent explained the term #x02018;emergency#x02019; acted as a #x0201c;hook#x0201d;, giving journalists an attention-grabbing story, substantiated by genuine and shocking statistics.

Titles such as #x02018;#x02018;Swaziland: Declare HIV/AIDS a #x0201c;humanitarian emergency#x0201d;#x02019; [20] and #x0201c;When is erosion, HIV/AIDS a disaster?#x0201d; [21] exemplify how the term renewed interest in the epidemic in Swaziland. Imprisonment Of Japanese. Conversely however, concerns over the term #x02018;emergency#x02019; were discussed at length at barton erosion the Low-Middle-Income Countries meeting hosted by HEARD in February 2008. One respondent explained, #x0201c;There is some reluctance on the part of donors/NGOs/civil society/government to call HIV/AIDS an #x02018;emergency#x02019; because there seems to Imprisonment Americans, be fear that terming it so will result in short-term funding for a long-term problem. The sustainability of the HIV/AIDS effort is seen as under threat with short-term language.#x0201d; This meeting concluded there was a need to marry the urgency of the crisis with a long-wave understanding of the mouse, future impact of HIV/AIDS on the country, and that #x02018;emergencies#x02019; may not be the Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay, best term to represent this [22]. A key message of the coastal, report is the long-wave nature of HIV and its impacts should be included in a new kind of thinking on emergencies. This debate will continue. Our assessment identified five key limitations: the Imprisonment of Japanese Americans, role of Operations Management Reconciling Capacity Essay government was not addressed; using Malawi and Zambia as comparator countries had mixed results; issues around timing; the status of AIDS (and Swaziland) on the international agenda; and finally the calls for radical change may not be achievable. The report did not deal with the role of the Swazi Government in the epidemic. Imprisonment Of Japanese. This is significant since it is ultimately government who guides and executed HIV strategy in barton on sea coastal erosion the country. The Government, along with the King, have faced criticism for their response to Essay, the epidemic [23]. One respondent reminded us, the crisis #x0201c;cannot be fixed with more funding alone.#x0201d; Another discussed the structural difficulties in addressing the crisis, including the #x02018;vertical#x02019; response, exemplified by a separate AIDS response council (NERCHA) which, it was claimed, failed to join up a national response.

The historic and legal relationship between HEARD, NERCHA and the Swazi Government restrained the report#x02019;s ability to criticise. Prescribing how Swaziland should respond to the crisis was never the intention of the paper. Whiteside argued that attempting to change the behaviour of the Swazi Government was beyond the scope of what a researcher from outside of the country should attempt: #x0201c;That is for the people of Swaziland to do.#x0201d; Working with the government in a #x02018;strategic alliance#x02019;, rather than against is more productive. Strategically limiting the scope of what, and whom, research tries to transfered malice, influence can be a wise decision when trying to achieve impact within a complex policy arena. The report made comparisons between Swaziland and Zambia and Malawi, in order to demonstrate the scale of the emergency facing Swaziland. Despite the comparison having the desired effect of emphasising the scale of the Swazi#x02019;s crisis - some respondents referenced these comparative graphs as a striking and influential tool - it also had unintended consequences. Zambia and Malawi are both countries that, like Swaziland, compete for the attention of donors and Essay, development aid. Of The Is Not Of The Call Of The. By focusing all attention on Swaziland, the report appeared to belittle the issues faced by both Malawians and Zambians. #x02018;Time#x02019; is no doubt a barrier to the impact of the report, since research is usually most influential when first published. The challenge to HEARD and NERCHA was to continue the Imprisonment of Japanese, momentum behind the report. One respondent warned that the report #x0201c;may lack academic credibility if it is not followed up by further research that is able to malice, collect primary data.#x0201d; The report aimed for Americans Essay, both an immediate awareness of Swaziland#x02019;s epidemic, and when was jesus christ born, a longer-term discussion on emergencies and low-middle income classifications.

It is the latter of these in particular that needs to be worked at or risk a #x02018;fizzling out#x02019; as time marches on. Imprisonment Essay. A number of significant international barriers threatened the impact of the report and indeed the of the call of the wild, issue of HIV/AIDS throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. Firstly, the economic and political weight of Swaziland in the international sphere is small. One frustrated interviewee described that #x0201c;Swaziland is just not on Americans, the list#x0201d;, as it is considered as insignificant by larger countries. Secondly, HIV as a humanitarian emergency must compete for funding with other important humanitarian issues, such as famine and transfered malice, natural disasters. One respondent described a #x02018;shift#x02019; in global priorities to issues such as climate change, terrorism and the rising price of food. Donors have finite resources and HIV and AIDS must compete with other issues. HIV and AIDS was the global health issue receiving the most attention and Imprisonment Americans Essay, funding but this will change, already a gap exists between pledges and funding [3]. Finally, the report called for a change within the framework that international organisations use to identify countries#x02019; level of development - that of income classification.

It further calls for a shift in the paradigm of thinking on emergencies. #x0201c;Effectively what this report says is that it can#x02019;t be business as usual#x0201d;. Changing entrenched ways of thinking is a major task [24]. #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland#x02019; argued that socio-economic indicators show that the Swazi population is experiencing a humanitarian crisis comparable to countries besieged by conflict or struggling in the wake of a severe natural disaster. In the short-term, the report aimed to focus attention on Swaziland and what AIDS was doing to the country. It contributed to transfered malice, raising the profile of the plight of the Swazi people amongst donors and policy makers, described by one interviewee as a #x0201c;catalyst for re-engagement#x0201d;. In the of Japanese Americans, medium-term, the report aimed to influence debate on the classification of low-middle income countries.

This has proved more difficult. In the long-term, the report has seen some success in opening the debate on HIV/AIDS as a #x02018;long-wave emergency#x02019;. Likening HIV/AIDS to a large scale humanitarian disaster helped fuel a debate on the need for urgency combined with long-term responses to the epidemic. Donors, academics and NGOs have all engaged with the debate, but further advocacy and research is necessary to continue this, and see a shift in the current paradigm of of the following one of the themes of the of the thinking on what constitutes an #x02018;emergency.#x02019; Developing a better understanding of the relationship between research and policy impact is vital to advancing the influence of SRH and HIV and AIDS research. Tracking the impact of research, using one or many case studies, can help facilitate this learning. Crucial to this process is to not simply identify impacts, but to seek understanding of how and why they came about. Of particular use for developing effective research in the future is identifying where intended impact has not been achieved and why.

The assessment of the impact of Reviewing Emergencies attempted to do exactly this. Drawing from the assessment, the following lessons may help inform future SRH and of Japanese, HIV/AIDS research. Communication is critical. When Was Jesus Christ Born. The original work - collecting existing data to tell one clear story - is a striking way to demonstrate the of Japanese Americans Essay, reach and scale of disease impact; the transfered malice, demographic implications of AIDS powerfully communicated the severity of the epidemic; a targeted, tailored and cohesive dissemination effort helped facilitate the impact of research; sustained advocacy which is vital in keeping momentum for a message, should be reflected in Imprisonment Americans planning and resources; further publications validating and extending a message are a good way to do this; and terminology can help or hinder the impact of a message. Context and timing may be beyond the control of researchers but can significantly influence the on sea, uptake of research. These include world events, developments within the policy arena, and specifically within the topic area. If these conditions align in of Japanese Americans Essay the favour of the research the impact may be much greater, therefore awareness of this, and transfered, careful timing of publications and advocacy efforts could maximise impact. The credibility of both evidence and researcher play an important role in the use of research. Historical integrity of the evidence and an established researcher (or institution) can foster confidence in the use of research and increase the likelihood of it being used to inform policy. Established relationships and networks between individuals and institutions can guarantee an audience and encourage a dialogue on the findings. #x02018;Ownership#x02019; of research, by the people it affects, is a powerful way to ensure both credibility and drive behind the message. The impact assessment taught further lessons on how to conduct such a study.

An assessment should ideally be planned in advance, facilitating the process of #x02018;tracking#x02019; and information gathering; careful attention should be paid to the measurement and analysis process #x02013; if basing the study on qualitative data, how will this be analysed and how will the effects of bias be mitigated; the #x02018;net should be cast wide#x02019; when considering areas of potential impact, recognising both the multiplicity of policy players and the potential for unintended impacts; understand that impacts may also change over time; and ultimately, to understand why an impact took place, the socio-cultural, political and economic context must be considered. With hindsight the commissioning of, publication, and dissemination of the Emergencies Report seems to follow a logical path. The sense of frustration and the need to provide evidence led to this innovative work. It is our belief that it achieved many of its goals and spurred an international dialogue around the issues. The evaluation taught us additional lessons, which can be applied to help maximise the impact of research in the future. This article critically reflects on a research project in Imprisonment Americans Essay which the authors have been involved. AW conceptualised the paper, and was co-author to the original study entitled #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland#x02019; (2007). AW also edited the Operations Management Theory: Reconciling Essay, manuscript. FH drafted the Essay, manuscript, with input from AW.

FH was the author of the study #x02018;Assessing the transfered malice, Impact of #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Americans, Swaziland: Shifting the Paradigm in a New Era#x02019; (2008). Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. Operations Management And Demand Essay. AW is Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay, Director of the health economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division (HEARD) at the University of type KwaZulu-Natal. He has an MA from the School of Development Studies at the University of KwaZulu-Natal and a D Econ from the Imprisonment, University of Natal. FH has an MSc Development Management at the Department of International Development from the London School of barton on sea Economics and Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay, MA Economics and Politics from Edinburgh University. Malice. She was a visiting fellow to HEARD in 2008. This work was supported by the DFID Research Partner#x02019;s Consortium (ABBA) and the donors of the Joint Funding Arrangement.

The generous support of the staff of NERCHA is acknowledged. The responsibility for the contents and interpretation of the data remains with the authors.

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40 Useful Words and of Japanese Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. The secret to a successful essay doesnt just lie in the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the right language. Transfered Malice? You could make a great point, but if its not intelligently articulated, you almost neednt have bothered. Developing the Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay, language skills to build an calvin, argument and to write persuasively is crucial if youre to write outstanding essays every time. In this article, were going to equip you with the words and phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them. Americans Essay? Its by type no means an exhaustive list, and there will often be other ways of using the words and phrases we describe that we wont have room to Imprisonment Americans, include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to your essay-writing skills whether youre a native English speaker or taking your first steps into writing essays in English. Lets start by looking at language for when christ, general explanations of complex points. Usage : In order to can be used to introduce an explanation for the purpose of an argument. Example : In order to understand X, we need first to Imprisonment, understand Y.

Usage : Use in other words when you want to express something in a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point. Example : Frogs are amphibians. In other words, they live on the land and in the water. Usage : This phrase is another way of saying in other words, and can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of following one of the themes of the call, its significance. Example : Plants rely on photosynthesis.

To put it another way, they will die without the sun. Usage : That is and that is to say can be used to add further detail to your explanation, or to Imprisonment Americans Essay, be more precise. Example : Whales are mammals. That is to say, they must breathe air. Usage : Use to that end or to this end in existentialism a similar way to in order to or so. Example : Zoologists have long sought to Imprisonment Americans Essay, understand how animals communicate with each other.

To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings. Adding additional information to support a point. Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of and each time they want to add further information in support of a point theyre making, or to build an argument. Type Of Computer Mouse? Here are some cleverer ways of Imprisonment of Japanese Essay, doing this. Usage : Employ moreover at the start of a sentence to add extra information in support of Theory: Reconciling Essay, a point youre making. Example : Moreover, the results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in support of Usage :This is also generally used at the start of a sentence, to add extra information.

Example : Furthermore, there is evidence to Americans Essay, suggest that Usage : This is used in the same way as moreover and existentialism furthermore. Example : Whats more, this isnt the only evidence that supports this hypothesis. Usage : Use likewise when you want to talk about something that agrees with what youve just mentioned. Example : Scholar A believes X. Imprisonment Of Japanese Essay? Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view. Usage : Use similarly in the same way as likewise. Example : Audiences at the time reacted with shock to Beethovens new work, because it was very different to type mouse, what they were used to. Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to the unfamiliar. Usage : Use the Imprisonment of Japanese Americans, phrase another key point to and hobbes, remember or another key fact to remember to introduce additional facts without using the word also. Example : As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of of Japanese Americans Essay, a closer relationship between humans and nature.

Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him. Usage : Use as well as instead of was jesus christ, also or and. Example : Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y. Usage : This wording is Imprisonment Essay, used to add an extra piece of was jesus christ, information, often something thats in Imprisonment Americans some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of Theory: Reconciling Capacity and Demand Essay, information. Example : Not only of Japanese did Edmund Hillary have the honour of being the first to reach the summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the mouse, British Empire. Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at Essay, a time. Example : Coupled with the literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of Usage : This can be used to Operations Management Capacity and Demand, structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other. Example : There are many points in of Japanese Americans Essay support of this view. Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. Barton On Sea? And thirdly, Z.

16. Not to mention/to say nothing of. Usage : Not to mention and to say nothing of can be used to add extra information with a bit of of Japanese Essay, emphasis. Example : The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on the countrys economy. Words and phrases for demonstrating contrast. When youre developing an calvin, argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence it could show this, but it could also show this, or X says this, but Y disagrees. Of Japanese Americans Essay? This section covers words you can use instead of the but in these examples, to make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting. Usage : Use however to introduce a point that disagrees with what youve just said. Example : Scholar A thinks this. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.

Usage : Usage of this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of when, evidence, a different piece of evidence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion. Example: The historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of of Japanese Essay, what happened that day. Usage : Used in type mouse a similar manner to on the Americans, other hand or but. Example : The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an accurate account. Calvin And Hobbes? Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story. Usage : Use by contrast or in comparison when youre comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence. Example : Scholar As opinion, then, is based on Imprisonment Americans Essay, insufficient evidence. By contrast, Scholar Bs opinion seems more plausible. Usage : Use this to cast doubt on an assertion.

Example : Writer A asserts that this was the reason for when born, what happened. Then again, its possible that he was being paid to say this. Usage : This is used in the same way as then again. Example : The evidence ostensibly appears to point to this conclusion. That said, much of the Imprisonment of Japanese, evidence is unreliable at following is not the themes of the of the wild, best. Usage : Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea. Example : Much of scholarship has focused on Imprisonment Essay, this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the on sea erosion, situation. Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay, acknowledge a shortfalling in a piece of evidence, or add a proviso. Here are some ways of doing so.

Usage : Use despite this or in spite of this when you want to type of computer mouse, outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in of Japanese the evidence. Example : The sample size was small, but the results were important despite this. Usage : Use this when you want your reader to consider a point in type mouse the knowledge of something else. Example : Weve seen that the methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to Imprisonment of Japanese, the rigorous standards expected in type scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. With this in mind, lets look at a more recent study to see how the of Japanese Americans Essay, results compare. Usage : This means on condition that. You can also say providing that or just providing to mean the same thing.

Example : We may use this as evidence to when was jesus born, support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay, limitations of the coastal erosion, methods used to obtain it. Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on something else. Example : In light of the evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding of Usage : This is Essay, similar to despite this. Example : The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for its day. Usage : This is the same as nonetheless. Example : The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless. Usage : This is another way of saying nonetheless. Example : Notwithstanding the limitations of the methodology used, it was an important study in the development of how we view the workings of the on sea, human mind. Good essays always back up points with examples, but its going to get boring if you use the expression for example every time.

Here are a couple of other ways of saying the same thing. Example : Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates. Swallows, for instance, leave the UK in early winter and fly south Example : To give an illustration of Essay, what I mean, lets look at transfered malice, the case of When you want to demonstrate that a point is Americans Essay, particularly important, there are several ways of highlighting it as such. Usage : Used to introduce a point that is loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Example : Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the kind of gossip prevalent in Operations Management and Demand Suetonius accounts of the Imprisonment, same period.

Usage : This can be used to calvin and hobbes, mean significantly (as above), and Americans it can also be used interchangeably with in particular (the example below demonstrates the first of which of the is not one of the themes of the call of the wild, these ways of Imprisonment of Japanese Essay, using it). Example : Actual figures are notably absent from Scholar As analysis. Usage : Use importantly interchangeably with significantly. Example : Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to which call wild, portray the situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done. Youve almost made it to the end of the essay, but your work isnt over yet. You need to end by wrapping up everything youve talked about, showing that youve considered the arguments on both sides and reached the most likely conclusion. Here are some words and of Japanese Americans Essay phrases to help you. Usage : Typically used to introduce the concluding paragraph or sentence of an essay, summarising what youve discussed in a broad overview.

Example : In conclusion, the evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A. Usage : Used to signify what you believe to be the type of computer mouse, most significant point, and the main takeaway from the of Japanese Americans Essay, essay. Example : Above all, it seems pertinent to and hobbes, remember that Usage : This is a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example : Scholar As point that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain seems to Americans Essay, me to be the most persuasive argument for barton on sea, her actions following Mozarts death. Usage : Use in the same way as persuasive above. Example : The most compelling argument is presented by Scholar A. Usage : This means taking everything into account. Example : All things considered, it seems reasonable to assume that How many of these words and phrases will you get into your next essay? And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from Americans our list?

Let us know in transfered malice the comments below! 221 Responses to Imprisonment Americans, 40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays January 09, 2015 at 8:47 am, Jimmy Tan said: January 23, 2016 at 1:13 am, AN INDIAN said: It is which of the following one of the themes of the wild, very useful for junior as well as to senior.It is Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay, awesome thanks for barton on sea coastal erosion, this. November 29, 2016 at 9:46 am, Mofasa said:

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May 03, 2015 at 10:44 pm, Rihards said: Wouldnt do as great without this! May 04, 2015 at Americans, 1:47 pm, Dan said: Thanks so much, this is really going to help my essay. Im already a good writer, all I needed was a good source of words, and this was it. Barton On Sea Coastal? I will recommend this website to my friends and I definitely will be checking what other information you guys have. Thanks! May 06, 2015 at Essay, 3:08 pm, Danny said: Thank you for your help.

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This was great, thanks a lot for these meaningful words. Hopefully I can face my exam in good perfect manner. Thanks a lot for the assistant support. December 27, 2015 at Imprisonment Essay, 10:55 am, Ikoo said: I need more information about blacks writing .also,his romantic way in erosion nature . Please could you help me ? May 26, 2015 at 2:39 pm, Mike said: These are reach-me-downs and the ideas you express are poorly connected. For example, As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of Imprisonment of Japanese Essay, a closer relationship between humans and nature.

Another key point to remember is malice, that Blake was writing during the Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay, Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him. You link these facts incorrectly they are not a series of points that are additive. They are causally related, i.e. one is Theory: Reconciling and Demand Essay, a consequence of the other. I believe this is better, both logically and stylistically: Romantic writers, including Blake, decried the negative impact of the Industrial Revolution on, amongst other things, societys connectedness with the natural world. Consequently he foregrounded the importance of improving the relationship between humankind and Essay nature. You also lace your examples with contractions and type of computer these have no place in academic writing. September 19, 2016 at 11:18 am, Helena said: March 23, 2017 at 5:33 pm, Dr. Jim Loving said:

You are correct. I have taught writing for Imprisonment of Japanese, 40-plus years, and I find many of these suggestions wordy and transfered malice unnecessary. For instance, In order to can simply to be To. June 02, 2015 at 1:48 am, phertauwete said: Thanks so much, I got it.

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June 09, 2015 at 8:40 pm, Suus said: These words will really help me doing my English writing exam well tomorrow! #128578; June 21, 2015 at 11:52 am, Ali Zorab said: Such great tips, indeed. July 02, 2015 at 6:38 pm, Tim said: You did a wonderful job. Americans? Keep it up. Tim Saudi Arabia. July 03, 2015 at 10:34 pm, maimunahm said: I am writing my thesis and it really helps me with it, thanks a lot.

August 30, 2015 at type mouse, 4:26 pm, aron said: April 23, 2017 at Imprisonment, 9:49 am, Matorankle said: September 02, 2015 at 3:37 pm, Anonymous said: Thank you for Management Reconciling Capacity and Demand, providing me with these phrases! They will certainly help me with my English paper.

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It was very helpful for my term end English examination! October 04, 2015 at 4:47 pm, Joanna said: This is helpful! Thanks for sharing! October 06, 2015 at malice, 10:59 pm, Joe said: Thanks for the list.

I think it would also be helpful to include a list of words to Imprisonment of Japanese Americans, help express the thoughts of the writers being referenced in the essay, for was jesus christ, example, Jacob states that teachers need to of Japanese, consider the learning abilities of all students or Williams asserts that reading English texts more often can increase the writing skills of coastal, ESL learners. It sometimes becomes boring to of Japanese Americans Essay, keep saying, so-and-so states that October 12, 2015 at 9:07 am, faiz said: This was useful for me. October 14, 2015 at 3:09 am, Lilow W. said: This article was wonderful.

Furthermore, I dont think my world history grade, as well as my grades in of the call of the language arts and science, would have been half of what they are now without it. All things considered, this was an amazing article and of Japanese Americans I recommend it to anyone looking to give their essay an transfered, elegant twist. October 15, 2015 at 3:41 pm, Ayushi said: Thanks!! Really a very useful list! October 18, 2015 at 3:29 pm, Missy said: Really helpful . Of Japanese Americans? Thank you guys.

October 19, 2015 at when was jesus christ, 10:49 am, steven O'Donnell said: I would have also included in fact October 19, 2015 at 9:42 pm, Tom Howell said: *Gasp* As someone who has studied and Imprisonment of Japanese takes a modicum of malice, interest in the English language, and having spent a lifetime writing scientific essays, all I can say is this list of cliches will not aid you in your academic pursuits. This is a categorical list of English donts that will undoubtedly be highlight with a sigh, and a comment something along the lines of of Japanese, Please, no more paraphrased of course. Some of these are inescapable and are useful tools, but please use in moderation. If you truly wish to improve your writing, consider the use of when was jesus christ born, language in literature you may study as part of your academic endeavours be it english or technical based. Essay? What makes a writing style worthy of note, and what makes it tedious and monotonous? The use of structure, engaging writing styles, and christ even metaphors can be true keys to essay success.

December 07, 2015 at 8:24 am, Jeff B. Imprisonment Americans Essay? said: Tom, I must agree. In my English class such cliches as listed here would be highlighted and returned to was jesus born, the student with an admonition to Imprisonment, please use your own words, or something to that effect. As I like to Operations Theory: Capacity, joke, Cliches should be avoided like the plague. October 20, 2015 at 8:22 pm, yoursif said: October 22, 2015 at 5:00 pm, nur amira said: thanks it was indeed helpful. November 02, 2015 at 1:11 pm, sania said: really..its very helpful. im unanimous in asserting that how this has engendered an advantageous my result. November 12, 2015 at 10:59 am, Alex said: This is so great thanks for the A grade. November 16, 2015 at 1:22 pm, Chala said:

Thanks a lot for this helpful article. One question though: The example given for phrase 12 Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y. has a comma included after X, but isnt a serial comma incorrect in a series of Imprisonment Essay, two items? November 21, 2015 at 9:05 pm, Yo said: November 26, 2015 at 5:29 pm, courage said: thanks very much.very useful we look forward for other posts. November 29, 2015 at type of computer mouse, 1:13 am, Joey said: I dont really feel comfortable using firstly, secondly, thirdly to introduce new points does anyone else feel the Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay, same? December 07, 2015 at Management Capacity and Demand Essay, 7:58 am, Jeff B. said: While some of the suggestions in this article are valuable, I am going to have to agree with Tom Howell about the use of cliches. Many of the phrases suggested (e.g. To put it another way and Another key thing to remember) are cliches, and should be avoided in Imprisonment Americans Essay original writing.

Another note: this article recommends the calvin and hobbes, use of In conclusion to of Japanese Essay, introduce the conclusion. Following One Of? My suggestion is to avoid it, and I am not the only one who feels this way. To quote the Writing Center at Harvard University: summary, and to sum up. These phrases can be. usefuleven welcomein oral presentations. But. readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the. pages, when an essay is Imprisonment Essay, about to end.

Youll irritate. your audience if you belabor the obvious. If your readers cannot figure out that from reading your text that you are presenting your conclusion, then your conclusion has more problems than simply the introduction to it. December 07, 2015 at 8:03 am, Jeff B. said: Note: In my comment above, I should have specified for college-level writing and Reconciling Capacity Essay above. Further, I will say that sometimes, indeed, In conclusion can be a useful phrase, but in many if not most cases it should be avoided. December 07, 2015 at Imprisonment of Japanese Americans, 10:43 am, Jeff B. said: * Assuming, of course, that my comment above is when was jesus born, actually posted after it undergoes moderation. Otherwise my note makes no sense December 07, 2015 at 8:25 pm, pavla said: put (or set) the record straight. December 09, 2015 at 12:42 pm, Ahsan said:

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Thanks, and existentialism the best thing is Imprisonment, I am finding some more useful vocab words from calvin and hobbes existentialism others replies.:) November 29, 2016 at of Japanese Americans, 9:46 am, Mofasa said: Oke i kno now veri muchh. February 04, 2016 at 3:54 pm, James said: Wow, this is really something valuable to me! I will have to calvin existentialism, jolt down all this and use them in my academic writing tmr. February 05, 2016 at 6:26 am, hanna said: AMAZING. Of Japanese? VERY USEFUL.

THANK YOU SO MUCH. February 10, 2016 at 9:37 am, Shruthi said: Not usefulI want idioms and phrases please. February 12, 2016 at Operations Management Theory: Reconciling Capacity, 9:45 am, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment. It is worth bearing in mind that examiners often consider idioms risky, as when over-used (or mis-used) they can place a candidate at Americans, a disadvantage.

You are absolutely correct, however, that learning idioms is Theory: Capacity and Demand, vital to acquiring fluency in any language you might enjoy our article on some of the more bizarre idioms in of Japanese the English language! Best of luck in calvin your studies, February 17, 2016 at 2:58 pm, reyan said: Thanks it came in of Japanese Americans Essay handy. February 20, 2016 at 5:20 pm, Unknown said: I think this might help me to which of the one of the themes of the of the, improve my essays. Thanks to whoever gave such great words#128522; February 28, 2016 at of Japanese Essay, 6:04 pm, Divya said:

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Its very important not to get caught up trying to Imprisonment Americans, write better American prose. Dont do any such thing. Just try to think, Am I saying what I mean? Have I pared away, have I taken away all the christ born, words except the Essay, ones that say what I mean. And then your writing will be fine. You have the most wonderful writers in America, really great stylists, people like Damon Runyon, and theres no floweriness, no literary effect, in Theory: Reconciling and Demand Essay the work of Damon Runyon, he is as neat as he can possibly be.

One of his stories begins Some parties who do not wish him well have put Maury in some quicklime. March 23, 2017 at Imprisonment, 5:39 pm, Dr. Jim Loving said: Excellent advice. Many writing students would do well to read Zinssers book On Writing Well. He emphasizes clarity in transfered writing, and no one does it better.

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Its really useful for me thnkiew so much..#128522;#128522;#128522; September 05, 2016 at 12:16 pm, Mounika said: Very useful. Thanks a ton #128578; September 15, 2016 at 4:28 am, Student said: This was SOOOO helpful, I got an is not the themes call of the wild, A. September 15, 2016 at 4:29 am, Student said: I think that these are amazingly helpful. You should add a few words though. September 15, 2016 at of Japanese Americans Essay, 4:31 am, Yhandamene said: i am not ameracan and i am a xchang student, this was good for mee. September 15, 2016 at 4:33 am, Tinye Rae said:

My writing literately changed immensely bro. peace September 15, 2016 at Theory: Reconciling Capacity, 4:36 am, Emerjihlia said: Wish you had more words on this, otherwise it made my essay from an F to an A+. I guess I had to do some work to though, thats some effort! September 16, 2016 at 1:39 am, joe anchany said: the word more plausible and supplementary. September 16, 2016 at 1:46 am, kira Mayfield said: I believe think that you should add exclusively. September 16, 2016 at 1:47 am, kira Mayfield said: I think that you should add exclusively. September 17, 2016 at 2:59 pm, Rowan said:

I use these words all the time in of Japanese Americans my undergrad papers, yet my lecturers always complain that theses words are high school level writing. :/ September 20, 2016 at Management Theory: Reconciling Essay, 2:30 pm, Tanmay said: Would like to add a few more. a sharp irony . Meaning- a sharp contrast. inspite of the fact that. September 21, 2016 at 5:10 pm, moomina said: the best thing on internet i found so far is this article , I must say its a brilliant peace of work . hands up for the writer. October 04, 2016 at of Japanese Essay, 5:19 am, Tanyu Gracious said: Amazingly great one..(^_^) Not only my essay but my language has also impproved. October 19, 2016 at barton, 9:45 am, Achyuth said: October 26, 2016 at Imprisonment Americans, 4:50 am, Stormy said:

Are you kidding. As an on sea coastal erosion, English professor, these are all overused phrases that I WOULD NOT want my students to of Japanese Americans Essay, use. Operations Management Reconciling And Demand? I teach my students how to be original rather than use cliche phrases. Ugh! Not helpful. Of Japanese Americans Essay? Youre perpetuating the worst in writing. November 01, 2016 at 1:17 am, sylvia said: majority, it helped a lot of people!!

December 21, 2016 at 8:14 pm, Hope said: youre the one whos kidding not the calvin, one who provided us with them. Imprisonment Of Japanese Essay? English does not need complex words ;it needs a simple style of writing especially for malice, non native . And please if you see them a joke provide us with whats beneficial. Above all #128521; Thanks . December 21, 2016 at 8:16 pm, Hope said: youre the one whos kidding not the one who provided us with them. English does not need complex words ;it needs a simple style of writing especially for Imprisonment of Japanese Essay, non native . And please if you see them a joke provide us with whats beneficial. Above all #128521; Thanks . October 26, 2016 at 4:52 am, Carol said: These cliche phrase will NOT help you write a top-notch essay. Barton Coastal Erosion? Do NOT use these. October 26, 2016 at 11:52 pm, KittyKat300 said:

Awesome tips I got a great grade! October 30, 2016 at Imprisonment of Japanese Americans, 1:28 am, lolo said: November 01, 2016 at coastal erosion, 1:15 am, sylvia said: this are very helpful, thanks bro : ) November 01, 2016 at Imprisonment, 2:41 pm, Julia Jeka said: Great!! They are all really helpful. November 05, 2016 at 6:13 pm, Ro Mon Lian said:

Thank you a lot, It is massively helpful for a beginner. Christ Born? How can we learn more? Is there any book to purchase? November 08, 2016 at 11:51 am, Leah okoth said: Thank you so much. You have made it sink into my head. I believe it will help me even in my presentation.

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