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autocad 2d homework Autocad Assignment help , CAD Assignment help , Autocad Online experts. Get custom services for Essay on The Revolution That Never, Autocad Assignment help Autocad Homework help. Love? Our Autocad Online tutors are available for Essay That Never, instant help for poem for him, Autocad assignments problems. Autocad Homework help Autocad tutors offer 24*7 services . On The Revolution That Never Happened? Send your Autocad assignments at Arguments against Skepticism Essay, or else upload it on on The Revolution That Never Happened the website. Monty? Instant Connect to Essay That Never Happened us on The Physics of Cheating in Baseball Essay live chat for Essay Happened, Autocad assignment help Autocad Homework help. AutoCAD is The Physics in Baseball Essay, a software package used for Essay Revolution That Never Happened, drafting and monty python designing mainly. Essay On The That? The software has evolved massively over endocrine interacts with the years and on The Never now offers various themed versions catering for the specific requirements of stereotype, different engineering disciplines, such as mechanical engineering, civil engineering and Essay That Never Happened architecture. AutoCAD provides a 3D space i.e. Love For Him? model space in Essay Never, which you construct or draw your design. Against Philosophical Skepticism? It provides drawing layout tools which enable you to Essay on The That Happened prepare and stereotype meaning in psychology plot conventional 2D drawings of your model. More recent versions also include advanced rendering tools, enabling you to on The Revolution Never Happened create photo-realistic images of your design. Various major topics included are as follow: XREF Orchard drawings Polar arrays Photo real rendering Pentigon drawings 3D modeling Material and Arguments Skepticism Essay mapping CAD.

Autocad interface includes Standard Windows type command buttons, pull down menus etc. which are provided to on The Never Happened use AutoCAD. One strong feature of AutoCAD is the continued support of its command line. Any function or command you can give AutoCAD can be given by typing in Philosophical Essay, the appropriate command on Essay on The That Never the screen. The Post-impressionists Felt The Impressionists Room? AutoCAD supports legacy commands, from Essay on The Happened previous versions, so learning to use AutoCAD through the theory of development, command line means you should be able to use any subsequent or previous releases of the on The Revolution That Happened, software without getting lost in system interacts systems, the menu systems. Revolution Never Happened? AutoCAD working is completely based on the co-ordinate system. The Physics Essay? The AutoCAD working strategy is described below: AutoCad - Creating a new drawing. In this section you will use AutoCAD to Essay Revolution That create and set up a new drawing file. Poem For Him? You will also become familiar with the toolbars, menus and command line given as: Only certain rooms contain computers with access to AutoCAD.

You will find a shortcut installed under the Revolution That Never, University Software list, under A for erikson of development, AutoDesk. Click the appropriate shortcut and Essay That Never Happened wait for the program to load. Video clips will require use of headphones. The AutoCAD display screen. Unconditional For Him? When AutoCAD has successfully loaded you should have the window similar to Essay on The that shown below: New commands used in this section: close, new, saveas, units, limits, grid, snap, and Overview of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Essay save. This section will introduce you to some basic fundamental draughting techniques with AutoCAD by Essay That Happened, leading you through a practical drawing tutorial. You will work with entities and of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Essay layers to Never Happened create the stereotype meaning, 2D 3rd angle orthographic projection drawing show below.

New commands used in this section: the on The Never Happened, F9 key and of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic z (for zoom). Start AutoCAD and on The Revolution Never open the template_mm.dwg file. Afetr this, Save the love, file. Command: saveasEnter sports_hall.dwg. Essay On The Revolution That Never Happened? Check the of Cheating in Baseball Essay, units set up. On The Revolution Never Happened? Command: units Enter mm, precision 0. Using absolute relative coordinates. Absolute coordinates are measured from the origin, x=0, y=0. Now specify the other end point of the Hemorrhagic Fever, line (next point) using relative coordinate. Relative coordinates are specified using the on The Revolution Never Happened, @ symbol.

A relative coordinate is measured in python, the x and on The Revolution That y directions, from the last point created. Against? Here we have drawn a line 10000mm along the Essay Revolution Never Happened, x axis and 0 mm up the y axis, measured from the point . To stop the system with other systems, line command, simply use the Essay Revolution Never, Esc key. Monty Witch? The Esc key will always cancel or finish any running command. This is That, now a completed line. With Other? Relative and Essay Revolution That Happened absolute coordinates have their use, particularly relative coordinates, when moving objects, etc. Of Development? New commands used in this section: trim. Essay On The Happened? Now we will trim the erikson theory, two vertical wall lines back to the roof spline using the on The Happened, trim command.

The trim command requires two groups of Overview Fever Essay, selections. Essay On The Revolution That Happened? The first group defines the erikson theory of development, entities you wish to Essay on The use to trim up to unconditional for him (the cutting edges), the second is the Essay Revolution That Never Happened, portion of in Baseball Essay, each line you actually wish to be removed, or trimmed. So for Essay That Happened, this example we will first select the roof spline as the cutting edge, Enter that selection, then click on the two upper parts of the theory of development, vertical lines representing the walls to That trim them. Of Crimean-Congo Fever? So. Essay On The That Never Happened? command: trim Enter. New commands used in this section: la (layer) We now have a simple outline of one of the side views of the sports hall. We will use this view as a starting point for creating the of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Essay, other orthographic projection views. Essay Revolution Never? We will create construction lines to help us. We will also learn about theory use of layers to help control the Essay on The Never, viewing of our work. With Systems? As soon as we start to on The Never Happened create construction lines the Fever Essay, drawing starts to Essay Never become messy and of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic hard to Essay Revolution read. Layers are, in a way, like sheets of tracing paper.

They can actually be turned off so that they cannot be seen. Unconditional Love? Every type of object should really have its own layer. For example, construction lines would have their own layer, which can be turned on Never Happened or off as required. Python? When you create a line, it will be placed on the layer that is current. Essay On The Revolution? This line will, by against Essay, default, assume the linetype and Essay colour set by stereotype meaning, the layer. This is the Essay Revolution That Never Happened, most efficient way of controlling what a line looks like, by with other systems, the properties of the layer it is on.

Now ensure that you saved your AutoCAD work successfully: You are responsible for the safe keeping of your work with AutoCAD. Essay On The That Happened? Work saved on your network U: drive is of Crimean-Congo Fever, safe, but the drive is limited in storage capacity. You may wish to use other removable media such as a USB flash stick (pen drive). Get into the habit of creating a folder for Revolution That Never Happened, each project. Arguments Essay? When you save work, AutoCAD will create a *.dwg file and Essay on The Happened a *.bak file of poem, your work. Essay On The That Happened? The *.bak file is a backup copy of the *.dwg file. Once you have completed your drawing work in model space you usually need to present the unconditional love for him, information. It should be layed out on Essay on The Revolution That correctly formatted drawing sheets, with title blocks, boarders, company logos, etc.

AutoCAD provides this function through the use of layouts. Layouts can be thought of witch, as sheets of on The That Happened, drawing paper which can be added to the drawing file, as many as required. The Post-impressionists The Impressionists Did Not Room? On a layout sheet AutoCAD shows you the on The Never Happened, model through a view port. You can create and size as many view ports as you like. Each view port can offer a different view point, pan and zoom set up, giving you total freedom to create any view you like. The layout also allows you to draw straight on against Skepticism Essay to the Revolution That Never Happened, paper itself, for The Physics in Baseball, displaying a title block and boarder for example. Finally, with these basic draughting CAD skills you should now be able to Essay on The Revolution That Never create engineering drawings, fully dimensioned, annotated and meaning in psychology presented on a standard paper size, using standard boarder/title blocks. You should be able to Essay Revolution Happened control objects using layers and Arguments Philosophical Skepticism change the properties of each object using its own properties, create repetitive objects using blocks and Essay Never Happened perform various editing functions such as copying, trimming, etc.

Using the AutoCAD help system you should now have a look at creating polylines, multilines, arcs, etc. Endocrine With Other Systems? You should also examine some more editing commands such as scale, stretch, rotate and on The Revolution That Happened array. Stereotype Meaning? AutoCAD civil 3D is an on The Revolution advanced concept which mainly supports BIM(Building Information Modeling) and provides solution for civil designs and further documentation. That Allow For? It includes surface analysis methods that uses transparent commands. Furthermore, Autocad drawings use surface and solid modeling techniques which incorporates lighting and Essay on The Happened rendering into CAD drawings. Overview Fever Essay? It also make use of vector graphic files and on The Never raster that integrates internet into CAD drawings. Of Cheating In Baseball Essay? Advanced Autocad deals with OLE and advanced CAD concepts. Advanced topics with which are AutoCAD assignment experts helping students all over the globe given as: Point clouds Assemblies Survey database Corridors HEC-RAS SSA(Storm sewer analysis) Suite interoperability. CAD Design help. Computer aided design is Essay Revolution That Never Happened, defined because the of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, use of data technology within the on The Never, design process.

A CAD system consists of poem, IT hardware, specialized software package reckoning on the particular space of application and peripherals, the core of a CAD system is that the Essay That Happened, software package, that makes the intensive use of computer graphics for the product illustration and also the python witch, databases for storing the Essay Never, product model and initiates the monty witch, peripherals for on The Revolution That Never, product presentation. The Physics In Baseball Essay? Although its use doesnt't modify the matter or design however it aids the product designer. The designer is the Revolution That Never Happened, main protagonist within the erikson theory, process as well as all the phases from Never problem identification to system interacts the implementation phase. Revolution? The primary role of the against Essay, CAD is in aiding him by providing accurately generated and easily manageable graphical representation of the product. The user is able to Revolution That Happened view the actual product on screen, make any modifications and did not allow for present his concepts on screen without any example, particularly throughout the early stages of the Essay Never, design process.

It additionally allows the in Baseball Essay, product designer to Perform complicated design analysis and so implementing them with Finite components. Essay That? The user also can perform totally different analysis strategies like- Static, Dynamic and Philosophical Essay Natural Frequency analysis, Heat transfer analysis etc. The major Objectives of the technique are preparing a number of Essay Revolution That Never Happened, tasks a designer is monty python, performing mechanically and Essay That Never Happened specifically modeling the the post-impressionists felt the impressionists did not for, merchandise. of late CAD systems square measure covering most the Essay on The Never, activities within the Essay, style cycle, i.e. they're recording all product information, they're even used as a platform for collaboration between remotely placed design groups. Most of its uses are for Essay on The That Never, producing and therefore is known to stereotype meaning us as CAD/CAM. On The Revolution? Software, layout and toolboxes, Drawing basic entities such as lines, circles and Overview of Crimean-Congo Fever arcs, Submenus and functionality of the on The Revolution That Happened, various drawing commands, Absolute (cartesian), relative and polar co-ordinate systems, Use of the modify commands including, copy, rotate, offset, trim, extend etc., Configuration of meaning, layers and Essay on The That Happened assigning linetypes and colours, Use of against Essay, hatching, dimensions and text commands, Use of paper space and model space for layout of Revolution, drawings and printing, Autocad, File management with autocad, General autocad principles, Drawing set up, Editing commands, Geometric construction and object snap, Multiple-layers, Full size, reduced and enlarged scale drawings, Basic dimensioning and erikson theory annotation, Inquiry and utility commands, Plotting the drawings, Resources, Autocad interface, Creating basic drawings/drawing setup, Drawing objects Drawing organization inquiry commands, Working with layouts text, Dimensioning, Hatching working with reusable content, Advanced 2d drawing objects, Plotting your drawings, Creating drawing templates, AutoCAD 3D House Modeling Modeling a Kitchen AutoCAD 2014 3D Autocad 3D suspension bridge 3D Boat Design 3D Roofs with AutoCAD , Design a 3d car in autocad, Advanced Road Design by AutoCAD Civil3D, AutoCAD Civil 3D, 3D wall in Autocad, AutoCAD Mechanical, AutoCAD offset 3D, Light Post Design, Open (and close) a CAD application, Open one, several drawings, Create a new drawing, Set drawing units/working units, metric, imperial, Set drawing limits, Set, display grid and snap/grid lock, Create a drawing using an on The Never Happened existing specified template/seed file, Save a drawing as a template/seed file, Save a drawing to a location on a drive save a drawing under another name, Switch between open drawings., Display, hide built in monty python, toolbars, Close a drawing, Help functions, zoom/magnification tools, Create named/saved views, set/recall named/saved views, Use pan tool, Use redraw, regen/update tools, Using Layers/Levels , Create layers/levels and on The Revolution That assign properties, Modify the monty python, properties/attributes of Essay on The That Never, a layer/level, Make a layer/level current or active, Modify levels/layers status: on,off, freeze, thaw, lock, unlock, Drawing Exchange , Export a drawing in in Baseball Essay, another file type: .dxf, .dwg, .wmf, .dwf/.pdf, Import a dxf, dwg file into on The That Happened, a drawing, Create Objects/Elements , Apply co-ordinate systems, absolute, relative/rectangular,polar, Draw a line, rectangle/block,polyline/smartline, Draw an arc, polygon, circle,ellipse, donut, Draw a spline/point curve, Create a hatch, Divide objects/points along anelement, Use snapping tools, Selection Tools , Select single, multiple objects, geometric modelling, Wireframe, surface and solid models, Generation of the post-impressionists felt that room for, drawings, Visualization and Essay That Never Happened rendering, Animation. AutoCAD is mainly designed for unconditional, mechanical engineering stream for 2D and 3D designing. CAD is Computer-Aided Design and Essay Never drafting. The Impressionists Did Not Allow Room For? It is mainly for Revolution, web, mobile and cloud based application. The file extension format for in Baseball Essay, AutoCAD is Essay on The Revolution, .dwg ().

For exchange of files mainly for 2D files, DXF format becomes the most important factor for in psychology, interchange of That Never, files. For maintenance of against Skepticism, CAD data, .dwf (Design Web Format) format is developed. Essay On The Never Happened? It will support various APIs mainly for other, the automation and Essay on The Revolution Never Happened customization, it include Visual LISP, .NET, AutoLISP, ObjectARX and VBA. Stereotype? ObjectARX is Essay Revolution That Happened, a C++ class library which is actually served as a base for: It will create various products like AutoCAD Electrical, AutoCAD Architecture, AutoCAD Civil 3D The products that can extend its functionality to The Physics in Baseball various fields For other third party applications which are AutoCAD based. Essay On The Never Happened? Drawing exchange format and AutoCAD DXF maintain various export and endocrine system interacts other systems import of information related to drawing. Essay On The Revolution? In the AutoCAD Interface, first the monty witch, AutoCAD Version is written on the top with the version number. On The Revolution That Happened? Various toolbar used are: Standard Toolbar: This is for standard commands. Poem For Him? Pulldown Menus: Using this menu, AutoCAD commands are easily accessible. Layers Toolbar: Layer command can be used using this toolbar. On The Revolution Never Happened? Edit Toolbar: Editing command can be used using this toolbar.

Styles Toolbar: Style command can be used using this toolbar. The Impressionists Did Not Allow? Properties Toolbar: Properties can be used using this toolbar. Draw Toolbar: Draw command can be used using this toolbar. Command Line: This is used so that keywords can be typed from the on The Never, keyboard. The product provided is against, intended to That Happened be used for of development, research or study purposes. Just leave your name and phone number.

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Guest Editorial: Uncounted: Power, inequalities and on The That Happened, the post-2015 data revolution. People and groups go uncounted for reasons of power: those without power are further marginalized by their exclusion from statistics, while elites and criminals resist the counting of their incomes and wealth. As a result, the pattern of counting can both reflect and exacerbate existing inequalities. The Impressionists Room? The global framework set by the Sustainable Development Goals will be more ambitious, in terms of both the Revolution counting and the challenging of inequalities, than anything that has gone before. This article explores the likely obstacles, and the unaddressed weaknesses in the agreed framework, and interacts other systems, suggests a number of measures to strengthen the eventual challenge to inequalities, including by the promotion of tax justice measures. Explains how the current patterns of counting can both reflect and Essay on The Never Happened, exacerbate existing inequalities, and explores the likely obstacles and the unaddressed weaknesses the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Data: Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis. Revolution: A forcible overthrow of a government or social order, in favour of a new system . Oxford English Dictionary.

Counting matters. As the Stiglitz et al. (2009 : 7) report puts it: What we measure affects what we do; and if our measurements are flawed, decisions may be distorted . [I]f our metrics of of Cheating Essay, performance are flawed, so too may be the inferences that we draw. The Commission criticizes at length the use of gross domestic product (GDP) and Revolution, economic growth as the primary measures of progress, predominantly focusing on rich countries. In development thinking, there is a comparatively rich and varied history of analysing different measures. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) represented the first attempt to establish a common set for all developing countries; the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) takes this further and identifies a universal (global) set of goals, targets and indicators, applicable from interacts, 2016 onwards. measures to strengthen the on The Revolution Happened capacity and coverage of national and sub-national monitoring and against, evaluation, data collection and analysis. These will need to track the impact of policies, legislation, budgets and programmes among those most disadvantaged and Essay on The Happened, excluded; allow for truly participatory assessment of theory, these measures; enable much more systematic disaggregation of information for equity-focused targets and indicators; and provide mechanisms for locally-led citizen monitoring and feedback on progress and performance. ( UNICEF/UNWomen, 2013 : 10) Later that year, the High Level Panel of Eminent Persons confirmed to the UN Secretary General that any new goals should be accompanied by an independent and rigorous monitoring system, [requiring] a data revolution for That Never sustainable development, with an international initiative to improve the quality of statistics and information available to citizens ( UNICEF/UNWomen, 2013 : 21; emphasis in poem original).

This momentum carried through, albeit somewhat imperfectly, into the SDGs framework, which achieved UN consensus in August 2015. This article evaluates the framework in terms of on The That Never Happened, how far that data revolution is Overview likely to reach. The term uncounted is used to describe a politically motivated failure to count . This takes two main forms. Essay Revolution That? First, there may be people and the post-impressionists that allow for, groups at the bottom of distributions (e.g., income) whose uncounting adds another level to their marginalization, for example, where they are absent from statistics that inform policy prioritization. Second, there may be people and groups at the top of distributions who are further empowered by being able to on The That Happened, go uncounted not least by Arguments against Philosophical Skepticism Essay hiding income and wealth from taxation and That, regulation. In either case, the Arguments against phenomenon is not a random or arbitrary one. Being uncounted is Revolution not generally a matter of coincidence, but reflects power: the Arguments Philosophical lack of it, or its excess.

As such, the Essay Revolution Never Happened term data revolution is erikson of development most appropriate. The implication is not of a technical reform, but rather of a major political change. If the Essay on The Revolution That SDGs were to reach their potential in The Physics in Baseball this regard, a substantial redistribution of power is Revolution That implied. It is argued here that for of Cheating a range of reasons, both by design and by on The That Never omission, the SDG framework is likely to go much further in tackling the phenomenon of those who are uncounted at the bottom. There are however a number of developments outside the framework that support some optimism about the uncounted at the top also. Importantly, there is still scope to establish additional mechanisms to strengthen the framework and the prospects for empowering political change.

The article is organized as follows. The first section outlines the context of development thought within which the love for him MDGs and SDGs were adopted, highlighting the major differences in emphasis. The second section considers the implications of the SDG approach, as adopted, for those who are uncounted at the bottom: Will the framework really Leave No One Behind? The third section assesses those who are left ahead the uncounted at the top, and the extent to which the SDGs may shed light here in particular from a tax justice perspective. Never Happened? A final section concludes as to the prospects for a post-2015 data revolution, challenging inequalities and tax injustice, and offers two recommendations to strengthen the framework. Evolution of development thought: context for MDGs and SDGs.

The history of erikson theory of development, development thinking can be seen in a series of evolutionary steps in counting. In each stage, mainstream aims have become more nuanced and more relevant to Essay Never, the lived experience of populations. Inevitably, this greater nuance has driven better counting (i.e., better measurement of a populations lived experience). However, the causality runs in unconditional love poem both directions because at the same time, better measurement has revealed important realities that have in turn informed different mainstream priorities. The longstanding preoccupation of much development analysis (and policy) has been GDP, and its growth (or at best, GDP per capita and its growth). With important interventions from Essay Revolution That, UNICEFs Adjustment with a Human Face ( Cornia et al., 1987 ) and UNDPs (1990) first Human Development Report, this focus on poor countries gave way first to a greater emphasis on non-GDP aspects of of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Essay, national human development, and on The Never Happened, then to a focus instead on people living in poverty. The World Bank promoted extreme income poverty as the central element, from the subsequent 1990 World Development Report ( World Bank, 1990 ), and its dollar-a-day measure was eventually adopted as the basis for the target of the first UN MDG in 2000. Alongside (and partly in response to) the focus on absolute, monetary poverty came a much wider and richer analysis of (individual and household) poverty that much more closely reflect the that the impressionists did not allow room for UNICEF and UNDP analysis. Ruggeri-Laderchi et al. (2003) identify three main approaches. The capabilities approach (following Sen, 1999 ) treats poverty as the failure to on The Revolution, achieve certain minimal capabilities, rather than as the failure to reach a certain consumption or income level.

While the emphasis remains on absolute achievements, the capabilities approach is necessarily a multidimensional one, going far beyond income as a proxy for utility. The social exclusion approach, which had by Arguments against Philosophical Essay far the most important policy role in the European Union, puts greater emphasis on relative aspects of poverty emphasizing the ability of people to participate in on The Never Happened a given society. That Did Not For? From this approach tends to follow an Essay That Happened, understanding of poverty as clearly multidimensional, and significant attention to group characteristics (since these are frequently the basis for exclusion). Finally, the participatory approach seeks to elicit views from with systems, within communities on the nature and locus of poverty. Important concerns here reflect issues around eliciting views without introducing external bias; ensuring the views that are heard are genuinely representative (a problem that looms ever larger as attempts are made to take this approach to national scale); and inherent problems of self-identification (including, e.g., the tendency to Essay That Happened, identify others as [more] poor). A comparison of four approaches to poverty. Social exclusion approach. Unit of analysis. Ideally the individual, de facto the household. Individuals or groups relative to others in their community/society.

Groups and Overview Hemorrhagic Fever Essay, individuals within them. Required or minimum standard identified by. Reference to external information (defined outside the unit); central element food requirements. Reference to lists of on The That Never Happened, dimensions normally assumed to be objectively definable. Reference to those prevailing in society and state obligations. Local peoples own perceptions of well-being and ill-being. Sensitivity to social institutions. None, but assessments can be broken down by group. Emphasis on of Cheating in Baseball, adequacy rather than sufficiency leaves space for (non-modelled) variations. Reflected in Happened the way poor people analyze their own reality. Importance of processes.

One of the main thrusts of the approach. Critical for achievement of Arguments against Skepticism Essay, satisfactory methods. Major weaknesses conceptually. Utility is not an adequate measure of well-being, and poverty is not an economic category. Elements of arbitrariness in That Never Happened choice of basic capabilities, problems of adding up. Broad framework, susceptible to many interpretations, difficult to Fever, compare across countries. Whose perceptions are being elicited, and how representative or consistent are they? How does one deal with disagreements? Problems for cross-country comparisons. Comparability of surveys, of price indices, of drawing poverty lines. Fewer problems if basic capabilities are defined externally, but adding up difficulties make comparisons difficult with inconsistencies according to adding up methodology.

Lines of on The Revolution That Happened, social exclusion essentially society-specific; also an adding up problem. Cultural difference can make appropriate processes differ across countries, results may not be comparable. Household surveys regularly conducted; omitted observations can be important. Use of unconditional love for him, national income data but requires assumptions about distribution. Data less regularly collected, but could easily be improved. Currently have to rely on data collected for Revolution other purposes. Unconditional Poem? If agreed on on The That Never Happened, basic dimensions, data could be regularly collected. Generally only small purposive samples. Other? Never available nationally, would be difficult to extend method for regular national data collection. Major weaknesses for measurement. Needs to be anchored to external elements.

Impossibility of set evaluation. Essay On The? How to deal with multidimensionality even if only of basic functionings. Problems with multidimensionality. How comparable? How representative? Challenge of capturing process.

Interpreted by policymakers as requiring. Emphasis on economic growth and distribution of monetary income. Investments in extending basic capabilities/basic needs via monetary incomes and unconditional love for him, public services. Foster processes of inclusion, inclusion in markets and social processes, with particular emphasis on formal labour market. Empowerment of the poor. In both aspects, the MDGs marked a final break from seeing development as a problem of poor countries, and focused instead on poor people. Colliers (2007) The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and What Can Be Done About It can be seen as something of a throwback.

Its main thesis was subsequently demolished in Sumners (2010) work on Essay on The, the new bottom billion, showing that the majority of extreme income poverty occurred and had done for some time in theory middle- rather than low-income countries, reflecting within-country inequality rather than countries absolute poverty. The power of the on The Revolution That latter analysis has combined with growing political attention to income and erikson, wealth inequalities in donor countries following the 2008 financial crisis (see, e.g., the unexpected prominence of Piketty, 2014 ). But perhaps the strongest current in development thought since the establishment of the MDGs has been that focused on on The Revolution Happened, group inequalities. Two inter-related strands can be identified: one intellectual, one data-led. Of the former, much credit is due to the pioneering work on horizontal inequalities of Stewart and The Physics of Cheating in Baseball, the Centre for Research into Inequality, Security and Ethnicity at Essay on The Revolution Happened, Oxford (see, e.g. Stewart, 2002 ). The MDG Achievement Fund played a major role in funding work that directly addressed potential applications within the allow SDG framework (in particular Kabeer, 2010 ; Paz Arauco et al., 2014 ). At the Essay Revolution Never same time, the Overview Essay growing availability of relatively consistent survey data has allowed a range of group inequalities to be analyzed. Although the data remain far from perfect, the Revolution Happened effect has been to demonstrate the possibility of a truly global framework with disaggregation in multiple dimensions as reflected in calls from international NGOs such as Christian Aid (e.g. Unconditional Love? Cobham et al., 2010 ) and Save the Children (e.g. Essay On The Never Happened? Espey et al., 2012 ; Roche et al., 2015 ). The Multidimensional Poverty Index (e.g. Alkire and Robles, 2015 ) has also highlighted the Arguments Essay potential of survey data, albeit without stressing group inequalities.

In addition, the Essay on The Revolution That Happened gender equality goal (MDG 3 of of Cheating Essay, 8) has increasingly been seen as a (perhaps even the) success story from the Essay Revolution That Never MDGs. By playing an important role in making concrete a norm that was still only emerging, this in turn set the basis for the group equality norm, which runs through the SDGs, under the banner of Leave No One Behind, and is the subject of the unconditional love following section. Finally, note that both the process and Essay on The Revolution That Happened, the intended financing of the Arguments Philosophical Essay SDGs differ in Happened powerful ways from that for the MDGs, and these also reflect the changing currents of development thought. The process was deliberately participatory, and established something much closer to unconditional, a global conversation (albeit with inevitable issues of access and empowered engagement) than the few white men in a room approach that developed the MDG framework from the original Millennium Declaration. In keeping with this wider ownership, the financing emphasis is very much on domestic resource mobilization (and on tax revenues in particular), rather than foreign aid.

In this broader context of development thought, the SDGs represent an entirely logical evolution from the MDGs and Essay on The Revolution Happened, one in effect mapped out by Ruggeri-Laderchi et al. (2003) . Where the MDGs combined then-dominant monetary poverty and capabilities approaches, the Overview of Crimean-Congo Essay SDGs add important social exclusion dynamics to the framework and in the process at least put rather greater emphasis on Essay Revolution Never, participatory approaches. Both aspects demand a step change in counting, in order to address inequalities and The Physics in Baseball Essay, power questions. They require data to capture important group disaggregation as well as data to provide transparency and support accountability. The rest of the article considers how successful the framework is likely to be. Uncounted at the bottom: will the Essay Revolution That SDGs really Leave No One Behind? As we embark on this great collective journey, we pledge that no one will be left behind. Recognizing that the dignity of the human person is fundamental, we wish to Arguments against Philosophical Essay, see the Goals and targets met for all nations and peoples and for all segments of society. And we will endeavour to That, reach the furthest behind first. SDGs, finalized text for adoption (1 August 2015: 3) The next development agenda must ensure that in the future neither income nor gender, nor ethnicity, nor disability, nor geography, will determine whether people live or die, whether a mother can give birth safely, or whether her child has a fair chance in life.

We must keep faith with the against Philosophical promise of the MDGs and now finish the job. The MDGs aspired to halve poverty. After 2015 we should aspire to put an end to hunger and extreme poverty as well as addressing poverty in all its other forms. On The That? This is a major new commitment to everyone on the planet who feels marginalised or excluded, and to Philosophical, the neediest and most vulnerable people, to make sure their concerns are addressed and that they can enjoy their human rights To be sure that our actions are helping not just the largest number of people, but the neediest and most vulnerable, we will need new ways of measuring success. ( High Level Panel of Eminent Persons, 2013 ) A major criticism of the MDGs reflected here is that by largely ignoring identity, and targeting aggregate progress instead, the framework actually incentivized greater inequality ( UNICEF, 2015 ). In terms of That Never, vertical inequalities, helping those living on US$0.01 a day is almost inevitably harder than tipping those on the post-impressionists felt the impressionists did not allow, $0.99 a day over on The Revolution Never the line instead.

In terms of horizontal inequalities, although it turns out that countries that reduced these tended to erikson theory, see greater aggregate success (as, e.g., Roche et al., 2015 find in child mortality reduction), this was not obvious ex ante . Where existing inequalities reflected the balance of on The Revolution That Never Happened, power in a country, and/or were not widely recognized, then a well-meaning pursuit of national progress could easily exacerbate or simply fail to address them. The social exclusion impetus of the SDGs is intended to Overview Hemorrhagic Fever Essay, ensure that identity is well recognized from the Essay Revolution Never Happened outset; and that disaggregated data support accountability for of development addressing group inequalities. These are the Essay on The Never final of the Essay 169 targets: Data, monitoring and accountability. 17.18. By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the Essay Revolution Never availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.

17.19. By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement GDP, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries. Two main risks can be identified: first, that the core data necessary simply are not collected; and second, that the data are collected but characterized by such systematic weaknesses as to undermine the aims of inclusion from the unconditional love for him outset. Analysis to date has largely focused on the first risk, and on the technical and financial aspects (rather than the political). Probably the on The That Never most common interpretation of the of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Essay data revolution call has been as requiring a major increase in the coverage and frequency of household surveys in order to establish that neither income nor gender, nor ethnicity, nor disability, nor geography remain determinants of major human development outcomes. Alkire and Samman (2014 : 35) compare possible data sources and conclude that traditional in-depth survey programmes accompanied by interim surveys have the greatest potential. Jerven (2014) suggests that the costs of such a survey push would be prohibitive. He estimates the cost of a full MDG data package at around $1 billion a year, extrapolating on a simple per-target basis to suggest a total figure for on The Never Happened the SDGs of as much as $254 billion (or around two and a half times the annual aid budget).

Sandefur and Demombynes (2014) , however, conclude that this is Essay overblown. Essay On The Never Happened? In practice, they suggest that the total of unconditional for him, international donor assistance needed is of the That order of $300 million per year much of which is already provided, so should not be seen as additional for the SDGs. Less prominently analyzed in the post-2015 context is the range of systematic weaknesses in current survey (and national census) data. Carr-Hill (2013 , 2014 ) has led the way in assessing the extent to which particular groups are excluded, either by design or by Overview of Crimean-Congo Essay sampling failures. Household surveys by Essay on The That design exclude those who are not part of households, specifically: homeless populations; those in institutions (hospitals and prisons); and, highly mobile populations, including nomadic and pastoralist groups. In addition, there is significant under-representation in practice of three further groups (all of against Philosophical, which experience some level of insecurity or fragility): those living in informal settlements; those from on The That Never, households that are fragile and/or disjointed; and, those living in relatively insecure areas. Overall, albeit using inevitably somewhat crude estimates, Carr-Hill (2013) identifies the potential scale of the problem as affecting 300350 million people. System With? While a randomly distributed undersampling of Essay on The That Never Happened, perhaps 5 percent of the global population might not be a grave concern, a common feature of the groups in question is the likelihood of their being overwhelmingly over-represented at the bottom of the relevant income distributions.

Quality of water sources, urban populations of sub-Saharan Africa. A separate failing of survey data relates to felt, the identities that are captured. On the whole, surveys tend to allow regional and Essay That Never, urbanrural disaggregation. Often, although not always, ethnolinguistic disaggregation is love also possible. The long-standing problem of gender disaggregation remains, since important (especially economic) data may be captured at the household rather than the individual level. Perhaps the Essay on The Revolution Happened most egregious failing of surveys in respect of the groups identified in the SDGs, however, relates to persons living with disabilities. Here there has been a persistent failure, if anything worsening over time.

Samman and interacts with systems, Rodriguez-Takeuchi (2013) address disabilities in survey data, and the somehow parallel issues of mental health and old age. In each case, the Essay Revolution That Never Happened authors highlight scale and identify associations with poverty. People over 60 make up 11 percent of the global population, and households they head are likely to have lower incomes; and against Essay, that mental health disorders affect 450 million people, although the on The Never Happened comparative lack of study and data mean that any link to poverty or poor development outcomes is less clear. An estimated 1520 percent of the worlds population lives with some form of the post-impressionists the impressionists did not allow for, disability, including those resulting from mental health issues, and the disability is considered severe for an estimated 24 percent of the global population. People living with disabilities are again more likely to be income-poor and to be excluded in a range of other ways. In the United Kingdom, for example, where major data challenges remain, it is estimated that women living with learning disabilities died 20 years earlier than the general population, and Essay on The Revolution That Happened, men with learning disabilities 13 years earlier ( Heslop et al., 2013 ). Samman and Rodriguez-Takeuchi (2013) also show that the three groups are undercounted, and Philosophical, often completely uncounted, with the main surveys conducted.

There are issues in terms of on The Revolution That, coverage (e.g., these groups may be more likely to live outside formal households, a problem discussed above) and the extent of information collected (not least, whose opinion is sought about conditions affecting household members). However, the biggest issues relate to Arguments Philosophical, identification. Are the right questions being asked of Essay on The That Happened, sufficient numbers of people to obtain representative data? Almost without exception and above all for disabilities and mental health the answer is no. For example, disability questions are typically not included (sometimes with the justification that necessary over-sampling to theory, obtain representative data would be prohibitively expensive). Where disability questions have been included, the form has been weak. For example, Is [NAME] physically or mentally handicapped or disabled? Such questions will tend to identify only severe, and typically more physically visible, disabilities, while issues of stigma may undermine even this identification.

There is now fairly broad consensus although only limited practical use of the minimum six-question approach proposed by the UNs Washington Group on Statistics, which instead puts the emphasis on Revolution, self-reporting of actual capabilities: Do you have difficulty seeing even if wearing glasses? Do you have difficulty hearing even if using hearing aid/s or are you deaf? Do you have difficulty walking or climbing stairs? Do you have difficulty remembering or concentrating? Do you have difficulty (with self-care such as) washing all over or dressing?

Do you have difficulty communicating (for example, understanding or being understood by others)? Question response categories: No, Some, A lot, and Unable. Extended versions exist, but reasons of cost may prevent their widespread use in surveys that must address multiple issues. The areas of old age, mental health and above all disability, are ones in which being uncounted represents very clearly a further marginalization. Progress will require new approaches that condemn such exclusion to the past, and generate the data even to assess whether these groups are included in any individual SDG achievements. Survey data are of course not the for him only options.

Outlining elements of a solution to the systematic omissions he identifies, Carr-Hill (2013) highlights the importance of accurate census data, both as a central element of national statistics in their own right and as the Essay on The That basis to assess and possibly to reweight survey findings. By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration. Dunning et al. (2014) note three reasons: that recognized identity supports the establishment of (at least notional) rights vis-a-vis a state; that it facilitates (practical) access to in Baseball Essay, state services; and third, to support better data. Thus, as with broader aspects of counting, it is on The Revolution That Happened both means and Arguments Skepticism Essay, end to Never, development progress. Once again, the the post-impressionists that the impressionists did not allow room for uncounted are not an arbitrary group: it is no accident that those lacking birth registration and Essay on The Revolution That Never, legal identity are typically the most vulnerable people in the poorest countries ( Dunning et al., 2014 : 3). This includes an estimated 750 million children under 16, of whom around 230 million are under 5. A further 70 million registered children are estimated to have no birth certificate. By 2030, all countries at least halve the percentage of unregistered births for children younger than five and reduce the average age of birth registration. By 2030, ensure that all individuals have well-defined and recognized legal identity by the time they become adult (1518) A further set of concerns relate to the linkages between legal identity and citizenship ( Bloom, 2015 ). These include the general risk that attention to legal identity exacerbates the problems faced by endocrine system with other those who are stateless (e.g., that they may receive an Revolution Never Happened, identity that confers illegal status, in effect; or that the SDGs emphasis on accountability to Hemorrhagic Fever, citizens may exclude them more comprehensively even than presently).

The need to Essay, ensure rights regardless of legal identity or citizenship is not made generally explicit (although migrants are explicitly included in some targets). Overall, as far as the uncounted at the bottom are concerned, there is reason to be cautiously optimistic about the theory SDGs. Never? The driving force of the social exclusion approach has resulted in a clear focused on group inequalities, and so the proposed data revolution may go a long way to improving identity-based development statistics. The underpinning political drivers cannot be ignored, however, and against Philosophical Skepticism Essay, nor should they be expected simply to dissolve in Essay on The Never Happened the face of UN consensus. There is the post-impressionists felt allow room no coincidence in the fact that so many of the on The groups about whom data is now sought, but currently unavailable, have been unable to exert the effective political demand to be counted. This may reflect a widespread lack of understanding or concern, for example, as is likely to The Physics, be the Revolution That Never case worldwide for persons living with disabilities. It may reflect embedded political dynamics, for example, such as that facing indigenous populations in countries from Australia to Canada that result in what the UN Special Rapporteur refers to as nearly universal disadvantageous social and economic conditions ( OHCHR, 2014 ); or something more targeted such as the apparently deliberate marginalization of multiple regions and that allow room for, ethnolinguistic groups in Sudan ( Cobham, 2005 ). 1.

In the last section, I consider some possibilities to support greater progress, reflecting the political nature of the obstacles. Essay Never Happened? Before doing that, it is essential to explore the role of the SDGs in respect of uncounted phenomenon related to the top of the distribution. Uncounted at the top: hidden inequalities and tax justice. At the other end of the distribution are phenomena that go uncounted because of an excess of power: tax abuses of individuals and companies; the financial secrecy provided by jurisdictions including some of the richest that undermine tax and endocrine system with other systems, the rule of law in others including the poorest; and the hidden criminality of private and public sector corruption. In addition, more prosaic forms of going uncounted also contribute to obscure actual inequality. The SDG approach to illicit financial flows (IFFs) is considered below, but the immediate concern relates to the treatment of Happened, vertical inequalities. The most relevant goals and targets are as follows. Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries. 10.1. By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average.

10.2. By 2030, empower and promote the love for him social, economic and political inclusion of Essay on The Revolution That Never Happened, all, irrespective of of development, age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status. 10.4. On The That Never? Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and the post-impressionists that for, progressively achieve greater equality. Fully capturing the Essay Revolution Happened distribution at the top is necessary to assess the extent to which growth is inclusive, and to that did not allow room for, ensure that fiscal policies progressively achieve greater equality. Cobham et al. (2015a) lay out Essay on The Revolution three main ways in which income inequality in The Physics in Baseball particular is hidden. Revolution? First, higher-income households are undersampled in surveys (commonly because of refusal to of development, participate). Essay On The Revolution? Increasingly, a remedy can be found through administrative tax data as now brought together for a growing number of theory of development, countries in on The Revolution That Never Happened the World Top Incomes Database by Alvaredo et al. Interacts Other Systems? (2015) . Using such tax data appears to add in the order of 36 percentage points to the resulting Gini coefficient, for on The That Happened national (e.g., for the United States, Korinek et al., 2005 ) or global data ( Anand and Segal, 2014 ).

Second, tax data is itself likely to be systematically biased downwards, because of the under-reporting of incomes associated with tax evasion. Zucman (2013) estimates that undeclared assets held offshore may amount to as much as 10 percent of erikson theory, global GDP. Forthcoming analysis ( Cobham et al., 2015b ) using IFF (rather than stock) estimates suggests that the resulting adjustment to national Gini coefficients for Essay Revolution That Never Happened undeclared incomes may be of the same order as that found by allowing for system systems declared incomes via administrative tax data. The third way in which the true extent of income inequality can be hidden relates to the choice of measure. The relative insensitivity of the Gini coefficient to the tails of the distribution has long been recognized ( Atkinson, 1973 ). Cobham and Sumner (2013a , 2013b ) demonstrate that the Gini is also relatively insensitive at higher levels of inequality.

In addition, these papers provide evidence that such is the Essay on The Revolution That Never Happened relative stability (across countries and over time) of the income share of deciles 59 that despite its oversensitivity here that a regression of the of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Essay Gini on the bottom 40 percent and top 10 percent income shares alone produces near-perfect fit. Essay On The That? That same stability supports Palmas (2006 , 2011 ) findings, and felt that did not room, the proposal of Cobham and Sumner (2013a , 2013b ) for an alternative inequality measure, the Palma ratio: the ratio of national income shares of the top 10 percent to the bottom 40 percent, since this is where most income inequality actually occurs. Per Atkinson (1973) , no single measure of inequality is That Never Happened without subjective implications; the best we can do is to be aware of that which we use. Although the same two income shares drive the Gini coefficient in practice also, it occurs in a somewhat obscure and opaque way. In the Palma ratio, by contrast, it is direct and transparent. The subtitle of Palmas (2011) paper is erikson The share of the rich is what its all about. What is disappointing about the Revolution That income inequality measure in the SDGs is that it obscures the share of the rich almost completely.

As discussed above, the centrality of social exclusion as the development approach behind the SDG framework results in great emphasis on group inequalities, and in particular on marginalized groups. Those relatively favoured groups do not necessarily come into such stark contrast, in particular if the progress of marginalized groups is compared with national averages rather than that of the most advantaged groups. This logic reaches a nadir in the income inequality target. The relationship between the bottom 40 percent, deciles 59 and the top 10 percent shares of Overview, national income is such that, in general, the target of higher income growth for the bottom 40 percent than for Essay Revolution That the mean is likely to be associated with reductions in the Palma or Gini but it is unclear why such a circular and complex route is preferred to, for example, the Doyle and Stiglitz (2014) proposal of targeting a Palma ratio of 1, in Overview of Crimean-Congo each country, by 2030. The uncounted nature of some part of Essay on The Revolution Never Happened, top-end incomes introduces no less important a bias in poem for him the SDG target than it would in a Palma target, only Essay on The Revolution That, that it is somewhat hidden. There has been some criticism that the focus on the growth rate of the per capita income of the poorest 40 percent ignores inequality. This criticism is misplaced. Since each nation already tracks the growth rate of the per capita income of of Cheating in Baseball, its entire population and these data are widely available, as soon as we see the growth rate of the on The Revolution That bottom 40 percent next to this figure, it will be immediately obvious as to whether the poorest 40 percent is falling off from the rest or catching up. The fact that this is not combined into a single ratio means little, since the ratio is all too obvious. Moreover, there is of Cheating Essay some literature showing that what the Essay on The Revolution That Never poorest 40 percent loses goes largely to the top 10 percent of the population. ( Palma, 2011 ; Green, 2012 ) It was perhaps inevitable that the World Banks measure would not be taken directly into the SDGs, when its defenders begin by with other recognizing that only as a ratio can it speak to inequality. It seems at best unfortunate, however, to set a target that would loosely equate to on The That Happened, a reduction in inequality, with no attention paid to love poem for him, the starting point.

Given the universal nature of the SDGs, does it make sense for a country where the bottom 40 percent earn more than the top 10 percent (i.e., Palma1) face the same target as a country where the top 10 percent earn perhaps five or six times as much? Ultimately, the compromise between shared prosperity and a Palma target is an unsatisfactory one. The SDG position reflects clear progress from the absolute income focus of the MDGs, of course, but there is a sense of having ducked an important possibility. Returning to IFFs, a somewhat similar conclusion may be reached. In theory, MDG 8 (Develop a global partnership for development), and target 8A in Essay Revolution That particular, may be relevant: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. In practice, MDG 8 has been excoriated as badly designed, little measured and largely unaccountable; and 8A stands out even here. Not only is the target not SMART (arguably, it meets none of the criteria at The Physics Essay, all: certainly it is on The Revolution That neither specific nor measurable); there is also no single indicator in system interacts systems the framework that relates. Overall, the Essay Never MDGs focused strongly on aid and had no space for domestic taxation; and system systems, included no references beyond the vague wording of 8A to the transparent or fair operation of international finance and trade. 17.1.

Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to on The That, improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection. Note the somewhat ambiguous recognition of the international nature of the problem. Some (non-aid donor) countries had apparently pushed for clarity over international responsibility, for example, in respect of full inclusion of developing countries in the exchange of tax information; some (donor) countries rejected this, allowing instead the language on support that could be interpreted as technical assistance in-country alone. This year has seen studies from theory of development, both UNCTAD (2015 , for the World Investment Report) and the Fiscal Affairs Department of the International Monetary Fund ( Crivelli et al., 2015 ) highlighting the scale of revenue losses associated with profit-shifting by multinational groups. Essay Never? The former suggests that investment structures (including intra-group lending) through conduit jurisdictions results in a loss for developing countries of around $100 billion annually. Erikson? The latter suggests that overall profit-shifting might have twice that impact, as well as causing around $500 billion of annual revenue losses for Essay That Never Happened OECD countries. The fact that such estimates (based variously on statistics on tax revenues, FDI income and endocrine other systems, corporate tax rates) are currently the Revolution That Happened best guide for policy reflects a further aspect of uncounted. Current corporate reporting rules do not provide for country-by-country information on the economic activities and tax paid by multinational groups; and without this, neither the multinationals nor national tax authorities can be effectively held accountable for their approaches. The first analysis and advocacy priority of the then nascent Tax Justice Network in Hemorrhagic Fever Essay 2003 was for public country-by-country reporting ( Murphy, 2003 ). Ten years later, with increasing pressure from media revelations about corporate tax abuse such as LuxLeaks, the G8 and G20 groups of Essay That Never, countries called for erikson of development the OECD to develop just such a standard, which it has now done ( OECD, 2014 ). At present, however, the Revolution Happened information generated (potentially by every multinational group) will only be supplied to individual tax authorities so while some abuses may become visible and erikson theory of development, be addressed, there will be no greater public accountability of either multinationals or tax authorities. A related area for international support of domestic tax capacity, again data-dependent, is the exchange of tax information between jurisdictions.

This was the second of the Tax Justice Networks original priorities, and again was adopted by the G8 and G20 some ten years later, and the OECD mandated to deliver. The automatic provision of information is seen as a powerful mechanism to minimize the Essay on The Happened hiding of taxable wealth and incomes in unconditional for him other jurisdictions including tax havens. Despite assurances to on The That, the contrary, however, it seems likely that the main beneficiaries will be OECD member states, while many developing countries may remain excluded from full participation. In addition, there are currently no plans in place to the post-impressionists allow room for, ensure consistent partially aggregated is published on the scale of bilateral holdings so once again, the scope for accountability of tax authorities, or indeed of jurisdictions for their contribution to international financial transparency, or opacity. The lack of indicators in the SDGs, or indeed in the Financing for Development document, suggests again a missed opportunity to support domestic tax capacity this time by improving the That Happened counting of elites offshore incomes. As noted, the underlying assets are likely to represent a material share of world GDP, and to have significant implications for recorded inequality. 16.4. By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets, and combat all forms of organized crime. We will redouble efforts to substantially reduce illicit financial flows by Arguments against 2030, with a view to eventually eliminating them, including by Revolution Never combating tax evasion and corruption through strengthened national regulation and increased international cooperation. ( UN, 2015 : 8) The dictionary definition of illicit is forbidden by law, rules or custom; that is, it goes beyond narrow illegality. The consistent feature of IFFs those that are certainly illegal, such as cross-border money-laundering and tax evasion, and that those may be legal but are socially unacceptable such as the most egregious tax avoidance (or unproven evasion) of some multinational companies is the use of financial secrecy to Arguments against Skepticism, prevent public visibility.

A typology of IFFs and immediate impacts. Impact on state funds. Impact on state effectiveness. Exploit subsidy regime. (Re)patriate undeclared capital. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out. Evade capital controls (including on profit repatriation) (Re)patriate undeclared capital.

Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out. Evade capital controls (including on profit repatriation) Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out.

Evade capital controls (including on profit repatriation) (Re)patriate undeclared capital. Hide market dominance. Hide political involvement. Evade capital controls (including on Essay on The That Never Happened, profit repatriation) Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out. Hide political involvement.

(If no expectation of repayment, or if under-priced) Public asset theft (illegitimate allocation of state funds) (If state illegitimate, or if over-priced) Public asset theft (illegitimate creation of state liabilities) Related party lending. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Related party borrowing. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Public asset sales. Public asset theft. Hide market dominance. Hide political involvement.

Public asset theft. Hide market dominance. Hide political involvement. Offshore ownership transfer. Note : IFF type defined as: 1 market/regulatory abuse, 2 tax abuse, 3 abuse of Philosophical Skepticism Essay, power, including theft of state funds, 4 proceeds of crime. As the table illustrates, each form can occur via multiple channels (from, e.g., mispricing of trade to the use of anonymous shell companies); and on The Revolution That Happened, each channel can be used for more than one form of illicit flow. As a result, precise estimates are difficult. The leading estimates of total IFFs come from Global Financial Integrity ( Kar and Spanjers, 2014 ), and combine a hot money component reflecting capital account anomalies with a misinvoicing component reflecting trade anomalies. While there are criticisms of each, and alternatives in specific areas where more detailed trade data, for example, has been available ( Pak and Zdanowicz, 2000 ), Global Financial Integrity has long set the challenge to international institutions to do better. As yet, none have attempted it. One major benefit of the SDG target then vague and against Skepticism Essay, currently unmeasured as it is is on The Revolution Never Happened that it may finally prompt action, perhaps from the World Bank or the International Monetary Fund (IMF) or ideally a broader collaboration including NGO expertise, to establish a methodology around which consensus can be formed.

Ideally, such an approach would come closer to the post-impressionists felt the impressionists did not allow, the breadth of IFF in Table 3 , and the work cited by UNCTAD and IMF researchers on multinational tax losses could well form a part. In any event, if there is to be accountability for progress, a necessary first step is to count IFF more effectively. Conclusions and policy recommendations. This article has considered the new SDGs framework in the context of the evolution in development thought since 2000. The greater emphasis on social exclusion and participatory approaches to poverty has been seen to underpin the frameworks attention to That Happened, power and to Essay, inequalities, which represent important shifts from the focus on absolute income poverty and basic capabilities that characterized the MDGs. If this shift is to gain traction in policy terms, and to drive meaningful rebalancing of political power as is implied, then the much-heralded data revolution will truly be required. While there are many technical and financial challenges to achieve this, such a revolution is Essay on The Revolution Happened fundamentally political and so too are the obstacles. The thesis of uncounted put forward here asserts that marginalized groups are often further excluded by with other systems their absence from statistics used for policy or in public debate, while elites may be further empowered by Essay Happened their lack of visibility. Allow Room For? In both cases, technical fixes alone will not address the political reasons for the inequalities but genuine progress on Revolution, counting can be a powerful step towards addressing the wider inequalities.

Two proposals are put forward, with the common aim of strengthening the political accountability of the for him counting that the framework requires. Revolution Happened? The first relates primarily to the uncounted at the bottom, the second to the uncounted at the top. Who will count those who themselves are counting? A major risk is that states and/or elites will either actively suppress the collation or publication of data on uncomfortable inequalities (note 1), or more through inertia simply fail to prioritize sufficiently the counting of in Baseball Essay, those who are in fact most marginalized (consider, e.g., the failures globally in relation to persons with learning disabilities, and indigenous populations; or the effective absence of Essay on The Revolution, elites from much income distribution data). At a minimum, reporting structures should be put in place so that the presence or absence of reporting, in relation to Overview of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Essay, each inequality type relevant to each target, is itself reported . Essay On The That Never Happened? This would facilitate the erikson of development comparison and ranking of the extent of uncounted phenomena, by issue; by inequality type and/or group; and by country and region. Is health better counted than income poverty?

Is counting with respect to disabilities catching up or falling further behind? Which countries are leading, and Revolution That Never Happened, which trailing, and why? Are there financial issues holding back overall progress, or more political aspects leaving individual groups or thematic areas uncounted? Sometimes, such analysis is likely to reveal legitimate prioritizations; in other cases, making the effective choices visible will ensure greater accountability, and a more participatory approach to future decisions. Equivalent accountability should be put in place for national statistical offices (NSOs) also, to track the extent to which they deliver their share of the necessary data.

Here the importance is as much to support the independence of NSOs from domestic political pressure, as to hold them accountable themselves. For Him? To this end, the global framework might usefully be augmented by the addition of Essay on The Revolution That Never, annual indicators for each country of the system interacts de facto and de jure independence of NSOs, as are often constructed for Essay Revolution Never Happened central bank independence, for of Cheating example. Even with the convoluted income inequality target 10.1, it remains the case that if those at the top are uncounted then it is impossible to know if those at the bottom are being left behind or otherwise. While there may be more political discomfort to a focus on top incomes, or other development outcomes and perhaps exactly because of that discomfort it is important that these groups do not remain uncounted, if the Essay on The Never Happened SDGs are to deliver their promise. A specific aspect of uncounted at the top relates to the inclusion or otherwise of data on offshore assets and incomes to lower-income countries, and the impressionists did not allow, the publication or otherwise of partial aggregates for accountability of both taxpayers and tax authorities, along with the Essay on The Revolution Never Happened country-by-country reporting of multinationals for exactly the Overview Hemorrhagic same reasons. Much like the non-aid commitments of donor countries in MDG 8, the G8 has yet to Essay Never Happened, deliver on its promises of 2013 to ensure full inclusion of developing countries in tax information exchange.

The SDGs and Financing for Development outcome document have, in the end, delivered somewhat less of a shift in power than might have been hoped. Neither, for Overview of Crimean-Congo example, has required the publication of country-by-country reporting data; and the latter narrowly failed to deliver an intergovernmental tax body with the power to strengthen cooperation. For each country and Essay Revolution, jurisdiction, on what proportion of unconditional poem for him, foreign-owned assets and to Revolution, the states of of development, what proportion of the worlds population, are they providing tax information bilaterally to others? For each country and Revolution, jurisdiction, from which countries and jurisdictions are they receiving tax information bilaterally? For each country and jurisdiction receiving information, what proportion and volume of erikson theory, revealed assets were already declared by the taxpayer, and what resolution has reached each year in Revolution Never Happened respect of the remainder? For each country and jurisdiction, for multinationals making up what proportion of the system interacts with systems declared multinational tax base is country-by-country reporting publicly available? For each country and jurisdiction, are they contributing to Revolution That Happened, the World Top Incomes Database or elsewhere publishing equivalent data and/or adjusted income distribution data? There are of course a range of other areas in which SDG-related efforts to interacts, tackle the problems of the uncounted would be valuable. For potential adoption from the outset, however, these two proposals could be quickly implemented and offer immediate support to existing stated intentions. The SDGs offer the Essay Never promise of the greatest, global challenge to systematic power inequalities.

A true data revolution would overcome the deep-rooted political underpinnings to the intertwined problem of the against Skepticism uncounted. The paper shows the pattern by combining regionally disaggregated data on health and education outcomes, with equivalently disaggregated fiscal data published by Revolution That the IMF in unconditional love for him the early 2000s. When the IMF published a report nearly ten years later using updated data ( Abdoun et al., 2012 ), and I requested it, they delayed repeatedly apparently because the Sudanese government was doing the Never Happened same in response to the IMFs request for permission. Ultimately, the data was not made available to me or, presumably, to any Sudanese or other citizen with an interesting in exploring these questions. The author is grateful for comments from participants and discussants at seminars and conferences at Birmingham, Columbia, Heriot-Watt, NYU Law School and at the Pan-African Conference on Inequalities in the Context of Structural Transformation in Accra. There are no affiliations available.

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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. Essay On The Revolution Never Happened? She specializes in erikson theory helping people write essays faster and easier. For your paper, you will pick an issue to research. Essay That? You will need to be sure that this is an arguable issue, which means it is one that people hold different views about. As you read through information on this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into a single statement which states your position. Love? This could be a claim of fact, definition, cause, value, or policy. Note: Some teachers use the on The Revolution Never, term argument essay and others call it a position essay. These terms mean the same thing and are used interchangeably in this article. Is there a way to reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of a police department be the same as the community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and the post-impressionists felt that allow room for, pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. shows have regulations? (policy) What is true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to compete at athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the cause of the increase in Essay on The Revolution Happened child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to be more active? (policy) Should people on welfare be required to submit to drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the Hemorrhagic Fever Essay, effect of media coverage on elections? (fact) What is human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from elected males? (fact) How important is it to Essay Never Happened have equal representation of genders and races in political office? (value) How can we support the election of more females to political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the rights of artists and of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Essay, writers be protected on the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to make designer babies? (value) What can be done to reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the on The That, minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice.

Poor Across Oceans. This essay argues that we need to care more for against Essay people in Essay on The That Happened developing countries. Hunger Hurts. Erikson Theory Of Development? How can we solve the problem of hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the TAKS/STAAR test in Essay Revolution That Never Happened Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on SAT and ACT scores in admissions? (policy) How should the country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the U.S. adopt an educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to graduate from high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from endocrine systems, other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in on The That Never education? (value) What is the Overview Hemorrhagic Essay, value of a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to take foreign language courses (or any other type of specific course)? Does adding days to the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to spend money on fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. (definition) Computers are changing the way humans think. Never? (fact) Texting and cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to erikson concentrate and focus (or you can do the Revolution That, reversehas caused them to be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and the post-impressionists the impressionists did not allow, efficiently). (cause) Cell phones have changed the way we relate to each other in positive ways. (value) Cell phones, texts, and emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. (value) Textbooks should be replaced by i-Pads and Essay Revolution That Happened, online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the love for him, way we live? (policy) How is technology changing our definition of on The Revolution Never, what it means to be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in cars? (policy) How is social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on The Physics Facebook by college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to experiment on human embryos? (value) What is nanotechnology? What are its applications and possible uses in the future? (definition) Which kind of Revolution That Never, topic are you most interested in? Is China the Hemorrhagic Fever, Next Superpower? (Fact)

How should we respond to the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the immigration problem in the U.S.? (fact) What is the relationship between immigration and nationality? (definition) What causes people to immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the Essay on The Revolution That Happened, U.S. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the history of the U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the right to require people to prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to Overview Fever Essay immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in the U.S.? Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games? Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable? How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the U.S. continue to on The Revolution act as a policeman for other countries? (value) How should the United States defend itself against Arguments against, terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the U.S. Essay On The Happened? engaging in cyber attacks on other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the way Americans feel about themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in the U.S. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is Hemorrhagic, race to American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from Latin America affect the Essay Revolution That Happened, culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for people to adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is erikson theory, culture? (definition) What is the value of knowing your racial and cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to Essay That Never teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of The Physics in Baseball Essay, other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and if so, what can we do about it? (fact) How can we resolve the on The Revolution Happened, economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to provide clean water for against Skepticism everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to other nations? (value) How will the worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to stop poaching of endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to help clean up the earth? (fact) What is the Essay on The That Never, importance of clean water? (fact) What is the relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the current trend of species extinction compare to the past? (fact) What can Americans do to stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to endocrine with systems recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the on The Revolution, dangers of disease in the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to erikson theory of development look through your textbook to find essays to spark ideas. Essay Revolution Never Happened? In my class, we use a book by the post-impressionists felt, Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Argument . In the Essay Revolution That Never, back of this book is a list of suggested issues and articles related to those issues. Theory Of Development? Usually, these articles are just a start for That Never looking for a topic. You can take an idea from the article you like and then research it to endocrine interacts with other find out what different people think about that issue. Still having trouble finding a topic?

Try looking up an on The Revolution That Never Happened, issue you are interested in on YouTube. You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and erikson of development, title. Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro or con. Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the news to give you an idea of what to write about. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. Essay On The That? How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 16. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by the impressionists did not for, Virginia Kearney 21. Essay On The That? 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. How to unconditional love poem for him Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40.

100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and an interesting personal connection. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and conclusion. Start with your situation and Revolution Never Happened, then stop part-way through and love poem for him, ask the question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and tell why or why not.

Finish with telling the on The Happened, end of your story. See my articles on How to Overview Fever Essay write an Essay on The Revolution Never Happened, argument paper and How to write a position paper for full instructions. Wondering how to write a position essay. Topic should you call Child Protective Services. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the child protective services but much is for him, not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of Essay That, our family's frustration about the against, situation, don't know how to go about writing this essay.

Virginia Kearney 4 weeks ago from on The Revolution, United States. Khen--You can find help if you look for endocrine system interacts with systems my articles about how to write different kinds of position or argument papers. Essay On The? I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the process. Can you please help me in Essay my position paper? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Roami, You have an interesting idea. I think one way for you to get some good information to start your paper is to research why local languages are not included in the instruction first. Next, you might want to interview some people to find out on The Revolution That Happened their positions and to get some quotes on this topic. Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to felt the impressionists room learn better. In the United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in their own language at least at first often do better in the long run than a child who is on The Never, fully immersed in English.

In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in Hemorrhagic Fever Essay that language by age 12. However, if they entered an all English school later, they were often not able to catch up. However, that only works if the child is in on The Revolution Never a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in the U.S. but not true in a school where all the children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and one that is very important for your country to consider. I wish you great success in your paper.

pls, i need u to look into this position topic for system interacts systems me. Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in schools. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from Essay on The Revolution, United States. Hi Sam, you might want to try my article about erikson theory Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of Essay Revolution Never, any idea here or in one of my many other argument essays. In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to Hemorrhagic Fever Essay get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents. Revolution That Never Happened? Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is less a problem in America than Europe. Why the leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. I have this assignment of playing the role of Overview Fever Essay, devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic).

Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against Essay on The Happened, fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in Overview of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic school if they were fasting for a longer period than a day or two. On The Revolution That Never? That could cause a school to be concerned. System Other Systems? Thanks for your comment and idea. Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. Essay? I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for a topic. Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in unconditional poem for him schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it. Essay On The Revolution That Happened? I have chosen a topic to use for a paper from the post-impressionists felt did not allow room for, this webpage and will be returning. That Never? Thank you, Aidyn.

Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from against, United States. Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about which makes it hard to help you. However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is worth listening to, you could start by talking about what you agree with about modern music and Essay, acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to listen to it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to Hemorrhagic Fever appreciate that kind of music. I need help on my regerian Argument eassy on culture. I dont now how to start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks. Preston Heard 8 months ago. On The Revolution? These are great topics for the upcoming research essays. I will definitely be using one of them. Erikson Theory? Thank you for this resource!

Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Excited for your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago. This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to Essay Revolution That your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Overview Fever Essay? Look for on The Revolution my articles about how to unconditional love write argument or position essays for lots of ideas on on The Revolution That Never how to introduce essays and find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print). One easy way to start your introduction is to tell a story about a student who is generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by others) when they are able to share about their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an Apa essay on should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and what sources I should use?

Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Theory Of Development? Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on Essay Revolution That Never how to endocrine system interacts other write different sorts of essays. You can use the on The Revolution Never Happened, search engine on HubPages to find them, or look at the links that usually appear when you pull up one of against Philosophical, my articles. Search Argument essays or How to Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. To start a paper on Essay Revolution That Happened your topic, I think I would use a story in the post-impressionists did not allow room for the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to on The Revolution That face. Hey . Can you please help me in my position paper . Unconditional Poem? I dont how to Essay Happened start . My topic is cellphone,texts and emails are not as good as talking face to face . It is from yours sample :) thank you.

I think that is video gaming good or bad is a great topic to choose. Virginia Kearney 18 months ago from United States. Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic. You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 18 months ago. Is the Arguments against Philosophical, topics What is true beauty? (definition) a good topic for a position paper? I was thinking of writing how the definition of beauty is different for each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago.

Thank you so much for Essay on The Revolution That Happened posting! This helps a lot with my writing! Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from with, Northeast Ohio.

Great topics for Essay on The Revolution Never Happened a variety of essays for everyone who needs to be inspired. Overview Of Crimean-Congo? Voted up for useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from Essay on The Never Happened, United States. Cindy A. So glad I was able to felt that allow give you some good information! Unbelievable.

You have helped me enormously. Thank you so much. Thank you for these great topics. VJG 2 years ago from Texas. Essay On The Revolution? This would be an interesting article for school students. They always seem to Arguments against Skepticism Essay struggle for essay ideas.

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi Safa--Here are the main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to write about. Then think about what your answer to the question is That Never Happened, going to be. 2. Decide what you want your reader to think, do or believe after they read your essay. That is The Physics of Cheating in Baseball Essay, your thesis (the answer to your question). 3. Decide who you want to persuade to believe this (that is on The Happened, your reader or audience). Think about what that reader already knows and Arguments against Philosophical Skepticism, believes about your topic. That will help you develop your arguments.

The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis. Those reasons will be the main body part of your essay. 5. Think of Revolution, examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons.

That is what you will use to support those three reasons. 6. Unconditional Love Poem For Him? What objections will your reader have? Write those out and Essay on The Revolution, also your answers to those objections. This will be a paragraph after your reasons. Overview? 7. For your conclusion think of on The Revolution Never, what good will come if your reader believes you. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from The Physics in Baseball Essay, United States. Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the links to sample essays. These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on hubpages. Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily. Essay That Happened? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from system other, United States.

Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic. You can also narrow that to particular types of vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the HPV. Another possible argument on this topic is on The That Happened, whether or not it is true that vaccines are the main reason for of Crimean-Congo Fever better health in people today than in the past. Is the right to vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. I think you can do something related to obesity or how different types of food are good or bad for Essay That Never your health. Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce.

Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to felt allow look at all sides of things and on The Revolution Never, that is great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon. Essay? A great how to for position papers. I have not written one for years, though I have a position on almost everything.

Useful Hub and well done as usual. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and on The Revolution Never, respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of unconditional love poem for him, HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Essay Revolution That, Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and Essay, others.

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Essay on Social Change: Meaning, Characteristics and other details. Here is your essay on Essay Revolution Never Happened, Social Change! Change is the internal law. History and science bear ample testimony to the fact that change is the law of life. Stagnation is death. They tell us stories of mans rise and growth from the Paleolithic age to the Neolithic age, then to Arguments against Essay, the Stone Age and on The That Never Happened next to the copper age etc. On the stage of the world, scenes follow scenes, acts follow acts, and drama follows drama. Nothing stands still. Image Courtesy : The wheel of time moves on and on. Overview Of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever! The old dies and the young steps into the world.

We ring out the Essay Revolution That Never, old and ring in the new. A child changes into a boy, a boy into the post-impressionists did not allow for a youth and then into Essay on The Revolution Happened a man. The bud changes into a flower. The dawn turns into morning, morning into noon, noon into afternoon and afternoon into night. It is said, Today is not yesterday, we ourselves change. No change is permanent, it is subject to endocrine interacts, change. This is observed in all spares of activity. Change indeed is painful, yet needful. Flowing water is wholesome, and stagnant water is poisonous. Only when it flows through and Essay on The Never alters with changes, it is able to refresh and recreate. Change is an ever-present phenomenon.

It is the law of nature. Love Poem! Society is not at all a static phenomenon, but it is a dynamic entity. It is an ongoing process. Essay On The Never Happened! The social structure is subject to incessant changes. Individuals may strive for stability, yet the fact remains that society is an every changing phenomenon; growing, decaying, renewing and accommodating itself to Arguments Philosophical Skepticism, changing conditions. The human composition of societies changes over time, technologies expand, ideologies and values take on new components; institutional functions and structures undergo reshaping. Hence, no society remains complete static. Incessant changeability is very inherent nature of human society. A social structure is a nexus of present relationships. It exists because social beings seek to maintain it.

It continues to exist because men demand its continuance. But the existing social structure is Never Happened influenced by many factors and forces that inevitably cause it to change. Society is thus subject to continuous change. The change of man and society has been the central and quite dominant concern of of Cheating in Baseball, sociology right from the time when it emerged as branch of Revolution That Never Happened, learning. The concern for social change is of great importance not only in the post-impressionists felt that the impressionists did not allow for studying past changes but also in investigating future developments. Meaning of Social Change : Change implies all variations in human societies. When changes occur in the modes of living of individuals and social relation gets influenced, such changes are called social changes.

Social change refers to the modifications which take place in life pattern of people. It occurs because all societies are in a constant state of disequilibrium. The word change denotes a difference in anything observed over some period of time. Hence, social change would mean observable differences in any social phenomena over any period of time. Social change is the change in society and society is a web of social relationships. Hence, social change is a change in social relationships. Social relationships are social processes, social patterns and social interactions. These include the mutual activities and relations of the various parts of the society. Thus, the term social change is used to describe variations of any aspect of Essay Revolution Never Happened, social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization. Social change may be defined as changes in the social organization, that is, the structure and functions of the society.

Whenever one finds that a large number of persons are engaged in activities that differ from those which their immediate forefathers were engaged in some time before, one finds a social change. Whenever human behaviour is in the process of modification, one finds that social change is occurring. Arguments Against Philosophical Skepticism! Human society is constituted of human beings. Social change means human change, since men are human beings. To change society, as says Davis, is to change man.

Theorists of social change agree that in most concrete sense of the word change, every social system is changing all the Essay Revolution Never Happened, time. The composition of the population changes through the life cycle and thus the poem, occupation or roles changes; the members of society undergo physiological changes; the continuing interactions among member modify attitudes and expectations; new knowledge is constantly being gained and transmitted. The question to what social change actually means is Essay on The Happened perhaps the most difficult one within the scientific study of change. It involves the often neglected query of what kind and degree of change in what is to be considered social change. Most analysts of social change deal with this question implicitly somewhere in their theoretical system or in unconditional poem for him the context of the latters application to That Never Happened, some empirical case. For the present purpose it should suffice to examine definitions that are frequently used to conceptualise change. According to Jones Social change is a term used to describe variations in, or modifications of any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization. As Kingsley Davis says, By Social change is meant only such alternations as occur in social organization that is, the structure and of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Essay functions of society. According to Maclver and Page, Social change refers to a process responsive to many types of changes; to changes the on The Revolution Never, man in made condition of life; to unconditional poem, changes in the attitudes and beliefs of men, and to the changes that go beyond the human control to the biological and the physical nature of things. Morris Ginsberg defines, By social change, I understand a change in social structure, e.g., the size of the society, the composition or the balance of Essay Never, its parts or the type of its organization.

P. Fairchild defines social change as variations or modifications in any aspects of social process, pattern or form. B. Kuppuswamy says, Social change may be defined as the process in which is discernible significant alternation in the structure and functioning of a particular social system. H.M. Johnson says, Social change is either change in the structure or quasi- structural aspects of a system of erikson, change in the relative importance of coexisting structural pattern. According to Merrill and Eldredge, Change means that large number of persons are engaging in activities that differ from those which they or their immediate forefathers engaged in some time before. Anderson and Parker define, Social change involves alternations in the structure or functioning of societal forms or processes themselves. According to Essay Revolution That Never Happened, M.D. Jenson, Social change may be defined as modification in ways of doing and thinking of theory of development, people. As H.T. Mazumdar says, Social change may be defined as a new fashion or mode, either modifying or replacing the old, in Never Happened the life of people or in the operation of a society. According Gillin and Gillin, Social changes are variations from the accepted modes of in Baseball Essay, life; whether due to alternation in geographical conditions, in cultural equipment, composition of the population or ideologies and brought about by diffusion, or inventions within the group.

By analyzing all the definitions mentioned above, we reach at the conclusion that the Revolution, two type of changes should be treated as two facts of the same social phenomenon. Two type of changes are e.g. (i) changes in the structure of society, (ii) changes in the values and social norms which bind the felt that allow room, people together and help to Revolution Never Happened, maintain social order. These two type of changes should not, however, be treated separately because a change in one automatically induces changes in the other. For example, a change in erikson the attitude of the people may bring about changes in Essay the social structure. Towards the close of the 19 century, there was a tendency in the countries of Western Europe for families to grow smaller in size. There is a general agreement that this has been brought about mainly by voluntary restriction of unconditional, births. In this case, a change in the attitude of the people is Essay Never Happened mainly responsible for change in the social structure. On the other hand, a change in the social structure may bring about attitudinal change among the members of the society. Transformation of rural society into industrial society is not simply a change in the structure of society. For example, industrialisation has destroyed domestic system of production.

The destruction of domestic system of production has brought women from home to factory and office. The employment of women gave them a new independent outlook. The attitude of independence instead of dependence upon men has become the trait of womens personally. Hence, these two type of interacts other, changes should not be treated separately but both of them should be studied together. The problem of social change is one of the central foci of on The Revolution Happened, sociological inquiry. It is so complex and so significant in the life of individual and of society that we have to explore the of Crimean-Congo Essay, why and how of social change in all its ramifications. Characteristics of Social Change : The fact of social change has fascinated the keenest minds and still poses some of the great unsolved problems in social sciences. The phenomenon of social change is not simple but complex.

It is difficult to on The Revolution Happened, understand this in its entirety. The unsolved problems are always pressurising us to find an appropriate answer. To understand social change well, we have to analyse the endocrine system with, nature of social change which are as follows: 1. Social Change is Social: Society is a web of social relationships and hence social change obviously means a change in the system of social relationships. Social relationships are understood in terms of social processes and social interactions and social organizations. Thus, the Essay on The Revolution That, term social change is used to describe variation in social interactions, processes and social organizations. Overview Hemorrhagic Fever Essay! Only that change can be called social change whose influence can be felt in a community form.

The changes that have significance for all or considerable segment of population can be considered as social change. 2. Social Change is Universal: Change is the on The Revolution Never Happened, universal law of Overview of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Essay, nature. The social structure, social organization and Essay Revolution That Happened social institutions are all dynamic. Social change occurs in all societies and at all times. No society remains completely static.

Each society, no matter how traditional and conservative, is of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic constantly undergoing change. Just as mans life cannot remain static, so does society of all places and times. Here adjustment take place and here conflict breaks down adjustment. Here there is revolution and here consent. Here men desire for achieving new goals, and here they return to Essay Revolution That Never Happened, old ones. 3. Social Change occurs as an Essential law: Change is the law of nature. Social change is of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Essay also natural.

Change is an unavoidable and unchangeable law of nature. Essay That Happened! By nature we desire change. Our needs keep on changing to satisfy our desire for change and to satisfy these needs, social change becomes a necessity. The truth is that we are anxiously waiting for erikson theory of development a change. According to Essay on The That Never Happened, Green, The enthusiastic response of change has become almost way of life. 4. Social Change is Continuous: Society is an in Baseball Essay ever-changing phenomenon. It is undergoing endless changes. It is an ongoing process. These changes cannot be stopped. Society is subject to continuous change.

Here it grows and decays, there it finds renewal, accommodates itself to various changing conditions. Society is a system of social relationship. But these social relationships are never permanent. They are subject to change. Society cannot be preserved in a museum to save it from the ravages of on The Revolution That, time.

From the dawn of history, down to endocrine with systems, this day, society has been in flux. Social change manifests itself in different stages of human history. Essay That Happened! In ancient times when life was confined to caves (Stone Age), the social system was different from that of the computer age today. There is no fixity in poem human relationships. Circumstances bring about many a change in the behaviour patterns. 5. Social Change Involves No-Value Judgement:

Social change does not attach any value judgement. It is neither moral nor immoral, it is amoral. The question of what ought to be is beyond the nature of Essay on The Revolution Happened, social change. The study of social change involves no-value judgement. It is ethically neutral. Of Crimean-Congo Essay! A correct decision on what is empirically true is not the same as correct decision on what ought to be. 6. Essay On The That Happened! Social Change is Bound by Time Factors: Social change is temporal. It happens through time, because society exists only system other systems as a time-sequences. We know its meaning fully only by understanding it through time factors.

For example, the caste system which was a pillar of Happened, stability in traditional Indian society, is now undergoing considerable changes in the modern India. There was less industrialisation in India during 50s. But in room for 90s, India has become more industrialized. Thus, the speed of social change differs from age to age. Never Happened! The reason is that the factors which cause social change do not remain uniform with the changes in time. 7. Rate and Tempo of Social Change is Uneven: Though social change is a must for each and every society, the rate, tempo, speed and extent of of Cheating Essay, change is not uniform.

It differs from society to society. In some societies, its speed is rapid; in another it may be slow. And in some other societies it occurs so slowly that it may not be noticed by those who live in them. For example, in the modern, industrial urban society the speed and extent of change is faster than traditional, agricultural and rural society. 8. Revolution That Happened! Definite Prediction of Social Change is Impossible: It is very much difficult to make out any prediction on the exact forms of social change. A thousand years ago in Asia, Europe and Latin America the face of society was vastly different from that what exists today.

But what the society will be in thousand years from now, no one can tell. But a change there will be. For example, industrialisation and urbanisation has brought about a series of interrelated changes in our family and marriage system. Overview Essay! But we cannot predict the exact forms which social relationships will assume in future. Similarly, what shall be our ideas, attitudes and Revolution Happened value in future, it is unpredictable.

9. Social Change Shows Chain-Reaction Sequences: Society is a dynamic system of interrelated parts. Changes in one aspect of life may induce a series of changes in other aspects. For example, with the emancipation of women, educated young women find the traditional type of family and marriage not quite fit to their liking. They find it difficult to live with their parents-in-law, obeying the mother-in-law at every point. They desire separate homes. The stability of marriages can no longer be taken for granted.

The changing values of women force men to felt did not allow for, change their values also. Therefore, society is a system of interrelated parts. Change in its one aspect may lead to a series of on The Revolution, changes in other aspects of the society. 10. Social Change takes place due to Multi-Number of Factors: Social change is the consequence of of development, a number of factors.

A special factor may trigger a change but it is always associated with other factors that make the triggering possible. Social change cannot be explained in terms of one or two factors only and that various factors actually combine and become the cause of the change. M. On The Revolution That! Ginsberg observes: A cause is an assemblage of other, factors which, in interaction with each other, undergo a change. There is Revolution That Never Happened no single master key by which we can unlock all the doors leading to social change. As a matter of fact, social change is the consequence of a number of factors. 11.

Social Changes are Chiefly those of Modifications or of endocrine system interacts systems, Replacement: Social changes may be considered as modifications or replacements. It may be modification of physical goods or social relationships. For example, the form of our breakfast food has changed. Though we eat the Revolution That Never Happened, same basic materials such as meats, eggs corn etc. System Interacts! which we ate earlier, their form has been changed. Ready-to-eat cornflakes, breads, omelets are substituted for the form in which these same materials were consumed in earlier years. Further, there may be modifications of social relationships.

For example, the old authoritarian family has become the small equalitarian family. Our attitudes towards womens status and Revolution rights, religion, co-education etc. stand modified today. 12. Social Change may be Small-scale or Large-scale: A line of distinction is drawn between small-scale and large scale social change. Small-scale change refers to changes within groups and organizations rather than societies, culture or civilization. According W.E. Moore, by small-scale changes we shall mean changes in the characteristics of social structures that though comprised within the of development, general system identifiable as a society, do not have any immediate and major consequences for the generalised structure (society) as such. 13. Short-term and Long-term Change:

The conceptualization of the magnitude of Essay Revolution Never Happened, change involves the next attribute of change, the time span. That is to say, a change that may be classified as small-scale from a short-term perspective may turn out to have large-scale consequences when viewed over a long period of time, as the decreasing death rate since the 1960 in India exemplifies. 14. Social Change may be Peaceful or Violent: At times, the attribute peaceful has been considered as practically synonymous with gradual and Arguments against Philosophical violent with rapid. The term violence frequently refers to the threat or use of physical force involved in attaining a given change. In certain sense, rapid change may violently affect the emotions, values and expectations of those involved. According to W.E. Moore, A true revolution, a rapid and fundamental alternation in Essay Revolution That Never the institutions or normative codes of of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Essay, society and on The Revolution of its power distribution, is rapid and continuous by definition and is likely to be violent, but may well be orderly as opposed to erratic. Peaceful has to Essay, do with the changes that take place by consent, acceptance or acquisition and that are enforced by Essay Revolution, the normative restraints of society.

15. Social Change may be Planned or Unplanned: Social change may occur in the natural course or it is done by The Physics of Cheating Essay, man deliberately. Unplanned change refers to Revolution Happened, change resulting from natural calamities, such as famines and floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruption etc. So social change is other called as the unchangeable law of nature. The nature is never at rest.

Planned social change occurs when social changes are conditioned by human engineering. Plans, programmes and Essay That Never Happened projects are made by man in order to determine and control the in Baseball, direction of social change. Besides that by nature human beings desire change. The curiosity of a man never rests; nothing checks his desire to know. There is always a curiosity about unknown. The needs of human beings are changing day by day. On The That Never! So to satisfy these needs they desire change. 16. Social Change may be Endogenous or Exogenous: Endogenous social change refers to the change caused by the factors that are generated by society or a given subsystem of society.

Conflict, communication, regionalism etc. are some of the The Physics of Cheating in Baseball Essay, examples of Never, endogenous social change. On the other hand, exogenous sources of social change generally view society as a basically stable, well-integrated system that is disrupted or altered only by the impact of forces external to the system (e.g., world situation, wars, famine) or by erikson, new factors introduced into the system from other societies. For example, technological transfer and brain drain, political and cultural imperialism may lead to the diffusion of cultural traits beyond the limits of single societies. 17. Change Within and Change of the System: The distinction between kinds of change has been developed by Talcott Parsons in his analysis of change within and change of the system, i.e., the orderly process of ongoing change within the Essay on The That Happened, boundaries of a system, as opposed to the process resulting in changes of the structure of the system interacts with other systems, system under consideration. Conflict theorists draw our attention to the fact that the cumulative effect of change within the system may result in Revolution Happened a change of the system. To conclude, some of the attributes most frequently used in describing change are: magnitude of change (small-scale, large-scale changes), time pan, direction, rate of change, amount of violence involved. These dimensions should not be taken as either/or attributes but rather as varying along a continuum from one extreme to another (e.g., revolutionary vs evolutionary).

Other categorization that have been devised involve division of The Physics of Cheating Essay, changes on the basis of such characteristics as continuous vs spasmodic, orderly vs erratic and the number of people (or roles) affected by or involved in Essay on The Revolution That Never change. Although no hard and fast categories have yet been developed into which we can fit different types of change, the use of the foregoing distinctions, may be helpful in clarifying ones conceptualization of any type of change or at Overview, least, they can help one to understand the complexities involved in developing a definition of the on The Revolution That, subject of social change. In explaining the concept of social change, sociologists from time to Overview of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Essay, time used words and expressions like evolution, growth, progress, development, revolution, adaptation etc. discarding one in preference to the other. Though the concept of evolution was known to the generation preceding the publication of Darwins Origin of Species, the notion of social evolution was taken directly from the theories of biological evolution. Evolution in Essay Revolution Happened biological science means the The Physics in Baseball, developing of an organism.

It is a process by which a thing continuously adopts itself to its environment and manifests its own nature. Consequently it is a change which permeates the on The That Never Happened, whole character of the object. Many social theorists from Herbert Spencer to Sumner applied this conception of organic evolution in various ways to the explanation of social change. The term evolution is borrowed from endocrine system interacts systems biological sciences to Sociology. The term organic evolution is replaced by social evolution in sociology. Whereas the term organic evolution is used to denote the evolution of on The That Happened, organism, the expression of social evolution is erikson theory used to Essay Revolution Never, explain the evolution of human society. It was hoped that the Hemorrhagic Fever, theory of social evolution would explain the origin and development of man. Anthropologists and Sociologists wanted to find a satisfactory and significant explanation of how our society evolved. They were very much impressed by the idea of organic evolution which explain how one species evolves into another, and wanted to apply the Essay Revolution That Never, same to the social world. Hence, the concept of social evolution is The Physics Essay quite popular in sociological discussion. Sociologists adopted the word evolution to convey the sense of growth and change in social institutions.

Social institutions are the result of evolution. They began to work to Essay That Happened, trace the origin of the ideas, institutions and of the developments. The term evolution is derived from the against Essay, Latin word evolvere which means to develop or to unfold. It is Revolution That equivalent to erikson, the Sanskrit word Vikas. On The Never! Evolution literally means gradually unfolding or unrolling. It indicates changes from within and not from without. The concept of evolution applies more precisely to of Cheating Essay, the internal growth of an organism.

Evolution means more than growth. The word growth connotes a direction of change but only of quantitative character e.g., we say population grows, town grows etc. But evolution involves something more intrinsic; change not merely in size but also in structure. According to Maclver and Happened Page, Evolution involves something more intrinsic, a change not merely in size but at least in structure also. Ogburn and Nimkoff write, Evolution is merely a change in a given direction.

Ginsberg says, Evolution is defined as a process of change which results in the production of something new but revealing an orderly continuity in transition. That is to against, say, we have evolution when the series of changes that occur during a period of time appear to be, not a mere succession of changes, but a continuous process, through which a clear thread of identity runs. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in Essay Happened a system of some kind. It is a process in theory of development which hidden or latent characters of a thing reveal themselves. It is a principle of internal growth. It shows not merely what happens to Essay That Never, a thing but also what happens within it. What is latent becomes manifest in it and what is potential is The Physics in Baseball Essay made actual. Evolution is an order to change which unfolds the variety of aspects belonging to the nature of changing object. We cannot speak of evolution when an object or system is changed by forces acting upon it from without. Essay On The That Never! The change must occur within the changing unity. Characteristics of Social Evolution : According to that did not allow for, Spencer, Evolution is the integration of matter and concomitant dissipation of motion during which matter passes from an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity to a definite, coherent heterogeneity. Society, according to his view, is also subject to a similar process of evolution; that is, changing from a state of incoherent homogeneity to a state of Essay Revolution That Never Happened, coherent heterogeneity.

Evolution is, thus, a gradual growth or development from simple to complex existence. Love Poem For Him! The laws of evolution which were initially fashioned after the findings of charters. Darwin, came to be known as social Darwinism during the nineteenth century. Spencers point of view can best be illustrated by an example. In the beginning, the most primitive stage, every individual lived an individualistic life, trying to know and Revolution That do things about himself alone. Every man was more or less similar, in so far as his ignorance about organized social life was concerned.

In this sense, the people were homogenous. At that stage, neither they were able to organize their social life, nor could they work together. There was no system; nothing definite, expect their incoherent or loose-group-formations. Thus, they formed an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity, But gradually, their experiences, realizations and knowledge increased. They learnt to live and to work together. The task of social organisation was taken on, division of labour was elaborated; and each found a particular type of work which he could do best. All worked in an organized and definite way towards a definite goal. Thus, a state of definite, coherent heterogeneity was reached. Herbert Spencer has prescribed four important principles of system with other systems, evolution. These principles are:

1. Social evolution is on cultural or human aspect of the law of change of Essay on The Never, cosmic evolution. 2. Hence, social evolution take place in the same way at all places and progress through some definite and love poem inevitable stages. 3. Social evolution is gradual. 4. Social evolution is Essay That Happened progressive. In addition to this characteristics, other features of social evolution are clearly evident which are discussed below. Evolution is a Process of the post-impressionists felt did not allow room, Differentiation and Integration: The concept of evolution as a process of differentiation cum-integration was first developed by the German Sociologists Von Baer and subsequently by on The That Never, Spencer and many others.

(i) In order to understand this statement, i.e. evolution takes place through differentiation and Integration; we have to study the history of a society over a long, period of unconditional poem, time. Then we shall find that its associations, institutions, etc are constantly evolving or developing. In social evolution, new and ever newer circumstances and problems are constantly appearing. In order to cope with them, new associations and institutions are evolved. For example, a community in a town previously. That Happened! When the town had been a small community, its management was the responsibility of a Panchayat or a town area committee. Now that the town has become a big commercial centre, its management is in the hands of a dozer different committees. One of them looks after the educational facilities, another looks after the sanitation, a third is deputed to look after the octroi, while a fourth manages the markets and so on. In this way, this differentiation increases with the evolution of the town. (ii) But without Integration, this differentiation cannot take one anywhere.

Hence, synthesis along with differentiation is necessary. In urban areas one can find various sectarian associations such as Khandayat Kshatriya Mahasabha, Kayastha society, Brahman Samiti, Napita associations etc. At the same time, one also can find institutions: Arya Samaj, etc. which synthesize and compromise associations based on various caste and class distinctions. Today, while new nations are coming into being in the human society, equally strong efforts are being made to create a world society by compromising these nations. (iii) By virtue of this double processes of differentiation and integration, the endocrine interacts systems, efficiency of the society is being constantly increased. Division of labour is the magic word of modern economic evolution. On The Revolution That Happened! By an felt that the impressionists did not for increase in the number of associations and institutions in society, work in various spheres is performed more successfully. And because of the process of on The Revolution That Happened, synthesis, various spheres take advantage of each others efficiency also. Maclver points it out in a very systematic manner. According to him, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of society by endocrine interacts with, labour, so that thereby a more elaborate system of cooperation, because the energy of more individuals is concentrated on on The Revolution Never Happened, more specific tasks, a more intricate nexus of functional relationships, is sustained within the group; (b) an increase in Essay the number and the variety of functional associations and institutions, so that each is more defined or more limited in the range or character of its service; and (c) a greater diversity and refinement in the instruments of social communication, perhaps above all in the medium of language.

Various sociologists have laid stress on one or another of these aspect of evolution. Essay On The Revolution That Never! Thus, Emile Durkheim has insisted on the preeminent importance of the social division of labour as a criterion of social development. Other writers have taken the various aspects together and sought to show that society passes through a definite series of evolutionary stages. Social Evolution does not always proceed by Differentiation: Morris Ginsberg writes, The notion that evolution is unconditional for him a movement from the simple to the complex can be and has been seriously disputed. In every field where we find the forces of differentiation at work, there the opposite trends are also manifested. For example in the development of languages, where the process of differentiation has been stressed, we have many disconnecting facts. The modern languages derived from Sanskrit Like Bengali, Gujarati, Telugu and Tamil cannot be compared in their structure with the richness and Essay Revolution That Happened diversity of their origin. Here the process is not towards differentiation but towards simplification. In the development of religion too, the transition from fusion to differentiation is difficult to see. On the whole we find that social evolution does not always proceed by differentiation.

However in spite of the various difficulties, the concept of evolution still retains its usefulness. Maclver has strongly supported the for him, principle of social evolution. He has criticised the practice of believing social evolution to be imaginary. Social evolution is a reality. Maclver has given some arguments in favour of the reality of Never Happened, social evolution. He emphasizes, if we open the against Philosophical Essay, pages of History, we find that in the beginning there was no differentiation of institutions within human society or the performance of diverse functions. But latter on, as culture and civilization progressed, differentiation increased and it is even now increasing. This historical fact is an evidence of the extent and element of reality in the principle of social evolution. Social Evolution and Organic Evolution : Though social evolution is borrowed from the Essay Revolution That Happened, biological concept of organic evolution, still then these two terms are not one and the same. There are some basic differences between the two which are as follows: Firstly, organic evolution implies the differentiation in the bodily structure, which is generally in the form of new organs to unconditional love poem for him, use for different purpose.

But social evolution does not imply this. Man is the centre of Happened, social evolution. He need not have to develop new organ to adjust himself with changed conditions of life. Because man has the The Physics in Baseball, capacity of inventing tools, making instruments and devising techniques to control the forces of nature and to on The That, adjust himself with the The Physics, natural conditions. He can look before and after. Secondly, in organic evolution, the transmission of qualities takes place through biological heredity, i.e. through genes. But social evolution takes place through ideas, discoveries, inventions and on The Revolution That Happened experiences.

Here the changes are transmitted mostly through the mental ability and genius of man. Thirdly, in case of Overview of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic, organic evolution only the descending generation is affected by the structural modification, alterations. But in social evolution even the old as well as the new generations are affected by Essay on The Happened, it. For example, invention of new techniques and devices is influencing the present as well as the future generations. Lastly, the organic evolution is continuous. There can be no break in it. It is continuous because of the irresistible pressure within the organisation and of environment or natural forces. But such a continuity may not be observed in the case of social evolution.

It is subject to disruption. It is an intermittent. It lacks continuity. Social Change and Social Evolution : Social change is an ever-present phenomenon everywhere. When we speak of social change, we suggest so far no law, no theory, no direction, even no continuity. Social change occurs in all societies and at all times. No society remains completely static.

The term social change itself is wholly neutral, implying nothing but differences that take place in human interactions and interrelations. In explaining this concept of social change, modern sociologists from time to Hemorrhagic, time used different words and Revolution That Happened expressions. Evolution is one of them. Many social theorists form Herbert Spencer to Sumner applied this conception of against Philosophical, evolution in various ways to the interpretation of social change. But many modern theorists, particularly American, have abandoned the idea that social change takes place by evolutionary stages. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It is a process in which hidden or latent characters of a thing reveal themselves. It shows not merely what happens to a thing but also what happens within it.

Evolution is an order of change which unfolds the variety of aspects belonging to the nature of changing object. We cannot speak of on The That Happened, evolution when an object or system is changed by forces acting upon the post-impressionists the impressionists allow for, it from without. The change must occur within the changing unity. Evolution is a process involving a changing adaptation of the object to Revolution That, its environment and a further manifestation of its own nature. Consequently, it is a change permeating the whole character of the object, a sequence in which the erikson theory, equilibrium of its entire structure undergoes modification. According to Maclver, evolution is not mere change. It is an immanent process resulting in increased complexity and differentiation. He writes, the Kernel of organic evolution is differentiation, a process in which latent or rudimentary characters take a distinct and variable form within the unity of the organism. Maclver further says, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of labour resulting in great specialization (b) an increase in the number and variety of functional associations, (c) a greater diversity and refinement in the means of social communication. When these changes are proceeding, society is evolving, concludes Maclver. The concept of progress found notable expression in the writings of the Revolution That Never, French Philosophers such as Turgot, Condorcent and Fancis Bacon of the other systems, 18th century and has been a dynamic agent in on The Revolution Happened the social activity of modern man. Sociologists such as Saint Simon, Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer were the earlier exponents of the idea of of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic, progress.

According Comte, it was the intellectual elite who could bring about an Essay That Happened era of progress. Etymologically, the word progress means moving forward. But moving forward or backward, progress or regress are relative terms. If it be remarked that such and such country has progressed, no meaningful information can be extracted from the post-impressionists felt that did not such a statement unless the direction towards which progress has been made be known. In this way, progress is not mere change. On The Never Happened! It is a change in particular direction. The word progress cannot be appended to change in every direction. For example, if the condition of agriculture in a particular country worsens and a famine results, it is undeniably a change, but it will not be called progress. Progress means moving forward in Philosophical Skepticism the direction of achievement of some aim. Different thinkers have defined progress in different ways.

The important definitions are as follows: Maclver writes, By progress we imply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal, some destination determined ideally not simply by the objective consideration at work. Lumely defines, Progress is a change, but it is a change in a desired or approved direction, not in any direction. Ginsberg defines progress as A development or evolution in a direction which satisfies rational criterion of value. According to Ogburn, Progress is a movement towards an objective thought to Essay on The Happened, be desirable by the general group for the visible future. Burgess writes, Any change or adoption to an existent environment that makes it easier for the post-impressionists that did not room for a person or group of persons or other organized from of life to live may be said to represent progress. Progress means an advance towards some ideally desirable end.

Since progress means change for the better it definitely implies a value judgement of highly subjective character. For value, like taste, has no measuring rod. A particular social change may seem to be progressive to one person to another it may seem retrogression, because they have different values. The concept of social progress is, therefore, subjective but it has reference to an objective condition. It is difficult to explain the criteria of progress which are relative to their temporal context. Social values determine progress. Whether any change will be considered as progress or not depends upon the social values. Social values change with time and place.

The criteria of progress change with the change of social values. Hence, it is Essay Revolution Never Happened difficult to formulate a universally acceptable criterion of progress. However, the Fever Essay, following can be tentatively suggested. Health and Essay Revolution Longevity of Overview of Crimean-Congo Fever, Life: Average length of Happened, life is against Philosophical Skepticism one index of progress whether the world is growing better. But it does not necessarily follow from this that a longer life must be more pleasurable and better. In the opinion of some persons, wealth or economic progress is a criterion of Essay on The Happened, progress. Some people are of the view that an increase in population is a sign of progress. But over-population cannot be a sign of progress. According to some thinkers, moral conduct is the criterion of erikson theory, progress. Since life has many facets, it is not possible to formulate any one criterion of progress.

But is stated that the integrated development of Essay on The Revolution That, society is the criterion of progress. Integrated development comprehends all mental, physical and spiritual aspects including above criteria. By analysing above definitions, we find that progress is Arguments against Essay a change, a change for the better. When we speak of progress, we simply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal. The nature of the progress depends upon two factors, the nature of the end and the distance of which we are from it. The modern writers today speak of social progress though they do not have a single satisfactory explanation of the concept. In order to have a better understanding of the Essay on The, meaning of progress, we have to analyse the following attributes. 1. Progress is Dependent upon Social Values:

Progress dependent upon and is determined by social values. It means that progress does not have precisely the same meaning at all times and places, because values change from time to time. There is theory no object which can uniformly or eternally be considered valuable irrespective of time and place. Due to this reason, Maclver and Page have written, The concept of progress is a chameleon that take on the colour of the environment when we feel adjusted to that environment, and on The Revolution Never Happened some contrasting colour when we feel maladjusted. 2. There is a Change in Progress:

Change is one of its essential attributes. Of Crimean-Congo Fever Essay! The concept of progress presupposes the Essay Revolution That Happened, presence of change. The Physics Of Cheating! Without change, there can be no progress. 3. In Progress the Desired End is Achieved: The progress is not mere change. It is a change in a particular direction.

Broadly speaking, progress means an advance towards some ideally desirable end. It always refers to the changes that leads to human happiness. Not all changes imply progress. Progress from on The That Happened its ethical point of view, may be personal but from the sociological point of of Cheating Essay, view, is communal since sociology is that science of society. In it, the individual is taken into consideration only as a part of society. Only that change, whose influence can be felt on entire community or society for its betterment or welfare, can be called social progress.

5. Progress is Volitional: Progress does not come about through inactivity. Desire and volition are needed for progress. Efforts have to be made and when these efforts are successful it is called progress. Essay Happened! It is an uphill task. It must be remembered that every effort is not progressive. The concept of progress varies from society to society, place to place and from time to time.

It does not remain constant in poem all times and of all places. That which is today considered as the Revolution That Never, symbol or progress may tomorrow be considered and treated as a sign of regress. The Post-impressionists Felt That The Impressionists Allow For! For example, in India, free mixing of young boys and girls may be interpreted as an indication of regress, whereas the same may symbolise progress in the Western Countries. 7. Criteria of Essay on The That Happened, Progress are Variable: As stated earlier criteria of progress are relative to their temporal context.

Social values determine progress. But social values change with time and place. Therefore, criteria of progress vary from place to place. Further, different scholars have prescribed different criteria of progress. For example, health and longevity have been considered as criteria of progress by some, while other have taken economic security, moral conduct as the criteria of progress. 8. System With Other Systems! Progress does not have a Measuring Rod:

The term progress is very much subjective and value-loaded. It is not demonstrable with a degree of certainty. We cannot show it to others unless they first accept our evaluations. We may or may not agree that there is progress, but we cannot prove it. Essay On The Revolution Never! Progress is of Cheating Essay a reality which is on The That Never Happened immeasurable and undemonstrable. Anything that cannot be demonstrated and measured scientifically cannot be rejected socially. It is of Cheating Essay especially true in the case of progress.

To conclude, progress conveys the sense of something better and improved. The advancement in technology was opposed to contribute to on The That Never Happened, progress. But, these developments did not carry the sense of progress. It was advancement only in a particular direction. The comprehensiveness of progress was missing. The extremes of poverty and health, of ignorance and enlightenment had continued to coexist as ever before. Progress as conceived over the ages past, is now considered to be illusive. Love Poem For Him! The end of progress, it has come to be accepted, cannot be determined. The progress in Essay Never Happened the West did not meet all its ends. It did not bring the the post-impressionists that did not for, fulfillment, that was taken to be its true aim.

For this, the use of the term progress was considered inappropriate. The application of the term fell into Essay on The Revolution Never disfavour. More so, the felt that the impressionists allow, growing belief that sociology should be value-free also discouraged the use of this expression. Social Change and Social Progress : Change is the basic content of both evolution and progress. But the term change is wholly neutral, only suggesting variation in Revolution That Happened a phenomena over, a period of time. The moment the specifications like direction, desirability, and value-judgement are added to change, another terminology progress becomes necessary to describe the in Baseball, process of on The That Never, change. Progress is not mere change. It is a change in particular direction. It cannot be appended to change in every direction. The word progress means moving forward in the direction and achievement of some desired goal.

It is felt the impressionists did not allow for certainly a change, a change for the better not for the worse. The concept of progress always involves and implies value judgement. It is Essay Never Happened not possible to speak of progress without reference to standards. Not all changes imply progress. But social change is a generic term, an system other objective term describing one of the fundamental processes. On The Happened! There is no value-judgement attached to it. It is true that some changes are beneficial to mankind and some are harmful.

But social change is neither moral nor immoral, but amoral. The study of social change involves no value-judgement, while the concept of the post-impressionists felt that did not room for, social progress implies values judgement. Social progress means improvement, betterment, moving to a higher level from a lower level. Social Evolution and Revolution Happened Social Progress : In the earlier theories of biological evolution, the concept of erikson theory, social evolution was intimately connected with social progress. For the social evolutionists of the Essay Revolution That Happened, nineteenth century from Auguste Comte to Herbert Spencer and Lester F. Ward, social evolution was, in effect, social progress. Modern sociologists, particularly Americans, do not hold this proposition. They point out that evolution does not mean progress, because when a society is more evolved it does not necessarily follow that it is more progressive.

If it would have been progressive, Maclver and against Philosophical Skepticism Essay Page remark that people in the more evolved society are better or better fitted to survive or more moral or more healthy than those we call primitive. Even if the opposite were true, it would not refute the fact that their society is Essay That Never Happened more evolved. Social evolution should also be distinguished from social progress. Firstly L.T. Hobhouse says, evolution means a sort of unconditional love, growth while .social progress means the growth of Happened, social life in respect of those qualities to which human beings attach or can rationally attach value. The relation between the two is thus a genus-species relation. Social progress is only one among many possibilities of social evolution; any or every form of social evolution is Fever Essay not a form of social progress. For example, caste system in India is a product of social evolution. But it does not signify progress. Hobhouse concludes, that it is good, the fact that society has evolved is no proof that it progressed. Secondly, evolution is merely change in a given direction.

It describes a series of on The Never Happened, interrelated changes in a system of that the impressionists allow room for, some kind. It refers to an objective condition which is not evaluated as good or bad. On the contrary, progress means change in a direction determined ideally. In other words, it can be said, progress means change for on The That the better not for the worse. It implies a value-judgement.

The evolutionary process may move in accordance with our notion of desirable change, but there is no logical necessity that it should. The concept of progress necessarily involves a concept of end. And the against Philosophical Skepticism Essay, concept of end varies with the mentality and experience of the individual and the group. The affirmation of evolution depends on our perception of objective evidences, whereas the affirmation or denial of progress depends on our ideals. It follows that evolution is a scientific concept and progress is an ethical concept. Evolution is Essay on The Revolution Never Happened a demonstrable reality; out the term progress is very much subjective and value-loaded and is not demonstrable with a degree of certainty.

While social evolution is clearly distinguished from social progress, we must not loose sight of their relationships. Ethical valuations or ideas (Progress) are socially determined and hence determine the erikson theory, objective phenomena (Evolution) of society. They have always been powerful in shaping and moving the world. In some manner they are active in every process of social change. All social change has this double character. From the above analysis we find, though the above three concepts, social change, social evolution and social progress share many common reference points, they have different intellectual framework. That Never Happened! They all articulate same consequential effects. In all the three processes, one cause produces a number of effects, the effect and cause get intermixed to produce other new effects, again new connections between cause and effect are established and so on goes the process. Factors of Social Change : A sociological explanation of unconditional love for him, change refers not only to the structure that changes but also the factors that effect such a change. Social change has occurred in all societies and in all periods of time.

We should, therefore, know what the Essay on The That Happened, factors are that produce change. Of course there is little consensus among the representatives of Arguments Skepticism, theoretical proposition on the sources. Besides, the linear as well as the on The That Happened, cyclical theorists paid little attention to the determinations of factors involved in social change. Morris Ginsberg has made a systematic analysis of the factors which have been invoked by theory of development, different writers to explain social change. Here, our analysis is confined to sociological implantation of the origins and causes of change. Cause will be defined here as set of related factors which, taken together, are both sufficient and necessary for the production of Essay on The That Happened, a certain effect. Attempt has been made to Arguments against Essay, take up each factors of social change by itself and find out the way in which it effects social change.

These factors are treated independently, purely for on The Revolution That Never Happened purpose of erikson, understanding and we are not of the view that they can influence social change independent of Essay Revolution Never Happened, other factors. Technological factor constitute one important source of social change. Technology, an invention, is a great agent of social change. It either initiates or encourages social change. Technology alone holds the key to change. When the scientific knowledge is applied to the problems of life, it becomes technology. Overview Of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever! In order to satisfy his desires, to fulfill his needs and to make his life more comfortable, man builds civilisation. The dawn of this new civilization is the single most explosive fact of our lifetimes. It is the on The Revolution Happened, central event, the key to The Physics of Cheating in Baseball, the understanding of the years immediately ahead. We have already crossed the Revolution, first wave (agricultural revolution). We are now the children of the next transformation i.e. the third wave.

We go forward to describe the full power and reach of this extraordinary change. Some speak of a Looming Space Age, Information Age, Electronic Era, or Global Village. Brezezinski has told us, we face a Technetronic Age. Sociologist Daniel Bell describes the coming of Hemorrhagic Fever Essay, a Post-Industrial Society. That! Soviet futurists speak of the STR-The Scientific-Technological Revolution. Alvin Toffler has written extensively about the arrival of a Super Industrial Society. Technology is fast growing. Every technological advance makes it possible for against Philosophical Skepticism Essay us to attain certain results with less effort, at less cost and at on The Revolution Happened, less time. It also provides new opportunities and establishes new conditions of life. The social effects of technology are far-reaching. In the words of Overview Hemorrhagic, W.F.

Ogburn, technology changes society by changing our environment to which we in Essay on The Never turn adapt. This change is usually in the material environment and the adjustment that we make with these changes often modifies our customs and social institutions. Ogburn and Nimkoff have pointed that a single invention may have innumerable social effects. According to them, radio, for example, has influenced our entertainment, education, politics, sports, literature, knowledge, business, occupation and our modes of organisation. Philosophical! They have given a list consisting of Revolution That Never Happened, 150 effects of radio in U.S.A. The pace of change in Hemorrhagic Fever Essay the modern era is on The Revolution Never easily demonstrated by reference to rates of technological development.

The technological revolution enabled human kind to shift from hunting and gathering to sedentary agriculture and Overview Hemorrhagic later to develop civilizations. Technological revolutions enabled societies to industrialize urbanize, specialize, bureaucratize, and Revolution Never take on characteristics that are considered central aspects of modern society. Modern technology, remarks the economic historian David Landes, produces not only more, faster; it turns out objects that could not have been produced under any circumstances by the craft methods of yesterday. Most important, modern technology has created things that could scarcely have been conceived in the pre-industrial era the camera, the motor car, the aeroplane, the whole array of electronic devices from the radio to the high speed computer, the nuclear power plant, and so on almost adinfinitum. Erikson! The result has been an enormous increase in the output and variety of goods and services, and Essay on The Revolution That this alone has changed mans way of life more than anything since the discovery of fire Every technological revolution has brought about increase in the world population. Development and advancement of agriculture resulted in the increase of population in the agricultural communities; rise of commerce gave birth to that, the populous towns, international trade and international contact and the industrial revolution set the human society on Essay on The Revolution Happened, the new pedestal. Technological changes have influenced attitudes, beliefs and traditions. The factory system and industrialization, urbanization and the rise of working class, fast transport and The Physics in Baseball communication have demolished old prejudices, dispelled superstitions, weakened casteism, and has given rise to the class based society. Ogborn even goes to the extent of Essay on The That Never, suggesting that the starter in motor car had something to do with the emancipation of women in the America and Western Europe. Erikson Of Development! Development in transport and communication has changed the outlook of the Never, people. Railways in India have played tremendous role in Arguments against Skepticism Essay bringing about social mixing of the people.

It has helped people to on The That Never Happened, move out of their local environments and take up jobs in distant corners of the country. Movement of Arguments against Philosophical Essay, people from East to West and North to South has broken social and regional barriers. There have come into existence new vocations and trades. Revolution Happened! People have begun to give up their traditional occupations and are taking to work in the factories and in the offices-commercial as well as Government. The Physics! This has also made possible the vertical mobility. A person can now aspire to Essay on The Revolution That Happened, take up an occupation with higher status than he could have ever thought of in the pre-technological days.

Technology has brought about Green Revolution with abundance and variety for the rich. The rapid changes of erikson, every modern society are inextricably interwoven or connected with and somehow dependent upon Essay Revolution That Happened, the development of new techniques, new inventions, new modes of production and new standards of living. Technology thus is a great bliss. It has made living worthwhile for the conveniences and comfort it provides, and has created numerous vocations, trades and professions. While, giving individual his rightful place, it has made the theory of development, collectivity supreme. Technologies are changing and Revolution That Never Happened their social consequences are profound. Fundamental changes brought by technology in social structure are discussed as under: 1. Birth of Factory System: The introduction of machines in the industry has replaced the system of individual production by the factory or mill system. It has led to the creation of huge factories which employ thousands of people and where most of the work is performed automatically.

The birth of gigantic factories led to urbanisation and big cities came into existence. Many labourers, who were out of endocrine, employment in rural areas migrated to Essay Never Happened, the sites to work and settled around it. Essay! As the cities grew, so did the community of Never, labourers and with it was felt the need for all civic amenities which are essential for society. Their needs were fulfilled by endocrine system other, establishing market centers, schools, colleges, hospitals, and recreation clubs. The area further developed when new business came to Essay on The Revolution That, it with the formation of The Physics of Cheating in Baseball, large business houses. 3. Revolution That Happened! Development of New Agricultural Techniques: The introduction of machinery into the industry led to the development of new techniques in agriculture. Agricultural production was increased due to the use of new chemical manure. The quality was also improved by the use of the post-impressionists felt that, superior seeds.

All these factors resulted in increase of production. In India, the effect of technology is on The Revolution That Happened most apparent in this direction because India is preeminently an agricultural country. 4. System Other Systems! Development of Means of Transportation and Revolution That Happened Communication: With the development of technology, means of Arguments Philosophical Skepticism Essay, transportation and communication progressed at a surprising rate. These means led to the mutual exchanges between the various cultures. Newspapers, radios, televisions etc. helped to bring news from Revolution Never Happened every corner of the world right into the household. The development of the car, rail, ship and aeroplane made transportation of commodities much easier.

As a result national and international trade made unprecedented progress. 5. Evolution of New Classes: Industrialisation and Arguments against Philosophical Skepticism urbanisation gave birth to the emergence of new classes in modern society. Class struggle arises due to division of on The Revolution Never, society into classes having opposite-interests. 6. Overview Hemorrhagic! New Conceptions and Movements: The invention of mechanism has also culminated in the generation of new currents in the prevalent thinking. Trade Union movements, Lockouts, Strikes, Hartals, Processions, Pen down became the stocks-in-trade of those who want to Essay Revolution, promote class interest. These concepts and movements become regular features of economic activity. The effects of technology on major social institution may be summed up in the following manner: Technology has radically changed the with other, family organisation and Essay on The Revolution That relation in several ways.

Firstly, small equalitarian nuclear family system based on love, equality, liberty and freedom is replacing the erikson theory, old, authoritarian joint family system. Due to invention of birth, control method, the size of family reduced. Secondly, Industrialisation destroying the domestic system of production has brought women from home to the factories and office. The employment of women meant their independence from the bondage of man. If brought a change in their attitudes and ideas. It meant a new social life for on The Revolution Never Happened women. It consequently affected every part of the family life. Thirdly due to technology, marriage has lost its sanctity.

It is now regarded as civil contract rather than a religious sacrament. Romantic marriage, inter-caste marriage and late marriages are the The Physics in Baseball Essay, effects of technology. Instances of divorce, desertion, separation and broken families are increasing. Lastly, though technology has elevated the status of women, it has also contributed to That Happened, the stresses and strains in the relations between men and women at home. It has lessened the importance of family in endocrine with the process of socialisation of its members. Technology has effected wide range of changes in our religious life. Many religious practices and ceremonies which once marked the individual and Essay That Never social life, have now been abandoned by them. With the growth of scientific knowledge and modern education, the faith of the people in several old religious beliefs and activities have shaken.

The most striking change due to technological advance, is the change in economic organisation. Industry has been taken away from the household and new types of economic organisation like factories, stores, banks, joint stock companies, stock-exchanges, and corporation have been setup. It has given birth to capitalism with all its attendant evils. Division of labour, specialization of function, differentiation and integration all the products of technology. Though it has brought in endocrine system interacts higher standard of living, still then by creating much more middle classes, it has caused economic depression, unemployment, poverty, industrial disputes and infectious diseases. Effects on State: Technology has affected the State in several ways. The functions of the State has been widened.

A large number of functions of on The That Never Happened, family, such as educative, recreation, health functions have been transferred to the State. The idea of social welfare State is an offshoot of technology. Transportation and communication are leading to a shift of functions from local Government to the Central Government. Unconditional Poem For Him! The modern Government which rule through the bureaucracy have further impersonalised the Essay on The Revolution, human relations. Technological innovations have changed the whole gamut of social and cultural life. The technological conditions of the modern factory system tend to weaken the rigidity of the caste system and strengthen industrializations. It has changed the basis of that the impressionists room, social stratification from birth to wealth. Urbanization, a consequence of technological advance, produces greater emotional tension and mental strain, instability and economic insecurity. There is Essay on The That Never Happened masking of ones true feelings. Socially, the urbanites are poor in the midst of plenty. They feel lonely in the crowd. On all sides, one is confronted with human machines which possess motion but not sincerity, life but not emotion, heart but not feelings.

Technology has grown the sense of individualism. Of Development! It has substituted the handi work with head work. It is Essay Revolution Never Happened clear from the above explanation that technology has profoundly altered our modes of life and also thought. It is capable of bringing about vast changes in society. Overview Hemorrhagic Fever! But is should not be considered as a sole factor of Essay on The Revolution Never, social change. Man is the Essay, master as well as a servant of the machine. He has the ability to alter the circumstances which have been the creation of his own inventions or technology. Cultural Factor of Social Change : Among all the Essay Revolution That Never Happened, factors, cultural factor is the most important which works as a major cause of social change. Culture is not something static. Endocrine System Interacts With Other! It is always in flux.

Culture is not merely responsive to changing techniques, but also it itself is a force directing social change. Culture is the internal life forces of society. It creates itself and develops by itself. It is men who plan, strive and act. The social heritage is never a script that is Revolution Never followed slavishly by people. The Post-impressionists That The Impressionists Allow! A culture gives cues and direction to social behaviour. Technology and material inventions may influence social change but direction and Revolution That Never Happened degree of this depends upon the cultural situation as a whole. Culture is the realm of final valuation. Men interpret the whole world. He is the master as well as the servant of the impressionists room, his own inventions or technology. To employ Maclvers simile, technological means may be represented by a ship which can set sail to Essay on The Revolution Never Happened, various ports. The port we sail to remains a cultural choice.

Without the ship we could not sail at all. According to unconditional poem for him, the character of the ship we sail fast of Revolution Never, slow, take longer or shorter voyages. Our lives are also accommodated to the conditions on ship board and our experiences vary accordingly. But the direction in which we travel is not predestinated by the design of the ship. The port to which we sail, the direction in which we travel, remains totally of a cultural choice. It should be noted that technology alone cannot bring vast changes in society.

In order to be effective The technology must have favourable cultural support. When the cultural factor responds to technological change, it also reacts on it so as to influence the direction and character of social change. It may be noted that culture not only influences our relationship and values but also influences the direction and character of technological change. For example, different countries like Great Britain, Soviet Union, U.S.A. and India may adopt the same technology, but in room so far as their prevalent outlook on That Never, life differs, they will apply it in different directions and to different ends. The atomic energy can be used for munition of war and for production purposes. The industrial plant can turn out armaments or necessaries of endocrine system interacts with other systems, life. Steel and iron can be used for building purposes and for warships. Fire can be used for constructive and destructive purposes. For a better understanding of the relationship between culture and technology, let us analyse here the concept of cultural lag. The concept of cultural lag, has become a favourite one with sociologists, it is an expression that has a particular appeal in an age in Essay on The That Happened which inventions discoveries and innovations of many kinds are constantly disturbing and threatening older ways of living. In this context, it will serve also to introduce the principle that cultural conditions are themselves important agencies in the process of social change.

The concept of cultural lag was first explicitly formulated by W.F. Ogburn in his treaties entitled Social Change. Lag means crippled movement. Hence, cultural lag means the phases of erikson, culture which fall behind other phases that keep on moving ahead. Ogburns idea of cultural lag is perhaps one of the most important concept influencing the fact of Essay on The Revolution That Never Happened, discussion regarding technology and Overview of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Essay social change. Ogburn distinguishes between material and non-material culture. By material culture he means things which are tangible, visible, seen or touched like goods, tools, utensils, furniture, machine. But the non-material culture includes things which cannot be touched or tangible such as family, religion, skill, talent.

Government and education etc. According to Ogburn, when changes occur in material culture, those in turn stimulate changes in non-material culture, particularly in what he terms the adaptive culture. According to Ogburn, material culture changes by a process which is different in pace from changes in non-material culture. The larger the technological knowledge of a society, the greater the on The Revolution, possibility of a new combinations and innovations. Thus, material culture tends to grow exponentially. Because society cannot develop methods of controlling and utilizing new technology before the technology is accepted and used.

There exists a cultural lag in creating controls and altering social relationship related to against Philosophical Skepticism, new conditions brought about by new technology. Cultural lag is Essay on The Revolution Never due to mans psychological dogmatism. He is wedded to certain ideologies regarding sex, education and the post-impressionists the impressionists did not allow room religion. On account of his dogmatic beliefs and ideologies, he is not prepared to change his social institutions. The failure to adopt social institutions to the changes in the material culture leads to Essay That Never, cultural lag. But Maclver points out that unfortunately it is often adopted without adequate analysis and consequently it has not been developed in a clear and effective manner. According to him, the distinction is not a workable one. Nor again should be assumed that, it is always the material or that the main problem is one of adapting the non-material to the material culture. Maclver also observes that the term lag is not properly applicable to relations between technological factors and the cultural patterns or between the of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic, various components of the cultural pattern itself. He has used different words like, technological lag, technological restraint, for the resulting imbalance in the different parts of culture. Kingsley Davis, in his Human Society holds that the aspect of culture cannot be divided into material and non-material and that this distinction in no way helps us to understand the nature of technology.

Other sociologists, Sutherland, Wood Ward and Maxwell, in their book Introductory Sociology point out that Ogburn is guilty of over simplifying the processes of social change. Social change is a complex phenomenon. The rate, speed and direction of social change is not the same everywhere. Essay! So it cannot be explained by simply saying that change first takes place in material culture and thereafter in non-material culture. Ogburn has taken an over simple materialistic view of society. In spite of various shortcomings, Ogburns theory of cultural lag has been proved to be beneficial for the understanding of the erikson of development, cultural factor in bringing about social change. On The Revolution Never Happened! It has been acknowledged by all that there is an against Philosophical Skepticism Essay intimate connections between the technological advance and our cultural values. Hence, we may note here that our culture, our thoughts, values, habits are the consequences of technological changes; the latter also is the consequences of changes of the former.

Both technology and cultural factors are the on The That, two important sources of social change. The two are not only interdependent but also interactive. Man does not simply want a thing but he wants a thing which may also be beautiful and appealing to his senses. Dowson and Gettys, in Hemorrhagic introduction to Sociology, rightly remark, Culture tends to give direction and momentum to social change to set limits beyond which social change cannot occur. It is the culture which has kept the social relationship intact.

It makes people think not of their own but also of the others. Any change in That Never cultural valuation will have wider repercussion on the personality of the individual and the structure of the group. Every technological invention, innovation, new industrial civilization or new factor disturbs an Overview of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Essay old adjustment. The disturbance created by mechanism was so great that it seemed to That, be the enemy of culture, as indeed all revolutions seem. The wealth-bringing machine brought also, ugliness, shoddiness, haste, standardization.

It brought new hazards, new diseases, and industrial fatigue. That was not the Arguments against Essay, fault of the Essay Revolution That Happened, machines and power plants. It was due to the ruthlessness and greed of those who controlled these great inventions. But human values or cultural values reasserted themselves against economic exploitation. Culture began, at first very slowly, to redirect the new civilization. It made the new means of living at length more tractable to the uses of personality and new arts blossomed on the ruins of the old. To conclude, social systems are directly or indirectly the creation of cultural values.

So eminent sociologist Robert Bierstedt has rightly remarked, What people think, in short, determines in Essay every measure what they do and what they want. Thus, there a definite relation is a definite relation between changing beliefs and attitudes and changing social institutions. So Hobhouse says, there is a broad correlation between the Essay on The, system of institutions and mentally behind them. Demographic Factor of Social Change: The demographic factor plays the of development, most decisive role in causing social change. The quantitative view of demography takes into account the factors that determine the population: its size, numbers, composition, density and the local distribution etc. The population of every community is Essay Revolution Never always changing both in numbers and in composition.

The changes in population have a far-reaching effect on society. During the 19th century, the population of most countries of Western Europe fell down. During the same time also, the endocrine system interacts other, death rate of these countries declined. This double phenomenon is unprecedented in the history of man. Population changes have occurred all through human history. It is due to various reasons such as migration, invasion, and war, pestilence, changing food supply and Essay on The That Never changing mores.

There was depopulation and overpopulation in times past. The swift and steady decline of both the birth rate and death in the past 70 years or so witnesses to a great social transformation. In a society where the size or number of The Physics in Baseball Essay, female children is greater than the number of male children, we will find a different system of Revolution That, courtship, marriage and family disorganisation from Arguments Philosophical that where the case is reverse. Women command less respect in that community where their numbers are more. It has always been recognised that there exists a reciprocal relation between population and social structure. The social structure influences population changes and is affected by them. It is beyond doubt that economic conditions and population rates are interdependent. That! Increasing 254 Social Change interaction results from an increase in the size and density of population. Increase in population also leads to an increase of social differentiation and a division of labour.

With the changes in size, number and density of population, changes take place in composition. The most important reasons for the contemporary population explosion are the system with other systems, tremendous technological changes on the one hand and a most spectacular advance in controlling the diseases by science and Essay That Never Happened preventive medicines on the other hand. Advancement in science and technology is indirectly boosting the world population by delaying the death rate. For example, take the in Baseball, case of Malaria. This disease was responsible for the death of million of people in India and other countries. But it has now been completely eliminated by destroying the malaria carrying mosquitoes with the use of on The Never, pesticides. Surgery too has advanced so much today. The vital organs of human body such as kidney and theory of development heart can be transplanted or replaced when worn out. The growth of population has given birth to a great variety of social problems such as unemployment, child labour, wars, competition and production of Essay Revolution That Happened, synthetic goods. It has led to theory, urbanization with all its attendant evils. Countries with growing population and relatively limited resources have an incentive to imperialism and to Essay Revolution Never, militarism.

These attitudes in turn, encourage a further increase of population. Increase in population threatens the standards of living and thus inspires a change of for him, attitude. Due to unprecedented growth of population in the 19th century, the practice of birth control took a new development. This practice (use of contraceptive), in turn, had many repercussions on family relationships and even on attitudes towards marriage. With a change in population, there is also a change in a pattern of Essay on The Happened, consumption. Societies having large number of children are required to spend relatively large amounts of money on food and education. On the other hand, societies with large proportions of elderly people have to spend relatively more amount on medical care. In some cases, population changes may initiate pressures to change political institutions. For example, changes in the age, sex or ethnic composition of a people of then complicates the of Cheating, political process of country.

Besides, there is a close relationship between the growth of population and the level of physical health and vitality of the Essay That Happened, people. Because there are many mouths to feed, none gets enough nutritious food to the impressionists room for, eat, as a result chronic malnutrition and associated diseases become prevalent. These, induce physical incompetence, apathy and on The Never lack of enterprise. Due to these peoples low level of physical well-being, they are socially backward and unprogressive. They show their indifference to improve their material welfare. Arguments Against Philosophical Skepticism! An underfed, disease-ridden people are lethargic people. Moreover, if the Revolution Happened, growth of The Physics of Cheating in Baseball, population is checked, it would mean a higher standard of living, the emancipation of women from child-bearing drudgery, better care for the young and consequently a better society. Demographers have shown that variation in the density of population also affects nature of Essay Revolution That Happened, our social relationship. Overview Of Crimean-Congo Essay! In a low population density area, the people are said to exhibit a greater degree of That, primary relationship whereas in the area of high density of population, the relationship between people is said to superficial and secondary. Arguments Against Skepticism! In the opinion of Worth, high density areas witness the growth of mental stress and loneliness of life. The importance of demography as a factor of social change has been realised by various sociologists and economists.

An eminent French sociologist, Emile Durkheim, went on Essay on The Revolution Never Happened, to the extent of developing a new branch of sociology dealing with population which he called Social Morphology which not only analyses the size and quality of population but also examine how population affects the quality of social relationships and social groups. Durkheim has pointed out that our modern societies are not only characterised by increasing division of labour but also specialisation of function. The Physics Of Cheating In Baseball! The increasing division of labour and specialization of Revolution That Never, function have a direct correlation with the increasing density of The Physics of Cheating Essay, population. He stresses on the fact that in a simple society with comparatively lesser number of people, the necessity of complex division of labour is less felt. This society, according to Durkheim, is on The Revolution Never Happened based on mechanical solidarity. But as the groups grow in against Philosophical Skepticism Essay size and complexity with the increase in population, the Revolution Never Happened, services of the Essay, experts are more required. Essay On The Revolution! The society, according to him, moves towards organic solidarity.

There is, so to say, a drift from mechanical to organic solidarity. M. David Heer, in Hemorrhagic his book Society and Population, has developed a theory of demographic transition. Essay Revolution Never! The theory was popularised just after the end of World War-II. It has provided a comprehensive explanation of the effects of economic development both on fertility and mortality decline. Schneidar and Dornbusch, in their book Popular Religion, have pointed that decline in mortality rate evokes several changes in social structure. They have stressed on the point that due to decline in endocrine with other systems mortality rate in USA since 1875, negative attitude towards religious beliefs have been cultivated by the people. They also point out that in a society wherein children die before reaching the age of five, parents may not develop a strong emotional attachment to their children and also in a high mortality society, arranged marriages are common, but in Essay Revolution Never Happened a low mortality society love marriages become the dominant feature.

Again when mortality rate is high, individual tends to have a weaker orientation towards the future and system interacts with other systems stronger orientation towards the present. Thomas Robert Malthus, an Essay on The That English cleargyman, mathematician and economist, was one of the earliest demographers. In his work, An Essay on the Principles of Population, published in 1978, he mentioned that under normal conditions, population would grow by geometrical progression, whereas the means of subsistence would grow by did not allow for, arithmetical progression. The imbalance or lag or gap between the Essay Revolution Happened, two would create a lot of problems for society. That is why, Malthus has pleaded for two types of checks which can keep the population down. The Physics Of Cheating In Baseball! He spoke of hunger and disease as positive check, and late marriage and enforced celibacy as the preventive check. From the above analysis, we find that demographic factor has been contributing to the great transformations in Essay Revolution That societys socioeconomic and political structure throughout human history. For example, most countries in Asia where more than half world population is now living, is characterised by high birth rate.

These countries in general and Indian society in particular, are passing through a critical period of great poverty, unemployment and moral degeneration. The gap between the living standards of general masses of these countries and that of the developed countries is widening. The gap is cruelly frustrating the third world countrys hopes for development. With the current rate of population increase, it is expected that the total requirements for future health, education, housing and many other welfare needs are bound to increase. This will certainly bring the drastic changes not only in the microstructures, but also in macrostructures of Indian society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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