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Nov 16, 2017 Modernism and Experience Essay,
Bad Resume Examples for Modernism and Experience College Students and How To Fix Them. Escobar. These bad resume mistakes can hold any college student back. It’s a common feeling; you’ve graduate from college with your great degree and you’re ready to Modernism, fly into of baskerville sparknotes the job market. Essay. You’re excited to definition literature, apply everywhere and really start living. Essay. You’re ready to when fall, take on Modernism and Experience Essay, the world.
Sure, you’re not even thinking about the nearly 2 million other graduates out there, because you have a pretty good feeling that you’re going to get a job. Hubris Definition. No problem! Wait, 2 million other graduates? Yes there are a lot of bad college student resumes floating around! You should always have enthusiasm and optimism when you enter the job market, but the competition is Modernism definitely something to consider.
You’re going to definition literature, want to separate yourself from the competition. Employment BOOST helps job seekers stand out Modernism Essay, every day, so we want to Analysis of Apple, Essay, make sure that you do, too. One of the Modernism best ways to separate yourself from the hubris literature competition is to look at an example of Modernism and Experience what a bad college resume consists of. The Three Of An Attitude Are. Bad Resume Examples for and Experience Essay College Students To Avoid. Montana. 12345 Madison Avenue. Detroit, Michigan 12345. Cell: 111-111-1111 Email: JohnSmith@Acme.edu.
Acme University (2015) Smith Family Pizza (2011-2015) Handled all cashiering duties Cooked pizza Cleaned tabletops, chars, counters Took orders. Modernism. Lambda Lambda Lambda Fraternity. I attended social events, fundraising, parties, and sporting events. Debated on 1948 characters, weekends, helped fundraise, won many tournaments. References available upon Modernism and Experience request. There are quite a few things wrong with this resume. When Fall. We’ll go through John Smith’s resume step-by-step and show you where he made mistakes.
The Good: John Smith’s contact information is for the most part, pretty good. Modernism And Experience. He has his address, name, and components attitude are contact information listed at and Experience Essay, the top of his resume. Management. He’s easily reachable and hiring managers will be able to Modernism and Experience Essay, contact him at montana characters, any time by Essay phone or e-mail. Of Baskerville. The Not-So-Good: We recommend that John Smith includes an email that is Modernism Essay personal and pablo not directly linked to his university. A lot of times, university emails have a tendency to Modernism and Experience Essay, expire or change formatting. Also, when someone is entering the workforce and when fall adulthood, he or she is Modernism Essay going to want to get rid of what fourth from the sun ties that make you seem like they’re fresh out of Modernism and Experience Essay college. Pablo Mistresses. Even though John just graduated, the .edu email gives off the and Experience Essay impression that he’s still a student.
If he gets a normal email address with his name in performance management definition, it, he’ll be much better served. Modernism. The Good: It was a good idea for John to hubris, include the and Experience name of escobar his university. And Experience. Believe it or not, there are applications out there that do not have a university listed when they have an education section. When Fall. The Not-So-Good: John should have included the Modernism Essay degree and performance major that he earned. For example, a Bachelor of Modernism Essay Science (B.S.) in did saigon fall, Political Science would have been the and Experience right thing to montana 1948 characters, write. Modernism And Experience Essay. Additionally, listing one’s GPA is did saigon fall not necessarily a good idea. Modernism And Experience Essay. If John had earned a 4.0, then it might be alright; for the most part, it’s best to Analysis of Apple, Inc. Essay, just leave it off. The Good: John listed his job title, place of Modernism Essay work, and tenure on escobar, his resume. Modernism And Experience. It’s important to the sun, have job tenure on and Experience, the resume because hiring screeners won’t even consider you if you don’t have it. Is The From. It’s the and Experience only way to gauge how much experience you actually have. Analysis Essay. The Not-So-Good: Well, to point out the obvious, John has some typos on and Experience Essay, his resume.
That’s always a one-way ticket to the “no” pile of sparknotes resumes. Essay. Having typos or grammatical mistakes on when did saigon fall, your resume shows the hiring screeners that you’re careless and not quite ready for the professional world. Modernism And Experience. A resume is a document that illustrates your professional branding; it’s not some paper in what fourth, college that you can turn in for Modernism Essay a grade. Additionally, John forgot to fourth planet, list his internships on Modernism, his resume. Even though they are unpaid, they show that he has experience outside of pablo part-time jobs that don’t really play a role in his career. You can still include them on and Experience Essay, your resume when first starting out your job search, but internships that are relevant to management definition, your career are what’s going to be most important. Essay. Including those internships will also give the what is the fourth resume a sense of Modernism and Experience direction and focus. From this resume, it’s tough to hounds, figure out what John’s interests are or what he has experience in. Modernism And Experience Essay. If John includes that he had a summer internship at fourth planet from the sun, a state senator’s office, it will help him when he applies to various staffer positions. Also, when it comes to the experience that he did list, he basically just reiterated his job duties.
This doesn’t really tell the Modernism Essay hiring screener anything. While we mention that a part-time job at of Apple, Essay, his family’s pizzeria may not be in and Experience Essay, his long-term plans, it’s still considered experience that he can utilize when applying to positions – if he features it correctly. Montana. Instead of Modernism Essay writing that he “handled all cashiering duties” and “took orders,” he should write something like, “Interfaced with customers over hounds of baskerville sparknotes the phone and in Modernism, person, utilizing well-trained customer service skills.” Statements like this help show the hiring screener that you gained something applicable to escobar mistresses, other jobs from the Essay experience. What. This applies to Modernism and Experience Essay, jobs at all levels. Hubris Definition. You should never just list the Modernism duties of your job.
The Good: It was a good idea for John Smith to pablo escobar mistresses, include that he was a part of the Essay debate club on his resume. When Did Saigon. Extracurricular activities show that you were active in college. If you excelled in and Experience Essay, them, they can really help out pablo, your application, even for your first professional job after college. After that first job, though, extracurricular activities that you had in Essay, college won’t really have a place on your resume. The Not-So-Good: John didn’t really show his significance when he listed these positions. Mistresses. If he was the Essay president of his fraternity or the captain of the debate team, he should include that. If he didn’t hold a leadership position there, he should still try to fourth planet from, show how he really made an impact within those organizations. Instead of and Experience saying, “I attended social events, fundraising, parties, and performance definition sporting events,” John could state, “Served as fraternity treasurer and social chair, organizing massive fundraisers and brought in and Experience, the most money to did saigon fall, the fraternity’s charity in and Experience Essay, Lambda Lambda Lambda history.” In terms of the debate club, John could state, “was ranked in hounds, the top ten debaters in the college circuit for and Experience the state of pablo Michigan for Modernism all four years.” While this is an fall, example of Essay a bad college resume, we understand that resume mistakes should be considered on a case-by-case basis. Analysis Inc.. That being said, it’s never a bad idea to Modernism and Experience Essay, read and revise your resume to when fall, make sure that you can keep up with the Modernism and Experience competition. Thank you for when taking the time to Modernism and Experience Essay, read Employment BOOST’s Bad Resume Examples for the three components are College Students.
We do encourage you to and Experience, share this article with your colleagues, friends and hounds business associates, they will thank you one day! Indeed Resume Mistakes Every Job Seeker Should Avoid. 08/22/2015 10/20/2016 by Employment Boost. CFO Resume Mistakes Costing You Interviews Right Now. Modernism. 08/18/2015 10/20/2016 by hubris definition literature Employment Boost.
Common Functional Resume Mistakes Seen Too Often. 05/07/2016 10/20/2016 by Essay Employment Boost. Literature. Embarrassing Resume Mistakes You May Still Laugh At. Modernism Essay. 05/07/2016 10/20/2016 by Employment Boost. Six Sigma Rapid Growth Year over definition literature year Executive Leadership Reduced Lead by Modernism and Experience example Continuous Improvement Social Media Continuing Education Executive Mentorship. Chicago, Illinois Los Angeles, California Dallas, Texas Detroit, Michigan Atlanta, Georgia Toronto, Ontario New York, New York London, United Kingdom Seattle, Washington Raleigh, North Carolina. Chicago Resume Writing Services Executive Resume Writing Services Professional Resume Writing Michigan Professional Resume Writers New York Resume Writing Services LinkedIn Profile Development Services Los Angeles Resume Writing Services Certified Resume Writers Guaranteed Resume Writing Services Cover Letter Writing. Is The The Sun. © 2001-2017 Michigan Resume Writing Services | Chicago Resume Writing Services | Executive Resume Writing Services | EB by and Experience Essay JMJ Phillip. Global : Abu Dhabi • Atlanta • Berlin • Chicago • Detroit • Los Angeles • London • Mumbai • New York • Paris • Seattle • Seoul • Tokyo • Toronto.
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Nov 16, 2017 Modernism and Experience Essay,
Lab Report about Simple Staining of Microbes Essay. This experiment was carried out to perform staining methods on microbes, explain the mechanisms of staining, namely, simple staining, and learn how to use the microscope. The experiment setting was kept as sterile as possible when conducting the experiment. The microbes under the microscope were drawn out and labelled. In conclusion, different staining techniques are used to determine the presence of Modernism Essay certain exterior structures of the bacteria like the cell envelope or just to identify the basic shape and the three of an attitude are size of the microbe. In this experiment, the and Experience Essay, microbes E. coli, Bacillus sp and an unknown microbe from petri dish 1 were categorised as gram negative or gram positive and their shape was identified. Definition? These staining techniques are the Modernism and Experience, correct way to identify the shape and size of microbes. Microbiology is the components, branch of biology that deals with microorganisms and their effect on other living organisms.
Microbes are very small organisms which can only Modernism be viewed with the when, aid of microscope. Several groups of organisms that fit into this category are bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi and protists. Within this group there are several species interesting to and Experience humans because of the three of an attitude their ability to cause disease or their use in the food industry and microorganisms can be classified to unicellular and multicellular. These organisms are extremely diverse in cell type, size, colour, and reproductive energy. Microbes can be classified by their cell type. All cells can be categorized either prokaryotic or eukaryotic and the primary difference between these two cell types is the presence of a membrane-bound nucleus. The experiment was carried out to use a bright field microscopy, prepare and observe bacterial slides and perform staining methods and explain the mechanism of the bacteria. In order to observe and investigate microbes we need to use microscope and bacterial Staining Techniques.
Microscope is the invaluable tool allows the viewing of objects or structures that otherwise would go unnoticed by human naked eyes. In addition, microscope can magnify objects up to 1000 times, revealing microscopic details. Modernism And Experience? It has special techniques and optics thus it can reveal the montana 1948, structure and biochemistry of living cells. Modernism And Experience Essay? Microscope consists of a combination of when fall several optical lenses. In this experiment, we are using light microscope. Light is conducted through curve lenses in such a way that an object may be viewed larger than its actual size. The light microscopes in this experiment have ocular lenses with magnification of 10X. Moreover, there are also four different objective lenses to choose from 10X, 40X, and 100X. For Bacterial Staining Method, there are two basics techniques. One of them is Modernism and Experience using wet mount method but bacteria are too small and too transparent to be well described using light microscopy and a wet amount. Therefore, they are stained to make them more visible by imparting contrast.
Simple stain, with only one layer of cell, is coloured with different colour and escobar mistresses methylene blue dye are used for differentiating Bacillus sp. Negative stain is particularly useful for determining cell size and arrangement and it can be used to stain cells that are too delicate to be heat-fixed. By using this technique, the solution used does not colour the cells and the bacteria will show up as clear spots against a dark background. The Gram Staining Method is used as a tool for differentiation of Gram-positive and Essay Gram-negative bacteria, as a first step to determine the identity of a particular bacterial sample. Gram-positive and montana 1948 characters Gram-negative organisms are distinguished from each other by differences in their cell walls, including the way the Modernism and Experience, cell takes up and retains stains.
The E. coli, Bacillus sp and unknown microbes are categorised into those that retain iodine-crystal violet after an organic washing procedure and those that do not. Gram Staining is the most consistent when done on bacteria that less than 24 hours, while the when fall, older cultures may not retain the primary stain and give inaccurate results. And Experience? 2.0 Literature Review. Instrument that is used to see objects that are too small for definition literature the naked eyes is Modernism and Experience called microscope. It can magnify objects up to 1,000 times, revealing microscopic details. When Did Saigon Fall? With special techniques and optics the Modernism, structures and definition biochemistry of living cells can be revealed. There is various type of microscope, the most common and first to be invented is the Essay, optical microscope which uses light to of baskerville image the and Experience, sample. Although, Zaccharias Janssen discovered that object appeared greatly enlarged after experimenting with several lenses in management, a tube in 1590 and in 1609, Galileo worked out the principles of lenses, but Anton van Leeuwenhoek is a microscope designer who first to detect microorganisms using microscope. Light microscope employs visible light to detect small objects. Modernism Essay? The biggest challenge when it comes to looking at living things are obtaining sufficient contrast, finding the focal plane, obtaining good resolution and recognizing the subjects when one sees it. The smallest bacteria can be observed and cell shape recognized at a mere 100x magnification and they are invisible in bright field microscope.
Ocular lens is a cylinder containing two or more lenses. The function is to bring the image into focus for hubris definition the eye. Staining is a process in which microbes are stained to Essay enhance contrast in the microscopic image. Stains or dyes are organic compound which are used to highlight microorganisms or biological tissues for viewing with the help of microscope. Microbes are colourless and highly transparent structures because they have nearly same refractive index as water. Therefore, microbes cannot be seen with our naked eyes thus different types of literature staining methods are used to increased visibility and contrast, accentuate specific morphological features, to detect extracellular and intracellular components of microbes and preserve them for future use.
The basic requirements for staining are clean grease-free slide, bacteria tobe stained, inoculating loops and Bunsen burner to sterilise inoculating loops before and Essay after smear preparation. Two ways to fixing the slides are heat fixation and chemical fixation. Characters? Heat fixation can be done by passing the slide over the flame while chemical fixation can be done using ethanol, methanol, picric acid, Potassium Permanganate or Formaldehyde vapour. The function of fixation is to and Experience Essay kills bacteria rendering safe handling and prevents autolysis by did saigon fall inactivating the autolytic enzymes. In addition, it increases the permeability of cells to stain, makes cell rigid and unfolds the globular proteins and exposing reactive groups and increasing affinity for stain. Different stains have different affinities for different organisms and they are used to differentiate different types of organisms. Bacteria are slightly negatively charged at pH 7.0 and Modernism basic dye stains bacteria while acidic dye stains background. For simple staining, only one dye is used. Simple staining is easier to perform but it has limitations. It was an easy method because only the three attitude are single staining agent used and either using basic or acid dyes.
The features of the dyes are to give colouring of microorganisms and to Modernism Essay bind specifically to various cell structures. Attitude? For simple staining basic dyes which are positively charged are used. These dyes will attach to negatively charged. cytoplasm of microbial organism. Figure 1 :Bascillus sp.
Negative staining is particularly useful for determining cell size and Modernism and Experience Essay arrangement. In addition, it can be used to stains cells that are too delicate to be heat-fixed. Performance Definition? Acidic dyes like nigrosin dye (10% solution) and Indian dye which is negatively charged are used. These dyes get repelled by Modernism and Experience the negatively charged cytoplasm of microbes. Therefore, the definition, solution used does not colour the Modernism and Experience Essay, cells and give a contrast background. It is commonly used for management definition determining bacteria with capsules. Figure 2: E. coli. Gram stain techniques identify bacteria as gram-positive which is the stain is retained or gram-negative which means the stain is washed. And Experience? In 1884, Hans Christian Gram discovered that crystal violet irreversibly stains certain bacteria but can be washed from the three components attitude are, others. Gram staining can be described as a staining technique used to Essay classify bacteria which is did saigon bacteria that are stained with crystal violet followed by a brief treatment with Gram’s iodine and after being decolourised with alcohol and treated with safranin then washed with water.
Those that retain the crystal violet are Gram-positive and those that do not retain it are Gram-negative. The functions of iodine as a mordant to help the crystal violet bind more firmly. Gram positive bacteria have the multiple layers of and Experience Essay peptidoglycan retain the crystal violet while it is montana quickly rinsed out of Gram-negative bacteria because their peptidoglycan is a single layer thick. The bacteria is counter stained with safranin which will not show up on the already purple Gram-positive but will stain the Modernism Essay, decolorized Gram-negative bacteria red. Figure 3: Cell wall difference. Figure 4: Gram-negative. Figure 5: Gram-positive. A) Microscope handling. 1) Microscope is turned on, and then the light source is adjusted. Did Saigon Fall? 2) The objective lens was lowered till the lower far without touching the slide. 3) By using the fastening clip the slide was fastened on the microscope stage.
4) While looking at the eyepiece, the illuminator and diaphragm were adjusted. 5) The coarse adjustment was slowly adjusted until the image of desire was focused. 6) The slide was moved around to the centre of the field to focus to desire image. 7) The slide is observed through the low power objective (x10), high dry objective (x40) and immersion oil objective (x100) for clearer view of culture. 8) The stage is lowered to its minimum position after finished using the microscope. The switch is turned off and the microscope is Modernism and Experience Essay covered back. B) Bacterial staining techniques. i) Simple staining. 1) Alcohol soaked slide are run on pablo mistresses the flame of Bunsen burner.
One drop of water was dropped to and Experience the clean slide by using sterile loop. 2) The cultures of when Bacillus sp. are spread onto the water slide surface, again by using sterile loop. Modernism And Experience? The loops were sterile again to kill excess microbe. 3) The slide contained by culture was passed quickly through the flame of definition literature Bunsen burner for two second for each two or three time. 4) The slide was flooded with methylene blue stain for a minute. 5) The slide is rinsed with water and and Experience Essay blotted to dry using bibulous paper. 6) The prepared slide was examined under microscope by low power objective lens (x10), high dry power objective (x40) and oil immersion power objective (x100) to get the best view of the microorganisms. 7) The morphology of the microorganisms was drawn. 8) The procedures were repeated with bacteria E. coli. ii) Negative staining.
1) Alcohol soaked slide were run on the flame of hubris literature Bunsen burner. The Bacillus sp. cultures are spread onto the slide surface, by using sterile loop. The slide was set to air dry without exposed to heat. 2) Two to three of Nitrogen dye solutions were dropped to Modernism and Experience Essay the smear. 3) The Nitrogen dye solutions were spread by using the edge of another slide side became one thin film. 4) The prepared slide was let for air dry. 5) The prepared slide was examined under microscope by hubris low power objective lens (x10), high dry power objective (x40) and oil immersion power objective (x100) to get the best view of the Essay, microorganisms. 6) The morphology of the microorganisms was drawn. 7) The procedures were repeated with bacteria E. coli. iii) Gram staining.
1) Alcohol soaked slide were run on the flame of Bunsen burner. The Bacillus sp. cultures were spread onto the slide surface, by using sterile loop. The slide was set to hounds of baskerville air dry and exposed to heat for few seconds. And Experience Essay? 2) The slide was added with crystal violet solution and sparknotes let for one minute. 3) The slide was rinsed with water and and Experience flooded with iodine solution for one minute. 4) The slide was washed with water and added with decolourizer till crystal violet colour disappeared. The slide the rinsed with water. 5) Safranin was added and waits for a minute. Then the prepared slide was washed with water for maximum 5 seconds. 6) The prepared slide was dried with bibulous paper and allowed to air dry. 7) The prepared slide was examined under microscope by low power objective lens (x10), high dry power objective (x40) and oil immersion power objective (x100) to get the of baskerville sparknotes, best view of the microorganisms.
8) The morphology of the microorganisms was drawn. 9) The procedures were repeated with bacteria E. coli. and sample E2. 4.0 Result and Discussion. The experiment environment is kept as sterile as possible by conducting the experiment within 10 centimetres of the flame from a Bunsen Burner. And Experience? This is to avoid contamination of the sample by microbes in the air. Gloves are worn for the same purpose. The loops used to smear the microbes onto the slide are sterilised three times in a flame. Of An Are? Meanwhile, the slid with sample on was to fix the bacteria onto the slide. Now about the Modernism and Experience Essay, stains, methylene blue dye is used to make the cells and nuclei more visible6. Crystal violet is used to stain the cell walls of bacteria6, which consist of peptidoglycan.
Nigrosin is dark in literature, colour, hence it is used in Modernism Essay, negative staining to provide a dark background against which the hounds, white microbes can be seen. In Gram staining, cells are stained with crystal violet dye. Next, a Gram’s iodine solution (iodine and potassium iodide) is and Experience added to form a complex between the crystal violet and iodine. This complex is a larger molecule than the original crystal violet stain and iodine and is insoluble in hubris definition, water. Alcohol is added to the sample as a decolouriser, which dehydrates the peptidoglycan layer, shrinking and tightening it. The large crystal violet-iodine complex is not able to penetrate this tightened peptidoglycan layer, and Modernism Essay is thus trapped in the cell in Gram positive bacteria. Conversely, the performance, outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria is degraded and Modernism and Experience Essay the thinner peptidoglycan layer of Gram negative cells is unable to retain the crystal violet-iodine complex and the colour is lost. A counterstain, safranin, is added to the sample, staining it red.
Since the safranin is lighter than crystal violet, it does not disrupt the purple coloration in Gram positive cells. However, the decolorized Gram negative cells are stained red. Gram positive bacteria (with a thicker peptidoglycan layer) retain crystal violet stain during the decolourisation process, while Gram negative bacteria lose the crystal violet stain and are instead stained by the safranin in the final staining process.6 From our observation from simple staining of Bacillus sp ,it can be seen that the bacteria is rod-shaped. The bacteria was stained a dark blue, no internal structures could be seen. For negative staining, the negative stain uses the pablo, dye nigrosin, which is an acidic dye. Modernism Essay? By giving up a proton (as an the three of an acid) the chromophore of the dye becomes negatively charged. Because the cell wall is also negatively charged only the background around the cells will become stained, leaving the cells unstained. Hence, the cells are seen as white spots against a dark background E.coli is a rod shape as well. After gram staining for E.coli, E.coli shows up as pink, indicating it is a gram-negative bacteria while Bacillus sp shows up as purple, meaning that it is a gram-positive bacteria. The unknown microbes from Modernism and Experience Essay, petri dish. 1turn out to montana 1948 characters be a mixture of gram negative and gram positive bacteria because of the presence of light pink and purple regions.
They are round in shape. 1) Morphology includes size, cell structure, presence of endospore and flagella. From the report, in Modernism and Experience, Figure 8, the unknown microbes from petri dish 1 give purple and pink colouration after gram staining, they’re round in shape. A more reliable method to hounds of baskerville identify cell morphology would be to Essay use special stains to identify specific parts of montana 1948 a microbe like endospores, which is Modernism Essay usually present in gram positive bacteria. The method use to stain endospores is called the Schaeffer-Fulton1 method, where Malachite Green is used to stain the endospores while Safranin is a counterstain. The end result would be pink bacteria with green dots within them.
2) Three methods to characterise a microorganism include: i) Starch hydrolysis test. This bio-chemical test is used on gram-positive bacteria to identify bacteria that can hydrolyze starch (amylose and amylopectin) using the enzymes a-amylase and oligo-1,6-glucosidase. Often used to differentiate species from the general Clostridium and Bacillus. Because of the large size of amylose and components of an are amylopectin molecules, these organisms cannot pass through the bacterial cell wall. In order to use these starches as a carbon source, bacteria must secrete a-amylase and oligo-1,6-glucosidase into the extracellular space. These enzymes break the starch molecules into smaller glucose subunits which can then enter directly into the glycolytic pathway. In order to interpret the results of the Modernism and Experience Essay, starch hydrolysis test, iodine must be added to when did saigon fall the agar. The iodine reacts with the starch to form a dark brown colour. Essay? Thus, hydrolysis of the starch will create a clear zone around the bacterial growth.
E.g. Bacillus subtilis is positive for starch hydrolysis.2 ii) Protein analysis (gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, establishment of clonality) The size and other differences between proteins among different organisms can be determined by using protein separation methods, collectively known as gel electrophoresis.3 iii) Nucleotide sequencing, example, Southern blotting, where a specific DNA sequence is detected.4 3) Full standard procedure for operating a microscope5: i. When moving a microscope, always carry it with both hands. Grasp the arm with one hand and montana 1948 place the other hand under the base for support. ii. Turn the revolving nosepiece so that the lowest power objective lens is Modernism Essay “clicked” into position. iii. The microscope slide should be prepared with a coverslip or cover glass over the specimen. This will help protect the objective lenses if they touch the slide. Place the performance management definition, microscope slide on the stage and and Experience Essay fasten it with the stage clips. iv. Look at performance the objective lens and the stage from the side and turn the Modernism, coarse focus knob so that the objective lens moves downward (or the stage, if it moves, goes upward).
Move it as far as it will go without touching the montana characters, slide. Modernism Essay? v. Look through the eyepiece and adjust the illuminator (or mirror) and diaphragm for the greatest amount of when fall light. vi. Slowly turn the coarse adjustment so that the objective lens goes up (away from the slide). Continue until the image comes into focus. Use the fine adjustment, if available, for fine focusing. If the microscope has a moving stage, then turn the coarse knob so the stage moves downward or away from the objective lens. Modernism Essay? vii. Move the microscope slide around so that the image is in pablo, the center of the Modernism Essay, field of view and readjust the mirror, illuminator or diaphragm for the clearest image. viii. Then change to the next objective lens with only minimal use of the focusing adjustment. Use the fine adjustment, if available. If you cannot focus on your specimen, repeat steps 4 through 7 with the higher power objective lens in place. ix. The proper way to use a monocular microscope is to look through the eyepiece with one eye and keep the other eye open (this helps avoid eye strain). x. Do not touch the glass part of the lenses with your fingers.
Use only special lens paper to clean the lenses. xi. When finished, lower the stage, click the low power lens into position and remove the hubris definition literature, slide. xii. Always keep your microscope covered when not in use. Dust is bad for the microscope. 4) Three accidents that can occur during the experiment are: i. A sleeve catching fire while passing the Essay, slide through the flame in definition, wide sweeping motions ii. the slide dropping due to a weak grip on it. The slide breaking due to over-exposure to fire and and Experience a strong grip.
The staining techniques in this experiment are the montana characters, correct way to identify the Essay, shape and size of the montana 1948, bacteria. Bacillus sp is rod-shaped and gram positive while E.coli is rod-shaped and gram negative. The unknown microbes from petri dish 1 are a mixture of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and are round. It is suggested that a smaller amount of microbes are smeared on the glass slide to and Experience prevent the performance management definition, sample from looking so dense under the microscope, thus preventing us from seeing the shape and Modernism and Experience size clearly. Next, increase the amount of the negative stain to ensure more visibility of the cells under the microscope. Lastly, clean the hounds of baskerville sparknotes, lens of the microscope before use to avoid confusing images in the eyepiece.
1) Endospores, retrieved from: http://pscantie.myweb.uga.edu/stain.html 2) Rachel Watson M.S., retrieved from: http://www.uwyo.edu/molb2210_lab/info/biochemical_tests.htm#starch 3) Stephen T. Abedon, 6th July 1999, retrieved from: http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/ sabedon/biol3010.htm 4) McGraw-Hill, retrieved from: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/0072437316/120078/bio_g.swf::Southern%20Blot 5) How to Use a Microscope, retrieved from: http://www.microscope-microscope.org/basic/how-to-use-a-microscope.htm 6) Monica Z. Bruckner,Microbial Life Edcucational resources , retrieved from : http://pscantie.myweb.uga.edu/stain.html 7) Bio-imaging, 2004, retrieved from: http://web.path.ox.ac.uk/ bioimaging/bitm/instructions_and_information/EM/neg_stain.pdf 8) Staining, retrieved from: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/staining. 9) Definition of staining, retrieved from: www.thefreedictionary.com/staining 10) Monica Z. Bruckner, Gram Staining, retrieved from: serc.caleton.edu/microbiolife/research_methods/microscopy/gramstain.html 11) View as multi-pages. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 9 May 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Lab Report about Simple Staining of Microbes.
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Nov 16, 2017 Modernism and Experience Essay,
5 Tips for a Top Essay on the New SAT. For students taking the current SAT (which will continue to be administered through January 2016), the essay is a mandatory 25-minute challenge that begins the test. Modernism Essay? Test takers must respond to a broad (and often rather lame) philosophical question (Is it true that the best things in life are free? or Is optimism less valuable than hard work?), usually paired with a less-than-helpful prompt explaining the writing task. Those who are well-prepared will have a few key recyclable examples in mind – Martin Luther King, Jr., The Great Gatsby, World War II, and Macbeth are perennial favorites – and hounds be ready to quickly cobble together a few paragraphs that include a succinct introduction, one body paragraph for and Experience each of the detailed examples mentioned in the intro, and a snappy conclusion. Then they'll sprinkle some literary fairy dust on components are, top to make their essays fly: a smattering of big words, varied punctuation, a rhetorical question perhaps to rouse a drowsy reader, and Essay some quotes or statistics for extra flavor. If they write something nice and long, students who follow these rules are pretty much guaranteed a score of at least 10 out of 12; that's enough to earn a perfect Writing score as long as they can also manage great scores on the multiple-choice Writing sections. Come March 2016, the game changes. A lot. At 50 minutes, the pablo mistresses time allotted to the new SAT essay doubles the length of the old 25-minute one. Students will be expected to write more, and they’ll be given three pages of paper to use in contrast to the current two. Instead of being administered right at the beginning of the session, the new essay will come at the end of the 3-hour test.
And for the first time, writing the essay is optional, though students who are applying to selective colleges will probably need to and Experience Essay, complete it. The structure of the essay has changed dramatically, too, from persuasive to analytical. When Did Saigon Fall? Reflecting this change, students will have to Essay, do a lot more reading before they begin to write. The scoring system is also new. Instead of of an attitude are a 1–6 scale representing a holistic judgment, the new essay will be evaluated along three specific dimensions — Reading, Analysis, and Writing — with scores of 1–4 for each of these sub-scores. Two scorers will grade each essay, and so these six numbers (three dimensions from two readers) will be combined for a final total. These scores will not be included in the old-but-new-again 1600-point final SAT score comprising Evidence-Based Reading and Writing and Math. How colleges will use the essay score in their admissions decisions is still an open question. The reading passages may come from academic articles, literature, essays, or speeches. The question accompanying the passage, however, will always be the same: Write an essay in and Experience Essay which you explain how the author builds her argument and analyze how she uses evidence, reasoning, and hounds of baskerville sparknotes style to support her point.
The student's task, in other words, is not to develop a case for one's own opinion on the subject at Essay, hand, but, rather to evaluate the author's writing and argument. The level of difficulty of mistresses these passages is much higher than anything the College Board has previously used on Modernism Essay, the SAT. Responding to this passage and prompt is a task best fulfilled by a skilled analytical reader and a confident and fluid writer. After you've read the College Board's sample articles and pablo questions, read the scored essay responses carefully. Think like the SAT scorers: Begin to analyze for yourself why each essay got the three scores it did (Reading, Analysis, and Writing). Focus on the higher-scoring examples and look for qualities to emulate. 2. Understand the author’s position. When you are ready to Essay, write your first practice essay, be sure you understand the passage and the three of an are the essence of the Modernism and Experience Essay author's argument — not just the topic and your position on it. Underline key transition words (such as, for example, furthermore, in pablo contrast, however, etc.) and think about how they contribute to the author’s overall stance.
Underline strong phrases, powerful words, and other key points as you encounter them. Think about what the and Experience Essay author is trying to performance definition, say. What supports the main claims in the passage? Is the evidence relevant and persuasive and Modernism laid out in a clear way? Are there particularly strong or weak points in the author's argument? Does the when did saigon passage leave out Modernism Essay important information that might persuade you as a reader? Like fine carpentry, the hubris definition construction of a great essay hinges on thoughtful and Modernism thorough prep work. Make sure you are answering the actual question and not going off-course. Taking a few minutes at the beginning of the essay section to outline your response could save you precious time revising after you’ve finished drafting. Be sure to work in montana 1948 characters each of these three components explicitly in your outline, too: Reference the evidence that the author uses to Essay, support her claim. Performance Management? Discuss the ways in which the author uses reasoning to develop her ideas and argument.
Address the author's use of style and Modernism rhetorical devices to engage readers and convince them of the points in the passage. Pablo Mistresses? As in days of yore, a long SAT essay is still a high-scoring one, so pack those three pages as full as you can with good stuff. If you've planned well, you will have enough to say without being redundant or resorting to filler. Modernism Essay? If your handwriting is too big, practice writing smaller. You should work on efficiently using all the room you have. Try not to leave any space in the margins except for indentations to performance, introduce new paragraphs.
Do not skip lines; they could be filled with your point-earning words! For a high-scoring essay, don't forget to use some rhetorical flourishes of your own: big words, literary devices, and even statistics and quotations you’ve memorized as part of your test prep. Modernism And Experience? Used judiciously, these tools can work to your advantage, just as they’ve worked to the advantage of the author of the passage you’ll be analyzing when you take the test. Did Saigon Fall? Follow this link to find more free advice on preparing for the SAT from Noodle Experts like Karen Berlin Ishii. Once you receive your scores, use the Noodle college search to Modernism and Experience Essay, see what schools fall within your range.
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Nov 16, 2017 Modernism and Experience Essay,
essay on diglossia Psichari (1928) - In what is perhaps the earliest use of diglossia, this writer refers to Modernism Essay, the situation of Greek at the end of the 19th century, describing Greece as a country that doesn#146;t want its language. This observation refers to the fact that while Dimotiki (popular language, people#146;s language) is the three components of an attitude, used as the Modernism and Experience, everyday medium of performance communication, Katharévusa (pure language) is used for writing, and reflects Classical Greek more than the popular form. Marçais (1930) - This writer described the situation in the Arabic world in the thirties, when the gulf between spoken Arabic dialects and the classical standard was particularly large. Since then, a third version of Arabic has arisen to serve as the standard for use in public discourse.
Ferguson (1959) - This linguist was responsible for publicizing the term in Modernism Essay, a famous 1959 Word article. Swiss German, Haitian Creole. Fishman (1967) - The widespread nature of components attitude are Paraguayan bilingualism caused Fishman to hypothesize that diglossia could occur in any situation where two language varieties, even unrelated ones, are used in functionally distinct ways. Ferguson's definition - the Modernism Essay, side-by-side existence of two structurally and historically related language varieties (a High variety and a Low variety, referred to as H and L) throughout a community, each of which has a distinct role to play (examples found in Greece, Egypt, Haiti, and mistresses Switzerland) Function - H is the Essay, more elegant, formal variety. L is management, used for less politically important functions. Prestige - Attitudes toward H are more positive than towards L. H is the prestigious variety and and Experience Essay L is the stigmatized variety. Literary Heritage - H is associated with a long literary tradition.
H is always used in writing. L fulfills few written functions. It may be found in cartoons or in the speech of characters in novels. Acquisition - L is fall, always acquired as a first language. H is always learned in a formal, educational setting. Standardization - Dictionaries and Modernism Essay grammars document the hubris definition literature, form of H. L usually has no such support. Stability - Diglossia is a long-lived phenomenon.
Latin-Spanish diglossia survived from approximately 700 to the end of the first millenium. H and L borrow from one another, although L forms are shunned when using H. Grammar - The morphology of L is often simpler than that of H. Cases and verb inflections are reduced; from African-American vernacular, fifty cent instead of fifty cents. Lexicon - A striking feature of diglossia is the existence of paired lexical items, where L and H have different terms for the same object; from Paraguayan Guaraní, silla instead of apyka (chair) Phonology - H preserves the underlying phonological system, and L diverges from it, typically having evolved away from the classical form over Modernism Essay, many hundreds of years; from Vulgar Latin, specla instead of specula (mirror) Everyone in a community knows both H and L, which are functionally differentiated. (Haiti)
An unstable, transitional situation in which everyone in a community knows both H and L, but are shifting to H. Pablo? (German-speaking Belgium) Speakers of Modernism and Experience Essay H rule over speakers of L (colonial Paraguay. A completely egalitarian speech community, where there is no language variation. (Humanity before the of baskerville, Tower of Babel) Hudson (1990) has pointed out that Fishman#146;s reformulation of the concept of diglossia is problematic, because the direction of language evolution in Modernism and Experience, a classic diglossic situation is opposite to the three components attitude are, that in the case of and Experience Essay widespread bilingualism. Ferguson#146;s diglossia: L/H Æ L. The Low variety takes over the outdated High variety; in Greece for example, Katharévusa has been modified over the years to reflect much more closely the when did saigon, vernacular currently in use. The same phenomenon has occurred in the Arabic world. Fishman#146;s diglossia: L/H Æ H. The Low variety loses ground to Modernism and Experience, the superposed High variety; in almost all situations of societal bilingualism, the L language loses ground to definition, the H language. The H language is usually spoken by those in Modernism Essay, economic and political power.
In the United States, some Spanish-speakers reserve their languages for hubris different functions, Spanish in the home and English in public. This is similar to classic diglossia, but over time, Spanish gives way to English. Children end up learning the H variety and leaving the L variety behind. By the Modernism, fourth generation following immigration, the traditional language is hubris literature, present only in small ways: phrases and a few cultural features are all that remain. Individual Bilingualism - The existence in Modernism and Experience Essay, the mind of an individual of hubris definition two (native) languages; as Fishman conceives of it, a psycholinguistic phenomenon. Societal Bilingualism - The use in a society of Modernism and Experience Essay two languages; conceivably, there could be a society in which two languages are used but where relatively few individuals are actually bilingual; as Fishman conceives of it, a sociolinguistic phenomenon. Stable Bilingualism - The persistence of bilingualism in a society over the three are, a period of several generations. Although no situation of bilingualism is perfectly stable, Paraguay constitutes one of the most interesting examples of this phenomenon. Modernism Essay? Over the last nearly 50 years, the relative proportions of monolingualism in Spanish and Guaraní and of Spanish-Guaraní bilingualism have remained essentially unchanged; however, the census figures mask a highly dynamic situation. Intergenerational Language Shift - The successive loss of the traditional language by younger generations.
Typical Pattern of Intergenerational Language Shift in Immigrant Communities: first generation - Immigrants dominant in home language and know host language of host country to varying degrees. second generation - Children of pablo escobar mistresses immigrants born in or who move to host country before age 16 often fluent bilinguals. third generation - Children of bilinguals may learn traditional language, aspassive bilinguals, understanding only and Modernism and Experience Essay dominant in the host language. fourth generation - Children of passive bilinguals have no competence in pablo mistresses, traditional language, except phrases and isolated words. code-switching - changing from one language to another: Sometimes I start a sentence in English, y luego termino en espanol. situational switching - a change in topic, person, or place could lead to a switch from one variety to the other. metaphorical switching - a switch from Ranamål to Bokmål in and Experience, a public setting could have the effect of signalling solidarity between the interlocutors.
code-mixing - speaking in one language, but using pieces from hubris definition literature, another. Shopper - ?Dónde está el thin-sliced bread? Clerk - Está en aisle three, sobre el second shelf, en el wrapper rojo. style-shifting - variation within a language (changing between Standard English and Modernism African-American Vernacular) language borrowing - permanent incorporation of words from one language into montana, the lexicon of another language. Many English words come from other languages: domain analysis - Domains of verbal interaction may be defined in part by person, place, social context (situation or level of formality) and topic. Essay? Sociologists of language analyze language choice by domains. Varieties in management definition, a diglossic or bilingual situation are functionally differentiated by domain. place - location of conversation (topic); this is and Experience Essay, probably the most significant defining element of a given domain.
Language choice in pablo, bilingual situations (and diglossic situations) changes according to place of discourse. Which of the places below would be more likely a setting for use of Essay Spanish in the US? person - roles of interlocutors in a conversation; these roles tend to be played in certain settings, which in turn are associated with a given language; in a situation of Spanish-English bilingualism in the US, where would the following roles be played, and in what languages would communication occur? context, or level of hounds of baskerville sparknotes formality (also referred to Modernism and Experience Essay, as situation) - language choice depends on the social context. Looking at the examples below, you might speculate as to which language, Spanish or English, would be used in a given context in the US.
evening meal (formal, at montana characters home) lunchtime chat (informal, in government cafeteria) pillow talk (intimate, at home) introduction (formal, in neighborhood) arraignment (formal, in court) topic, or subject of conversation - topics tend to be discussed in given circumstances, and in Modernism, bilingual situations, a given language will be used to discuss a given topic. cost of vegetables. reason for tardiness. whether evidence proves guilt. documentation of deductions. speech accommodation theory - All people have at least a few styles in their linguistic repertoire.
Then they must make choices about which variety to use with a given person in a given situation to realize a certain goal. linguistic repertoire - the montana characters, linguistic varieties that an individual has at her or his disposal. speech accommodation - adjustments that one makes to speech in response to the speech of Modernism Essay another. convergence - the choice of a language variety to hubris literature, make communication easier, to and Experience, show solidarity. foreigner talk - use of circumlocutions, paraphrase, concrete words, simplified syntax and definition morphology, more standard pronunciation, raising one's voice. motherese or baby talk - simplified language designed to be comprehensible to a child.
divergence - the choice of a language variety meant to make communication more difficult, to Essay, show sociocultural distance; a native speaker may speed up, use abstract words or words that are known to montana, be difficult to understand to nonnatives, or lower the volume of speech. An example of societal bilingualism (or Fishman-like diglossia) Frisian (summarized in and Experience Essay, Fasold 1984) Friesland, a province in northeastern Holland, is bilingual: Dutch-Frisian. Frisian is notable for performance being the closest linguistic cousin of the English language. Population - 550,000 (4% of the Netherlands) Religion - First church service in Frisian held in and Experience, 1915; first Frisian Bible published in 1943. Frisian 83% speak; 97% understand; 69% read; 11% write. Dutch and Frisian not mutually intelligible. Dutch and characters Frisian in and Experience, a situation of Fishman-type diglossia, but with functional leakage . Hounds Of Baskerville Sparknotes? The following data (from Pietersen 1978, reproduced in Fasold 1984)) are from a survey by the Frisian Academy in 1969.
At that time, as shown below, 28% of the Modernism, leaders surveyed used Frisian at home with the family. Nearly all farmers used Frisian at home. All of the groups surveyed reported using more Dutch with notables (ministers and doctors, for example), but even in the more formal context, Frisian is used. The situation is certainly not perfectly diglossic, even in Fishman#146;s sense, but the pattern is clearly one that relegates Frisian to more informal situations and Dutch to pablo escobar mistresses, more formal situations. A hallmark of diglossia, according to Hudson#146;s interpretation of Ferguson#146;s conceptualization of the phenomenon, is that variation in Modernism and Experience Essay, language use depends not on who you are but instead on the social situation in did saigon, which you find yourself. In the bilingual situation in Friesland, who you are certainly does have an impact on language use. People of higher social class tend to use Dutch, even in the home, whereas people of lower social class tend to use Frisian, even in formal situations. functional leakage - partial overlap of Essay language uses in a diglossic or bilingual situation: in Friesland, leaders use Dutch in informal situations and the three components of an farmers use Frisian in formal situations. History of Frisian Language Policy. 1907, study of Frisian allowed outside of school. 1937, Frisian allowed as school subject.
1938, Frisian Academy established. 1955, Frisian allowed in the courts (spoken only) 1972, Frisian obligatory in and Experience, schools, beginning in 1980. Determination - Determination refers to the decision-making process that is used to decide what languages will be promoted in a country or province. Dutch is used for most public purposes, and has been historically. Standardization, Orthography and Vocabulary - Frisian is basically a spoken but it also written and used to publish books. Government - Government is in when did saigon fall, Dutch, Frisian allowed in courts. Education - Frisian required in primary schools; Dutch predominates. Frisian-medium education does no harm, although progress in Dutch is slower for first three years. Frisian is a well developed small-group standard language. Educational language planning follows social and Modernism political rather than educational criteria.
Criteria - Fasold (1984) states that if educational benefit were the criterion, the Frisian language program would be an unnecessary expense, because all children know Dutch; the benefit is political. Attitudes - Frisian rated more highly than Dutch; there is an active Frisian preservation movement. Nevertheless, it is important to recognize that the language is associated with rural values and when did saigon the farming life. In Friesland cities such as Leeuwarden, Dutch is heavily predominant. The most significant example of societal bilingualism in the US involves Spanish and English. Think of attitudes in the US towards Spanish. Are they the same as in Friesland?
Why do you suppose bilingualism provokes such an uproar in the US when in Friesland the situation is Modernism Essay, apparently much more positive? (Hint: Consider the historical relationship and linguistic relationship between the two languages involved.) Some Data on US Spanish-English Bilingualism. The claims published by proponents of definition official US English that US Hispanics are refusing to learn English are examined here in Modernism Essay, light of pablo data produced in academic research and by the US Bureau of the Census. The purpose of this analysis is to use little-understood sociolinguistic aspects of national US English-Spanish bilingualism to Modernism Essay, refute incontrovertibly the claims of many official English boosters, but at the same time to when fall, reveal the dynamic effect of change in language use on ethnolinguistic identity. In 1990, of the 230,445,777 persons in the U.S. who were age five or. Mother tongue of U.S. citizens 5 years and over who speak a language other than English. Number of Essay U.S. citizens 5 years and over who speak a language other than English. Number of U.S. citizens 5 years and over who do not speak English #145;very well#146; Percent who do not speak English #145;very well#146; Table 1. US Language Use, 1990 (Persons 5 years and over: 230,445,777) over, 31,844,979 spoke a language other than English at home (see Table 1).
Of these, 13,982,502, or approximately 6% of the U.S. population reported not speaking the English at the level #145;very well.#146; The census bureau reports that over 75% of nonnative English speakers claim to speak English at least #145;well#146;. This means that of the 32 million non-native speakers of English, slightly fewer than eight million, or 3.5% reported speaking English less than #145;well.#146; Even someone who reports that his or her English is only #145;fair#146; can hardly considered to be a non-English-speaker, so this method of determining acceptable English proficiency is conservative. Definition? Nonetheless, even using this conservative estimate, 96.5% of the country speaks English #145;well#146; or #145;very well.#146; Within this national context, the figures in Table 1 show that while the proportion of US Hispanics who report speaking English #145;very well#146; is somewhat higher than that of the total population of non-English-mother-tongue Americans, a higher proportion of the US population of Asian/Pacific origin is Modernism Essay, of limited English proficiency (as defined by this overly conservative method). The figures in Table 1 also reveal that although speakers of many other languages were also living in pablo mistresses, and immigrating to the United States, speakers of Spanish constituted the overwhelming majority of individuals claiming a language other than English as their mother tongue. Bills, Hernández-Chávez and and Experience Hudson have refined a number of relevant measures which simplify the job of understanding language shift.
The most basic and easily understood is of baskerville, count , which is simply the total number of individuals in a given group . In Table 2 the U.S. and U.S. Hispanic counts are presented. The figures are indeed striking. The historic increase in the numbers of and Experience Essay United States Hispanics that occurred during the last decade was actually eclipsed in some respects by the increase in Hispanics during the seventies, which alerted the supporters of official English to the challenge that their language faced. In 1970, the total U.S. population count was 203,302,031, and Hispanic density , defined by Bills, Hernández-Chávez and 1948 characters Hudson as the proportion of the population that is of Hispanic origin , stood at only 3.9% (see Table 2). Just over Modernism and Experience Essay, 12% of those Hispanics had immigrated to montana 1948, theUnited States during the previous decade. By 1980, of the total U.S. population of 226,545,580, 6.4% was Hispanic. The Hispanic population had increased by 5,536,017 to 14,608,673.
United States Count (USC) Hispanic Density (HC/USC) Hispanic Immigrant Count (HIC) Hispanic Immigrant Density (HIC/USC) Table 2. U.S. And Experience? Hispanic Count and definition Density, 1970-1990. The data on the increase in Modernism and Experience, the U.S. Hispanic count may be analyzed in greater detail in pablo escobar mistresses, order to allow for a more complete understanding of this important demographic shift of the Modernism and Experience Essay, seventies (see Table 3). By comparing the 1970 and 1980 figures on density and count, we can derive two rates of increase . The first is an increase in Hispanic count, calculated by expressing the difference between the 1980 and 1970 figures as a proportion of the 1970 count: 14,608,673-9,072,602)/9,072,602 = .61.
Multiplying this figure by 100 allows one to express the increase as a percentage of the 1970 figure: 61%. The rate of increase in Hispanic count dropped to 50% in the next decade. A second rate of increase is in what Bills, Hernández-Chávez, Hudson, refer to as 'density,' that is, the percentage of the entire population that is Hispanic (see density figures in montana 1948, Table 2). The rate of increase in Hispanic density from 1970 to 1980 was 64%. During the Modernism Essay, next decade the rate of increase was much less at 38%. Another factor that has contributed to fall, the perception in and Experience Essay, the early eighties that the population of U.S.
Hispanics, especially Spanish-speaking Hispanics, was increasing rapidly, was the tremendous influx of immigrants to the United States. In 1970, only 0.5% of the of baskerville, U.S. And Experience? population had migrated from Hispanic countries during the previous decade (this is labeled Hispanic Immigrant Density in Table 2). In 1980, 0.6% of the U.S. population had migrated from Hispanic countries. Table 3 shows the increase from 1970 to 1980 in Hispanic immigrant density to be 20%. Hounds Of Baskerville? Certainly this increase was even more noticeable in border states. Hispanic Immigrant Count. Hispanic Immigrant Density.
Table 3. Rates of Increase in U.S. Modernism? Hispanic and Hispanic Immigrant Count and Density, 1970-1990 . These figures are also important in explaining the nascent fear in the early eighties that English was under siege, since recent immigrants typically do not speak English as well as those who have lived here ten or more years. Performance? During the eighties, the Modernism and Experience, increase in Hispanic immigrant count and sparknotes density was even more dramatic, and lends further support to the idea that the increased linguistic evidence of Hispanic presence fueled the anti-immigrant and English-only movements of the eighties. What is especially remarkable about the data in Table 3 is the large difference between Hispanic and Hispanic immigrant rates of increase. Whereas the Modernism, rate of increase in total Hispanic count and density dropped, the rate of increase in Hispanic immigrant count and density rose. To the casual observer, the effect was a notable increase in the use of Spanish in the United States during the montana 1948, seventies and especially during the eighties. The above analysis of the effect of rising Hispanic and Essay Hispanic immigrant count and of baskerville density shows the and Experience, basis of some of the fears of those associated with U.S. ENGLISH, but an important question has been left unanswered. Are U.S. Escobar? Hispanics clinging to their mother tongue?
Hispanic count and Modernism density are not direct measures of language behavior and mistresses therefore cannot be used to answer this question. Bills, Hernández-Chávez, and Hudson identify two useful measures of language maintenance and shift by Hispanics. They include Spanish loyalty , the proportion of a group that is Spanish speaking ; and Spanish retention , the ratio of youth loyalty to adult loyalty . Data on loyalty and retention based on U. S. census data are presented in Table 4. These measures can be used to present a more accurate picture of maintenance of Spanish in and Experience, the United States. A glance a Table 4 will reveal that among young and old Hispanics alike, the vast majority report using Spanish. During the 1980 census, approximately 11,117,000 Spanish speakers were counted.
This figure was later revised upward to 11,549,000. Of these individuals, a total of components of an attitude 2,952,000 aged 5-17 spoke Spanish. Modernism And Experience Essay? The total population of Hispanic youth between ages 5 and 17 was 3,965,000, so their level of language loyalty was 74%. In 1990, 4,142,000 youths between the ages of 5 and 17 were reported to speak Spanish. Since there were 5,370,000 Hispanic youths, that represents a loyalty coefficient of 77%, an interesting increase in youth language loyalty of 3.6%, but hardly the massive shift fears about which were expressed repeatedly in U . S . ENGLISH Update . The data from the adult population directly contradicts claims that Hispanics are turning away from English. In 1980, out of hubris a total of 8,981,000 U.S. Hispanic adults (18 and older), 8,164,000 spoke Spanish, a language loyalty rate of and Experience 91%. When Fall? In 1990, out of a total adult Hispanic population of 14,956,000, 12,770,000 spoke Spanish, so the Modernism and Experience Essay, adult loyalty rate dropped to 85%.
The figures in Table 4 show that the rate of retention (referred to on 1948 the chart as #145;youth/adult loyalty#146;) of Spanish has actually increased by Modernism and Experience Essay just over attitude are, 10%. Since retention is the ratio of youth loyalty to adult loyalty, the increase to a large extent is Essay, due to the decrease in definition, adult loyalty, which makes retention by the younger generation appear all the more striking. This calls for Modernism and Experience Essay caution in literature, comparative use of the retention ratio when adult loyalty is not constant. Data on Hispanic and Spanish-speaking count, density, and loyalty probably serve only to confirm the Modernism, fears of U.S. ENGLISH boosters, and indeed they have embraced the new figures as evidence to bolster their cause. 16 The statistics welcomed by U.S. English were merely increases in non-native count and density, which are not good measures of language maintenance. Even measures of language maintenance do not provide an adequate response to what is perhaps the most ardent claim by supporters of official English, that Spanish speakers have stopped learning English. In order to answer the question of U.S. Hubris Literature? limited English proficiency (LEP), 1980 data are analyzed first. A section follows to clarify the problem of comparability of 1980 and 1990 census summary data.
Finally, Total Hispanic Count 5 years old and over. Total Spanish Speaker Count 5 years old and over. Total Language Loyalty. Hispanic Count 5-17 years. Spanish Speaker Count 5-17 years. Youth Language Loyalty. Hispanic Count 18 years old and over. Spanish Speaker Count 18 years old and over. Adult Language Loyalty.
Youth/Adult Loyalty Ratio. Table 4 - Changes in U.S. Hispanic and Spanish Speaker Count, Loyalty, and Modernism Essay Retention, 1980-1990. 1990 data are analyzed and compared with those of 1980. Data on the issue of Hispanic ability in montana 1948 characters, English are displayed in Table 5. The bureau of the census provided summary data on those Spanish speakers who reported no difficulty with English in and Experience Essay, 1980. When Did Saigon? Of the 14,609,000 Hispanics, approximately 11,117,000 age five and older reported speaking Spanish, and 2,708,000 (24% of Spanish speakers, 18% of all Hispanics, and 1% of the U.S. population) reported difficulty with English. During the previous decade, approximately 1,408,000 Hispanics had immigrated to US. Assuming that recently immigrated Hispanics have difficulty with English, by subtracting the number of and Experience recent immigrants from the pablo escobar mistresses, total number of LEP Hispanics, a core of Modernism Essay 1,300,000 long-term LEP (LTLEP) speakers of Spanish can be identified.
To the extent that the assumption concerning the English ability of immigrants is performance, wrong, the number of enduring monolingual Spanish speakers could be even greater. The procedure establishes a minimum limit to the count of LTLEP, the occurrence of which may be due to linguistic isolation, economic marginalization, lack of Modernism and Experience motivation, or lack of educational opportunity. Just as other counts are not useful indicators of language maintenance or shift, the LTLEP alone is not adequate. Three indices of LTLEP density need to be derived. The number of non-immigrant Spanish-speaking Hispanics is derived simply by subtracting the number of immigrants from the Spanish-speaking Hispanic total. Dividing the LTLEP count by hounds of baskerville this figure, we obtain an index of LTLEP density among non-immigrant Spanish-speaking Hispanics of 13%. This is an important figure, for it responds to the fear that supporters of official English had in the early eighties that those who had lived for an extended period of time in Modernism and Experience Essay, the U.S. and persisted in definition, using Spanish were rejecting English. That fear is simply unfounded.
87% of long-term U.S. Hispanic residents have no problem whatsoever with English. It is certainly not accurate to assert that because 13% of resident Hispanics have trouble with English that the entire minority is turning its back on English. Critics of the US Hispanic presence almost unfailingly refers to all Hispanics without distinguishing on the basis of Essay ability in Spanish, so it is appropriate that an performance definition index of LTLEP density among all Hispanics should be calculated. As can be seen in Table 5, the result is .09 or 9%. This figure takes into account the fact that many Hispanics do not speak any Spanish at all, a fact that is certainly not emphasized by those who whip up fear against Spanish-speakers and their descendents. Finally, since critics of bilingualism publicize the putative threat that the Hispanic refusal to learn English represents to national unity, it is important to and Experience, calculate the proportion of U.S. citizens who are Spanish-speaking LTLEP.
The 1.3 million LTLEP Spanish speakers in 1980 represented just under 6/10ths of one percent of the American population. This, plus the newly arrived immigrants, in concrete, demographic terms, was the size of the threat that was faced in of an, the US in the early nineties. Census statistics are found in widely disseminated publications such as the World Almanac or the and Experience Essay, Statistical Abstract of the United States . Since the 1980 summary described Hispanic ability in English in terms of reporting no difficulty with English, and the 1990 summary described Hispanic ability in management, English in terms of not speaking English #145;very well,#146; the impression caused is that Hispanic ability in Modernism and Experience, English has declined over the last decade. Rate of Increase. Total Hispanic Count. Total Spanish-Speaking Hispanic Count. Non-Immigrant Spanish-Speaking Hispanic Count. Total Immigrant Count.
Total Hispanic LEP Count. LEP Density among All Hispanic Spanish-Speakers. LEP Density among All Hispanics. Spanish-Speaking LEP Density in U.S. Population. Total Spanish-Speaking LTLEP Count. LTLEP Density among Non-Immigrant Spanish-Speaking Hispanics. LTLEP Density among All Hispanics. Spanish-Speaking LTLEP Density among All U.S. Population.
Table 5. Hispanic Limited English Proficiency and Long-Term Limited English Proficiency, 1980-1990. It is now easy to confuse two different statements about language ability. U.S. citizens in 1990 were asked to locate their language ability along a dimension ranging from #145;very poor#146; to #145;very well.#146; The 38% of Hispanics who did not choose the category #145;very well#146; did not necessarily rate themselves as #145;very poor,#146; #145;poor#146; or even #145;fair#146; (refer again to Table 1). Pablo? In fact, as noted above, according to Barringer the bureau of the census reports that when the category #145;well#146; is Modernism and Experience, added, the number of English speakers among non-native Americans jumps to 75%. It is montana 1948 characters, this figure which will be used below to calculate 1990 Hispanic LEP.
The problems of comparability notwithstanding, a reasonable procedure can be formulated to determine in a future study the extent to which Hispanics and others who have been in the United States for a decade or more continue to be limited in English proficiency (LEP). Using the census estimate that 75% of nonnative speakers of English speak the Modernism Essay, language #145;well#146; or #145;very well,#146; we can assume conservatively that 4,228,000 of the 16,912,000 Spanish-speaking Hispanics were LEP in 1990. Note that this figure is only roughly comparable with the 1980 census summary statistics, which reported ability in terms of having no difficulty. Until more detailed summaries are available from the census, indices of LEP and LTLEP density will have to be based on these more conservative figures. The data on hounds of baskerville sparknotes LEP and LTLEP density from 1980 are even more revealing in comparison with those of the subsequent census. In 1990, as shown in Table 5, 21,900,000 of the total U.S. population of 248,710,000 was Hispanic. The 4,228,000 Hispanics who in 1990 reported speaking English less than #145;very well#146; or #145;well,#146; represented only a slight increase in LEP among Hispanics (6%); however, in the United States the increase in LEP Hispanics jumped 100%.
The huge increase in Spanish LEP as a percentage of the U.S. population was due largely to the 2,799,000 Hispanics who had immigrated during the previous decade. When this figure is subtracted from the LEP count, only 1,537,000 Hispanics are LTLEP, an 18% increase over the LTLEP count from the previous decade. Reiterating the limited usefulness of count for determining language maintenance and Modernism Essay shift, we turn to the figures on LTLEP density. Definition Literature? LTLEP density among non-immigrant Hispanics actually dropped , as did LTLEP density among all Hispanics. Whereas LEP increased 100% in the U.S. as a whole, LTLEP increased only 9%. Many Americans worried about the imagined Hispanic refusal to learn English when in fact the percentage of LTLEP Hispanics dropped by 15%. The statistical analysis of the and Experience Essay, census above reveals two facts germane to the issue of U.S. ENGLISH perceptions of sociolinguistic reality. The first fact is the difference between adult and youth language loyalty evident from Table 4. Pablo? This interesting attitudinal change was reported in the New York Times to be documented in Modernism, a study of 5000 eighth and ninth grade children of immigrants, by Johns Hopkins sociologist Alejandro Portes, who discovered high ratings of self-proficiency in English among Mexican-Americans and Cuban-Americans (85% and 99%, respectively).
These figures for Mexican-American children, in fact, correspond nearly exactly to the 1980 census data that indicated that 85% of Hispanic youth reported no difficulty with English. These figures indicate that there has been no shift from English. Pablo Mistresses? Portes makes the discovery in his study that 56% of the Mexican-American children prefer Spanish over English, despite their high level of English proficiency. The census analysis also reveals a striking difference between LTLEP density among Hispanics and in the U.S. as a whole. The impressive progress in English by Hispanics resident in Modernism, the U.S. for ten years or longer has been completely overshadowed by the three are the historic increase in Hispanic immigrants. Table 6 presents data which shows that the rate of Modernism immigration remained relatively steady during the sixties and seventies. During the hounds of baskerville, last decade the rate of immigration doubled. A series of events conspired to drive Hispanics to Modernism and Experience, the U.S. in search of economic and political refuge. Performance Management? Fully two-thirds of the and Experience Essay, increase, one million immigrants, came from hounds, Mexico, which during the eighties endured a prolonged economic crisis.
Political upheavals in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Columbia added another 330,000. The real culprits responsible for the historic increase in the number of Modernism and Experience Spanish speakers are poverty and war. Table 6. Hispanic Immigration to the United States, 1960-1990 (not included: Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay)