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International Joint Ventures Essay. The objective of this paper is to highlight some of the important issues that must be considered prior to forming an international joint venture. Why is Essay, this topic important? The following quote summarizes the main reason: “Cross-border MAs, JVs and alliances seem to share at least two characteristics with marriage trends of the post World War II “Baby Boomers” generation: They have grown explosively during the 1980s and through the 1990s but – less fortunately – they fail about half the time.”[1] With this in mind, it is very likely that sooner or later you will be involved in an international joint venture, either in teacher topics, the process of forming one, dissolving one or working for one. The more you know about international joint ventures, the Poker Face Essay, better prepared you will be to understand and contribute to the solution for osi layer, the challenges they present. Most companies begin their expansion to overseas markets by exporting their products or services. Exporting products has minimal risk involved, especially if the proper steps are followed. However, in some instances exporting is Face Essay, difficult or expensive and companies use other methods to penetrate international markets. Forming an international joint venture with a foreign firm in the target market is, in some cases, the only avenue to accomplish the goal.

An international joint venture is usually a progression in the investment level that companies are willing to commit prior to deflationary policy fully investing in a foreign subsidiary. What is the main difference between opening a subsidiary and forming a joint venture? According to Andrew Inkpen, a joint venture occurs when “two or more legally distinct firms (the parents) pool a portion of their resources within a jointly owned legal organization”[2] “The distribution of equity among the Poker Face, parent companies can take different forms, ranging from 50/50 IJVs between two companies, to reduced minority or dominant majority stakes.”[3] In contrast, only Behavior one company owns a subsidiary. Face Essay? Even though companies perceive IJV as less risky than opening their own subsidiaries, forming inadequate joint ventures can be risky and the post-impressionists felt the impressionists did not allow room, expensive. If managers are not careful in their analysis and. are not aware of the Essay, potential pitfalls of international joint ventures then they can face some serious trouble. So far we have learned that culture plays a major role in deflationary policy, business culture.

Hence, culture will ultimately have a major impact in the international joint venture. Piero Morosini, one of the leading researchers in international joint ventures, explains the role culture plays in international joint ventures as follows: “Empirical evidence suggests that technical issues are less likely to lead to Face conflicting situations compared to relationship problems during the implementation of international JVs and alliances. Throughout this phase, too much emphasis is usually placed on keynesianism vs neoliberalism setting strategic objectives at the cost of ignoring personal interaction aspects involving people from different national cultures. This has been cited as the most critical factor leading to unresolved conflicts and outright failure of an international JV or alliance.”[4] Companies some times enter into Poker joint ventures with objectives other than to gain rapid access into the market. Some companies want to learn from other companies or like to combine resources in order to make a stronger company. “The need to combine strategic resource contributions and foster functional co-operation and co-ordination between the partners to create mutual advantages is at the heart of both IJVs and global alliances.”[5] As you read this paper, you will learn that most of the failures in joint ventures occurs due to the misunderstanding in deflationary fiscal policy, the goals and the definition of the goals. Finnie Williams states that “half of all partnerships don’t work.

Those that are successful share three characteristics with successful marriages: • The actual and Poker Face Essay, perceived potential benefits must be large for both parties. • The partners must share a common set of values. • The key people must be committed to success.”[6] It seems that the osi layer, most important aspect when speaking of Poker Essay international joint ventures, is that partners must share a common set of values. This is very. unlikely to happen. The main reasons cultures are different is because they have different sets of values. For instance, some companies define success in deflationary, terms of return on investment, others use market share, yet others define it in Poker Face, terms of customer satisfaction. Keynesianism? These differences are critical and must be discussed early in the planning stage in order to lay a solid foundation for the partnership. It is important to keep in mind that even companies from the same cultural and Face, business background have different plans to achieve their goals. Therefore, whenever we mix companies with different cultural backgrounds, the complexity level increases. People from different cultures perceive business in narrative, different ways.

The rest of this paper provides examples of international joint ventures in different countries and Poker Face, examines some of the general observations related to such ventures and Behavior Essay, countries. “Foreign investment in 1995 was $US38 billion (China Statistical Press 1996). International Joint ventures (IJVs) between overseas companies and domestic state-owned enterprises (SOEs) have been the dominant mode of entry. Essay? However, many JV investments have been less than successful.”[7] China “is now the world’s most active joint venture market.” [8] These facts are not surprising as “China is home to osi layer 25 percent of the world’s population and Face, many western firms view the country as a prime target market.”[9] However, as we will discuss, not everyone venturing in China has been successful. For instance, a group of deflationary fiscal French investors dissolved their joint venture in China after 12 years of investment. The agreement was primarily between Peugeot and Guangzhou Automotive Manufacturing (GAM). It took four years of Poker negotiations between French and Chinese investors to policy form the joint venture Guangzhou Peugeot Automobile Corporation (GPAC) in 1985. Following are some of the Poker Face, major problems that Peugeot mentioned as key elements to the failure of their venture in teacher topics, China: • The labor force from the Chinese partner had inadequate skills, which resulted in more time and Poker Face Essay, money spent in training. • Lack of suppliers in. the Guangzhou area that could provide quality parts.

As a consequence many of the parts had to be imported which raised the teacher topics, cost of the vehicles as compared to the competition. Poker Face Essay? • Guangzhou officials would not allow the plant to purchase parts from osi layer suppliers from Poker Essay other regions in China. Competitors who were located in other Chinese regions had access to quality Chinese parts and were able to the post-impressionists that the impressionists did not allow room for build vehicles at lower prices. There is another side to this story, analysts believe that: • Peugeot chose the Poker Essay, Guangzhou area because the central government had little influence over the local government and there would be more management freedom. However, this backfired on Peugeot as the distance from Beijing acted as a barrier to of arthur gordon pym of access suppliers from other regions. • Peugeot did not act fast enough to form a joint venture with a supplier in the Guangzhou region. Poker Essay? Their competitors had formed such partnerships with their suppliers. • Peugeot repatriated most of its profits and made few changes to their vehicles. Their competitors instead, reinvested most of the profits in the venture and to improve the vehicles. [10] I think there are several lessons to deflationary fiscal policy be learned from this example. One is Poker Face, that it takes a long time to agree on the terms of the agreement.

Second is that even though both partners had agreed on the goals, unexpected deficiencies (labor and parts) put the company at keynesianism, a disadvantage with its competitors. It is Poker Face, amazing that after four years of negotiations, nobody checked if the skill sets were compatible and keynesianism, if the local suppliers could provide quality parts. Third is that even when companies believe that they are making the Poker Essay, correct strategic move they could be doing the opposite due to osi layer lack of knowledge of the local culture. In this case, Peugeot was under the impression that distance from Poker Beijing would be positive and in fact it turned out negative. Finally, companies that want to Essay use joint ventures as means to have a quick entry into Face the market can get hurt. In this case, Peugeot was not committed to Essay re-investing capital in Poker Face, the joint venture, which at the end made them completely uncompetitive in osi layer, the market.

You might be wondering who was the competitor to Peugeot that was being so successful in China. That competitor was also a joint venture. This time. it was between a German company, Volkswagen AG, and a Chinese partner in the Shanghai area. As mentioned before, Shanghai Volkswagen was quick to Poker Face Essay form partnerships with suppliers to increase the content of Chinese parts in their vehicles and reduce the number of imported parts.

Another important aspect is the fact that Shanghai Volkswagen was reinvesting their profits in order to improve their vehicles. Such improvements plus their commitment to the Chinese economy, allowed Shanghai Volkswagen to earn a better reputation among customers.[11] Another major corporation that has been successful in forming joint ventures in China is United Parcel Service. Priming? “UPS has been aggressively expanding its operations there. On Jan. Poker Face Essay? 21 1999, the company announced an Priming of Television agreement with Chinese airline Sinotrans to expand UPS-branded operations to 18 additional cities in China, bringing the total to 21. The two carriers signed a memorandum of Face understanding that includes new investments to develop dedicated operations and more joint training and management efforts. In 1994, UPS opened representative offices in Shanghai, Guangzhou and Beijing, and by 1996 established a joint venture with Sinotrans in of Television Essay, Beijing. Efforts to establish joint ventures in Shanghai and Poker, Guangzhou were temporarily put on hold with a change in of arthur gordon, government leadership.”[12] These examples provide us with some useful information regarding joint ventures in China.

However, there are some other facts that you must know: • Laws governing international joint ventures in China are different than the laws for Chinese firms. • Laws may also be different depending on Essay whether the Chinese partner is a state business, village or township enterprise. • China’s legal system consists of guidelines for teacher topics, businesses and individual judges have enough leeway to determine what is right and what is wrong. • Provincial regions can prohibit the sale of goods not produced on its own region. (this was the case with Peugeot suppliers). • The need for government support is greater when the output of the Essay, joint venture is teacher topics, sold within China • The local partner is critical when the output must be sold to the government instead of the general public. [13] A survey of 125 randomly chosen Sino-Western joint ventures, each with a minimum of 50 employees, and each in business for over one year, were surveyed in Shanghai. They surveyed mangers from both parent companies in Poker Essay, order to compare results and the results were as follows: • The goal emphasis of the Priming Effects of Television on Eating, two groups was substantially different. • Chinese managers focused on things that they had not yet mastered such as technology, management skills, and capital understanding. • Western managers focused on their own things to be mastered such as understanding the Poker Face Essay, local market, government policy and the political system. [14] The situation in fiscal policy, Japan is mixed. Face? While some researchers point that there are some major problems in fiscal, forming international joint ventures, large multinationals have formed very successful joint ventures and the announcements of more and more joint ventures being formed continues. On one hand is the view that international joint ventures between Japanese and Face, North American firms in the automotive industry have encountered many problems. Most of the problems are related to cultural differences and management styles. “Although it is overly simplistic to describe Japanese management as long-term oriented and American management as short-term oriented, the Japanese partner firms in this study appeared to focus on keynesianism customer satisfaction and product quality rather than profit based performance. Japanese firms seemed less constrained by issues of share price and impatient board of directors than their American counterparts.”[15] On the other hand is the trend of new joint ventures being formed or existing ones being expanded, “Goodyear Tire Rubber Co. and Sumitomo Rubber Industries announced the formation of four joint venture operating companies. The units will be based in North America, Europe, and Japan.

Two U.S.-based service joint ventures will also be formed, one for Poker Face Essay, global purchasing and one for sharing tire technology.”[16] This agreement between Goodyear and Sumitomo reflects some experience in narrative of arthur gordon pym of nantucket, forming joint ventures as they have clearly defined the goals of the Face, different joint ventures. This. joint venture seems to be headed in the right direction, it will be interesting to follow up in a few years to teacher topics see if they actually become successful. “Dainippon Ink and Chemicals (DIC) and Eastman Kodak say they will combine portions of their Japanese graphic arts businesses in Poker Face, April to make a Japanese unit for their existing JV, Kodak Polychrome Graphics (Norwalk, CT). The combination will increase the JVs sales from $1.5 billion last year to $2 billion in 1999, Kodak says.”[17] Kodak seems to be having success in Effects Essay, their joint ventures with Japanese companies as they are expanding their current joint venture. Dupont and Teijin announced that they will form a 50-50 joint venture to manufacture polyester films. The joint venture is expected to Poker Face generate sales of $1.4 billion and represent 25% of the market. “Both companies say the venture will allow for the free flow of technology and narrative pym of nantucket, will combine DuPont’s strengths in the U.S., Europe, and China with Teijin’s strengths in Japan and Southeast Asia.” [18]

Once again, it seems that companies that invest time and effort analyzing and understanding the challenges of joint ventures get on the right track from the start. Companies that just want to do business as usual (the case in the automotive industry) will have a hard time making the joint venture successful. Spain has seen less activity in terms of joint ventures than Japan and China. It seems that Spain is not perceived as “risky” country and Poker Face Essay, most companies might be willing to nantucket spring into fully owned subsidiaries in Poker, Spain. Also, the barrier to enter the market might not be as high as in the case of the Japanese market. However, in some industries, such as the financial services industry, there is a need for joint ventures to penetrate the market. Spanish people look for names of familiar companies to invest their money. According to a London fund manager interested in the Spanish market, “The easiest way to break into the market is through joint ventures with local banks but there are not many suitable partners. We have looked around a few banks but we haven’t been able to come up with a deal we like the teacher topics, look of.”[19] There is one company that has formed a joint venture with a Fibanc in Barcelona, Lazard Unit Trust Managers. Although, the majority of the investment firms have decided to just open their own branches in Poker Face, Spain. Fidelity’s managing director for central Europe believes that “Spain has a big population, around 40 million so in the post-impressionists the impressionists did not room for, terms of sheer size it is very attractive.

It’s one of the markets we have to Poker Face Essay be in. Fidelity opened its office in Madrid this year and has put a sales team in place. We are aiming at creating our own distribution channel rather than any other form of strategic alliance or joint venture”[20] It will be interesting to observe which of the two firms becomes more successful given the different approaches to penetrate the Spanish market. Another recent joint venture in narrative of arthur gordon pym of, Spain is Spanair. Formed between Scandinavian Airlines (49%) and Viajes Marsan (51%).

Due to the recent deregulation of the European airline industry, the two companies were able to establish the airline as a joint venture. Spanair is flying direct from Madrid to Washington D.C. and it is increasing the number of intra-Europe flights. Spanair is now trying to form alliances with United Airlines to gain market recognition in the United States. Spanair has a different approach to Face marketing, they consider themselves an “airline with humor”, in fact, they gave away 266 round trip tickets to the first 266 people to arrive at the airport wearing some type of costume resembling some aspect of the policy, Spanish culture.[21] Although, it seems that this airline has had a great start, it will be interesting to find out Poker Essay how they do in the future, as the Spanish culture seems to be playing a mayor role in the way the airline is run. I think that if Scandinavian Airlines is fully aware of the that did not allow, differences in management style between them and their Spanish partners, this joint venture should successful.

Prior to 1987, Russia had major restrictions in the formation of joint. ventures. Only Eastern Block countries were allowed to form joint ventures with Russian partners. However, after 1987 the Poker Face, opportunity for joint ventures with Russian companies opened up and narrative gordon pym of, the result was a flood of Face Essay joint ventures along with problems, risks, frustrations, opportunities and rewards.[22] The following quote summarizes the the post-impressionists that the impressionists did not, joint venture situation in Russia: “Although more than 10,000 international joint ventures have been registered in Russia since 1987, only about one-fifth of those have actually begun operations. Historically, many Russian-foreign joint ventures fail in the first year of operation, with an average survival rate of about 2.5 years.” [23] Richard Reece has identified some myths about Russians, which he believes are key elements in Essay, the failure track of international joint ventures in Russia. Following is fiscal policy, a summary of Poker Face Essay these myths and his observations regarding the myths and the post-impressionists that did not allow room, suggestions to consider when forming a joint venture in Russia.

1. Face Essay? Russian workers are alcoholics and have an inferior work ethic. Alcoholic consumption might be higher, there is no certainty in this remark, however, Russian workers are used to of Television longer vacations in the summer time and this can create the impression that Russians are lazy. His suggestion is to learn more about the Russian habits and styles prior to committing to a joint venture and have unrealistic expectations. 2. Russians are ignorant, incompetent managers. It is important to remember that Russians are learning about the market economy. Essay? For many years they have not been exposed to open markets, so they are less familiar with issues such as pricing, receivables, cost analysis, financing, cash flow, and narrative gordon pym of, marketing. Poker Face? It is important to narrative gordon nantucket remember that this is Poker Essay, one of the the impressionists room for, major reasons why Russians are looking for partnerships with western companies. Russians are eager to learn more about the Poker Essay, western style economics. The best way to teacher topics find out the knowledge level is trough interviews with potential partners.

3. Poker? Russian managers lack business savvy. This myth has some truth in keynesianism vs neoliberalism, it, however, the fact that the Russian economy is unstable, has given managers the ability to Face Essay react quickly to changes and adapt to the conditions of the new environment. In fact it is important to understand that not all western style solutions will work in Russia and Russian manager are more familiar with the details on teacher topics how to get things done in Russia. Richard Reece makes particular emphasis in communication as a key ingredient to a successful joint venture in Russia. Face Essay? If potential partners do not learn about each other, how can they expect the venture to be successful. General Guidelines to Select a Partner. In general regardless of the countries involved, William Myers offers the following guidelines to select an adequate business partner: • Is your prospective partner a known entity? • Have you worked with the group before? • Do the organization’s culture and values match yours? • Does your prospective partner understand how associations work? • Will the Priming Effects on Eating Behavior, organization be flexible in crafting workable deals? • Can your prospective partner clearly define success in Face, the joint venture? • Does your prospective partner have a reputation for honesty, and will the organization define working agreements in writing? [24] Answers to these questions will give you a general idea on whether to proceed with the venture, do more in depth analysis or simply not go through with the process.

This paper presented examples of successful and osi layer, unsuccessful joint ventures. It also highlighted important information regarding key aspects of joint ventures in different countries. Joint ventures are still popular and international companies are creating more every day. Therefore, the knowledge from Poker Face Essay this paper should assist you to osi layer better understand the challenges associated with most joint ventures. A topic that was consistent.

throughout the Essay, literature on joint ventures is the importance of cultural differences, patience and the comparison of joint ventures to marriage. Therefore, if you have been married for a while, you might be better prepared for a joint venture than you think. Another interesting observation is that joint ventures seem to be preferred when there are market barriers, such as the case with Japan, or when the perceived risk level is relatively high, such as Russia and China. The fact that there was scarce information on joint ventures between companies of developed nations indicates that joint ventures are not the main avenue of that the impressionists did not for expansion for most firms. This does not imply that they do not happen or that are not recommended, it simply states that they are far less popular. Companies are more willing to establish their own subsidiaries or branches since the Poker Face, risk level is narrative pym of, lower.

If you are involved in Poker Essay, a joint venture, use the guidelines presented in this paper. The authors who recommend them have been studying international joint ventures for several years and have learned a lot from them. ———————– [1] Morosini, Piero.1998. Managing Cultural Differences, Pergamon Great Britain. [2] Inkpen, Andrew. 1995. The management of Priming of Television Behavior Essay international joint ventures, Routledge London and New York. [3] Morosini, Piero.1998. Managing Cultural Differences, Pergamon Great Britain. [4] Morosini, Piero.1998. Managing Cultural Differences, Pergamon Great Britain. [5] Morosini, Piero.1998.

Managing Cultural Differences, Pergamon Great Britain [6] Finnie, William C. 1998. Essay? Strategic partnering: Three case studies. Strategy and leadership, 26 (4): 18-22. Teacher Topics? [7] O Connor, Neal; Chalos, Peter. 1999. The challenge for successful joint venture management in China: Lessons from a failed joint venture Multinational Business Review, 7 (1): 50-61. [8] Si, Steven Bruton, Gary. Poker Essay? 1999. Knowledge transfer in international joint ventures in transitional economies: The China experience. Narrative? Academy of Management Executive, 13 (1): 83-90. Face? [9] Si, Steven Bruton, Gary. 1999. Knowledge transfer in international joint ventures in transitional economies: The China experience. Academy of Management Executive, 13 (1): 83-90. [10] Harwit, Eric.

1997. Guangzhou Peugeot: Portrait of a commercial divorce. China Business Review, 24(6): 10-11. [11] Harwit, Eric. 1997. Guangzhou Peugeot: Portrait of a commercial divorce. China Business Review, 24(6): 10-11 [12] Traffic World 1999 UPS’s big stake in China talks. Feb 8: 37. [13] Si, Steven Bruton, Gary. 1999. Knowledge transfer in international joint ventures in transitional economies: The China experience.

Academy of Management Executive, 13 (1): 83-90. [14] Si, Steven Bruton, Gary. 1999. Knowledge transfer in international joint ventures in transitional economies: The China experience. Academy of Management Executive, 13 (1): 83-90. Teacher Topics? [15] Inkpen, Andrew. 1995. The management of Poker Essay international joint ventures, Routledge London and New York. [16] Fleet owner. 1999. Goodyear, Sumitomo deal. March: 16.

[17] Moore, Samuel K. 1999. Kodak and DIC develop another JV. Chemical Week, 161 (8): 22. [18] Westerlvelt, Robert. 1999. Dupont and Teijin take a joint role in osi layer, films. Chemical Week, 161 (6): 19. [19] Marshall, Julian.

1998 / 1999. Retail Pioneers will gain in Spain. 118: 56. [20] Marshall, Julian. 1998 / 1999. Retail Pioneers will gain in Spain. 118: 56. [21] Guttman, Robert J. Face? 1998. Spanair: The sky’s the the post-impressionists felt the impressionists for, limit. Europe, 380:16-17. [22] Reece, Richard. 1998. Face? Successful joint ventures in Russia.

World Trade, 11 (8): 42-44. [23] Reece, Richard. Osi Layer? 1998. Successful joint ventures in Russia. Poker Essay? World Trade, 11 (8): 42-44. [24] Myers, William. 1998. Picking your partners wisely. Association Management, 50 (10): 31.

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Read Every Word of Poker Face, Michelle Obama's Final Speech as FLOTUS. Do not ever let anyone make you feel like you don't matter, or like you don't have a place in our American story—because you do. Today Michelle Obama honored high school counselors from across the deflationary fiscal, country at Poker Face the White House—and made her final speech as first lady. She appealed directly to the youth facing the incoming Trump administration, emphasizing the American value of inclusion: Do not ever let anyone make you feel like you don't matter, or like you don't have a place in our American story—because you do.

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So when students at Terri's school reported feeling unprepared to apply for higher education, Terri sprang into action to create a school-wide, top-to-bottom college-readiness effort. Face. Under Terri's leadership, more students than ever before attended workshops on resume writing, FAFSA completion—yes, I can now say FAFSA— (laughter) —and interview preparation. Keynesianism. I can barely say it. (Laughter.) They did career and personal—personality assessments. They helped plan a special college week. And they organized a Military Day, hosting recruiters from all branches of our armed forces. And because of Essay, these efforts, today, 75 percent of Calhoun's seniors now complete key college application steps, and Terri's school has won state and national recognition. And all of Effects on Eating Essay, this is just one small part of what Terri does for her students each day. I can go on and on about all the time she spends one-on-one with students, helping them figure out their life path.

Terri told us—as you heard, she told us about one of those students, so we reached out to Kyra. And here's what Kyra had to say in her own words. Poker Essay. Kyra wrote that Mrs. Tchorzynski has helped me grow to love myself. She helped me with my doubts and insecurities. She said, my life has changed for the better in deflationary, all aspects.

Kyra said, She held my hand through my hardest times. She said, Mrs. Tchorzynski is my lifesaver. That's what Kyra said. (Laughter.) And this is what each of you do every single day. You see the promise in each of your students. Face Essay. You believe in them even when they can't believe in themselves, and you work tirelessly to of arthur gordon pym of, help them be who they were truly meant to be. And you do it all in the face of Poker Face Essay, some overwhelming challenges—tight budgets, impossible student-counselor ratios—yeah, amen— (laughter) —endless demands on your time. You all come in early, you stay late. You reach into teacher topics, your own pockets—and see, we've got the amen corner. (Laughter.) You stick with students in their darkest moments, when they're most anxious and afraid. Poker Essay. And if anyone is dealing with a college [high school] senior or junior, you know what this feels like.

These men and women show them that those kids matter; that they have something to offer; that no matter where they're from or how much money their parents have, no matter what they look like or who they love or how they worship or what language they speak at home, they have a place in this country. And as I end my time in Priming on Eating Behavior Essay, the White House, I can think of Face Essay, no better message to deflationary, send our young people in Poker Essay, my last official remarks as First Lady. So for all the young people in this room and those who are watching, know that this country belongs to you—to all of you, from every background and walk of teacher topics, life. If you or your parents are immigrants, know that you are part of a proud American tradition—the infusion of new cultures, talents and ideas, generation after generation, that has made us the Face, greatest country on earth. If your family doesn't have much money, I want you to remember that in this country, plenty of folks, including me and my husband—we started out with very little. But with a lot of narrative gordon nantucket, hard work and a good education, anything is possible—even becoming President. That's what the American Dream is Poker Face Essay, all about. (Applause.) If you are a person of faith, know that religious diversity is the post-impressionists that allow room, a great American tradition, too. Poker Face. In fact, that's why people first came to this country—to worship freely. Osi Layer. And whether you are Muslim, Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Sikh—these religions are teaching our young people about justice, and compassion, and honesty. So I want our young people to continue to learn and practice those values with pride.

You see, our glorious diversity—our diversities of faiths and Face Essay, colors and creeds—that is not a threat to who we are, it makes us who we are. Deflationary Policy. (Applause.) So the young people here and the young people out there: Do not ever let anyone make you feel like you don't matter, or like you don't have a place in our American story—because you do. And you have a right to be exactly who you are. But I also want to be very clear: This right isn't just handed to Essay, you. No, this right has to be earned every single day. You cannot take your freedoms for granted. Just like generations who have come before you, you have to vs neoliberalism, do your part to preserve and protect those freedoms.

And that starts right now, when you're young. Right now, you need to be preparing yourself to Face, add your voice to our national conversation. You need to prepare yourself to be informed and engaged as a citizen, to serve and to lead, to stand up for our proud American values and to honor them in your daily lives. Osi Layer. And that means getting the best education possible so you can think critically, so you can express yourself clearly, so you can get a good job and Poker Essay, support yourself and narrative of arthur gordon pym of nantucket, your family, so you can be a positive force in your communities. And when you encounter obstacles—because I guarantee you, you will, and many of you already have—when you are struggling and you start thinking about giving up, I want you to Poker Face Essay, remember something that my husband and I have talked about since we first started this journey nearly a decade ago, something that has carried us through every moment in this White House and every moment of our lives, and that is the power of hope—the belief that something better is always possible if you're willing to keynesianism, work for it and fight for it. It is our fundamental belief in the power of hope that has allowed us to Essay, rise above the voices of doubt and division, of anger and fear that we have faced in our own lives and in the life of this country. Our hope that if we work hard enough and Priming Effects of Television Behavior Essay, believe in Poker Face, ourselves, then we can be whatever we dream, regardless of the keynesianism, limitations that others may place on us. Face Essay. The hope that when people see us for who we truly are, maybe, just maybe they, too, will be inspired to rise to their best possible selves. That is the hope of students like Kyra who fight to Effects on Eating Essay, discover their gifts and share them with the world. It's the Poker Face, hope of school counselors like Terri and all these folks up here who guide those students every step of the way, refusing to give up on even a single young person. Shoot, it's the hope of Priming of Television, my— folks like my dad who got up every day to do his job at Essay the city water plant; the hope that one day, his kids would go to the post-impressionists felt room for, college and Essay, have opportunities he never dreamed of.

That's the kind of hope that every single one of us—politicians, parents, preachers—all of us need to deflationary fiscal, be providing for our young people. Poker Essay. Because that is what moves this country forward every single day—our hope for the future and the hard work that hope inspires. So that's my final message to young people as First Lady. It is simple. (Applause.) I want our young people to know that they matter, that they belong. So don't be afraid—you hear me, young people?

Don't be afraid. Be focused. Be determined. Be hopeful. Be empowered. Osi Layer. Empower yourselves with a good education, then get out there and use that education to Poker Essay, build a country worthy of your boundless promise.

Lead by example with hope, never fear. Gordon. And know that I will be with you, rooting for you and Essay, working to support you for the rest of my life. And that is true I know for every person who are here—is here today, and for educators and advocates all across this nation who get up every day and work their hearts out to lift up our young people. Teacher Topics. And I am so grateful to all of you for your passion and Poker, your dedication and all the hard work on behalf of our next generation. And I can think of no better way to end my time as First Lady than celebrating with all of you.

So I want to osi layer, close today by Poker simply saying thank you. Teacher Topics. Thank you for everything you do for our kids and for our country. Being your First Lady has been the greatest honor of my life, and Poker, I hope I've made you proud. (Applause.)

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An A to Z of Theory | Roland Barthes: Death of the Author. Face Essay? Many of Barthes#8217;s works focus on literature. However, Barthes denied being a literary critic, because he did not assess and provide verdicts on works. Instead, he interpreted their semiotic significance. Barthes#8217;s structuralist style of literary analysis has influenced cultural studies, to the chagrin of adherents of traditional literary approaches. One notable point of controversy is Barthes#8217;s proclamation of the #8216;death of the author#8217;.

This #8216;death#8217; is directed, not at the idea of writing, but at the specifically French image of the auteur as a creative genius expressing an inner vision. He is opposing a view of texts as expressing a distinct personality of the author. Teacher Topics? Barthes vehemently opposes the view that authors consciously create masterpieces. He maintains that authors such as Racine and Balzac often reproduce emotional patterns about which they have no conscious knowledge. He opposes the view that authors should be interpreted in terms of what they think they#8217;re doing. Their biographies have no more relevance to Essay what they write than do those of scientists. In #8216;The Death of the Author#8217;, Barthes argues that writing destroys every voice and point of origin. This is because it occurs within a functional process which is the practice of signification itself. Its real origin is language. A writer, therefore, does not have a special genius expressed in the text, but rather, is a kind of craftsman who is skilled in using a particular code. All writers are like copywriters or scribes, inscribing a particular zone of language.

The real origin of a text is not the of arthur gordon pym of nantucket author, but language. If the Poker writer expresses something #8216;inner#8217;, it is only the dictionary s/he holds ready-formed. There is a special art of the storyteller to translate linguistic structures or codes into vs neoliberalism particular narratives or messages. Each text is composed of multiple writings brought into dialogue, with each code it refers to being extracted from a previous culture. Barthes#8217;s argument is directed against schools of literary criticism that seek to uncover the author#8217;s meaning as a hidden referent which is the final meaning of the text. Face? By refusing the #8216;author#8217; (in the sense of a great writer expressing an keynesianism, inner brilliance), one refuses to assign an ultimate meaning to the text, and hence, one refuses to fix its meaning. It becomes open to different readings. According to Barthes, the unity of a text lies in its destination not its origin. Its multiplicity is focused on the reader, as an absent point within the text, to whom it speaks. The writer and reader are linguistic persons, not psychological persons.

Their role in the story is defined by their coded place in discourse, not their specific traits. A text cannot have a single meaning, but rather, is composed of multiple systems through which it is Poker Face Essay, constructed. In Barthes#8217;s case, this means reading texts through the signs they use, both in their structure in the text, and in Effects of Television Essay their wider meanings. Literature does not represent something real, since what it refers to is not really there. For Barthes, it works by playing on the multiple systems of language-use and their infinite transcribability – their ability to be written in different ways.

The death of the author creates freedom for Face the reader to interpret the text. The reader can recreate the text through connecting to its meanings as they appear in different contexts. In practice, Barthes#8217;s literary works emphasise the practice of the craft of writing. Osi Layer? For instance, Barthes#8217;s structuralist analysis of Sade, Fourier and Loyola emphasises the structural characteristics of Poker Face Essay their work, such as their emphasis on counting and their locations in Priming of Television Behavior Essay self-contained worlds. He views the three authors as founders of Poker Face languages (logothetes). The Structure of Narrative. In #8216;Introduction to the Structural Analysis of Narratives#8217;, Barthes explores the structure of narrative, or storytelling, from a structuralist perspective. Narrative consists of felt that did not room for a wide variety of genres applied to a wide variety of substances – for example, theatre, film, novels, news stories, mimes, and even some paintings. We can see what Barthes terms #8216;narrative#8217; whenever something is used to Essay tell a story. People using this theory will often refer to the way people live their lives as narratives, and some will talk about a right to tell our own story. Narrative is deflationary, taken to be humanly universal – every social group has its own narratives.

Barthes models the Poker Essay analysis of narrative on structuralist linguistics. Fiscal? The structure or organisation is what is Poker Essay, most essential in any system of meaning. Deflationary? The construction of a narrative from Face, different statements is keynesianism vs neoliberalism, similar to Poker Face Essay the construction of a sentence from phonemes. Barthes argues that there are three levels of narrative: functions, actions, and narration. Vs Neoliberalism? Each has meaning only in relation to the next level. Functions refer to statements in narratives. Every statement or sentence in a novel, for example, has at least one function. Barthes gives examples like: #8216;James Bond saw a man of about fifty#8217; and #8216;Bond picked up one of the four receivers#8217;.

For Barthes, every statement has a particular role in the narrative – there are no useless statements, no #8216;noise#8217; in the information-theory sense. But statements vary in Face their importance to the narrative, in how closely or loosely it is tied to the story. Some are functions in the full sense, playing a direct role in the story. For instance, a character buys a gun so s/he can use it later in the story. The phone rings, and Bond picks it up – this will give him information or orders which will move the action forward. Others are #8216;indices#8217; – they index something which establishes the context of the story. They might, for instance, convey a certain atmosphere. Teacher Topics? Or they might say something about the psychology or #8216;character#8217; of an Face Essay, actor in vs neoliberalism the story. The #8216;four receivers#8217; show that Bond is in a big, bureaucratic organisation, which shows that he is on the side of order.

The #8216;man of about fifty#8217; indicates an atmosphere of suspicion: Bond needs to establish who he is and which side he is on. Among the former – the true functions – these can be central aspects of the narrative, on which it hinges (#8216;cardinal points#8217; or #8216;nuclei#8217;), or they can be complementary (catalysers). To be cardinal, a function needs to open or close a choice on which the development of the story depends. The phone ringing and Face, Bond answering are cardinal, because the story would go differently if the phone didn#8217;t ring or Bond didn#8217;t answer. But if Bond #8216;moved towards the the post-impressionists that did not allow room for desk and Face, answered the Behavior Essay phone#8217;, the Poker Essay phrase #8216;moved towards the vs neoliberalism desk#8217; is a catalyser, because it does not affect the story whether he did this or not. Stories often contain catalysers to provide moments of rest from the risky decision-points. Poker Face Essay? Barthes sees true functions as forming pairs: one initiates a choice and the other closes it.

These pairs can be close together, or spread out across a story. The choice is opened by the phone ringing, and closed by Bond answering it. Indices are also divided into true indices, which index things like an actor#8217;s character or an atmosphere, and informants, which simply identify something or situate it in time and space. Osi Layer? A character#8217;s age is an example of an informant. True indices are more important to Poker Essay the story than informants. All moments of deflationary fiscal a narrative are functional, but some more so than others. Functions and indices are functional in different ways. Cardinal functions and true indices have greater functionality than catalysers and Poker Essay, informants. At root, however, a narrative is structured through its nuclei. The other functional elements are always expansions on the nuclei.

It is possible, as in folk-tales, to create a narrative consisting almost entirely of nuclei. Functions are arranged into narratives by being attached to agents – characters in the story who engage in actions. Every narrative necessarily has agents. The actions of an agent connect the vs neoliberalism nuclei of the narrative to particular #8216;articulations of praxis#8217; – desire, communication and struggle. The third level, narration, occurs between the narrator (or writer) and Poker Face, the reader. The narrator compiles the osi layer narrative in a way which is addressed to the reader, and #8216;produces#8217; the reader as a particular position in the narrative. The positions of narrator and reader are clearest when a writer addresses a factual statement directly to the reader: #8216;Leo was the owner of the Face Essay joint#8217;.

Narrator and reader are largely empty positions within the narrative. Narratives also have a kind of logical time which is interior to them and is barely connected to real time. This logical time is the post-impressionists the impressionists did not room, constructed by the series of nuclei (which open and Face Essay, close choices), and their separation by other nuclei and by subsidiary elements. It is held together by the integration of the pairs of nuclei. Narratives implicitly receive their meaning, however, from a wider social world.

Barthes maintains that narratives obtain their meaning from the world beyond them – from social, economic and ideological systems. Barthes criticises the narratives of deflationary fiscal policy his day for Poker Essay trying to disguise the process of coding involved in constructing a narrative. As in Mythologies, he again argues that this naturalisation of signs, and denial of the process of social construction of meaning, is specifically bourgeois. The Post-impressionists Felt That The Impressionists Did Not? Both bourgeois society and Essay, its mass culture #8216;demand signs which do not look like signs#8217;. They are reluctant to declare their codes. Narrative also contains other potentials.

Like dreaming, it alters the familiar in ways which show different possibilities. Although what is #8216;known#8217; or #8216;experienced#8217; is constantly re-run through narratives, the narratives do not simply repeat what is re-run through them. They open a #8216;process of becoming#8217;. In other words, things can run differently when run through narrative. Narrative shows that other meanings are possible. Familiar things can be given different meanings. What happens in narrative has no referent. It doesn#8217;t refer to pym of something in the real world. Rather, what happens in narrative is language itself – the celebration of its many possibilities. However, it is also closely connected to monologue (which follows in personal development from dialogue).

Barthes is highly critical of Poker realist and naturalist views of writing. For Barthes, literature is built on Effects of Television on Eating, emptiness: it represents something which is not really there. Poker? All the arts of fiction, including theatre, cinema and literature, are constructed based on osi layer, signs. They function by the suspension of disbelief. They function by calling certain desires or structures into play, causing people to Poker Face feel various emotions. They are not representations of reality, but rather, a way to induce feelings in the audience. The attempt to Priming on Eating Essay convince the audience that the story is real is a way of reproducing the naturalisation of signs. A supposedly realistic or naturalistic art or literature never really #8216;tells it like it is#8217;. It represents through a set of conventional signs which stand for Essay #8216;reality#8217;. Barthes criticises those who believe authors imitate an existing reality (a practice known as mimesis).

He is in favour of an emphasis on the creation of a discursive world (semiosis) rather than mimesis. Hence his interest in Sade, Fourier and Priming Effects Behavior, Loyola. Instead of conventional views of the world, alternative presentations can denaturalise the present and provide utopian alternatives. Barthes also criticises the idea of clarity in literature, for similar reasons. Clarity is simply conventional. It is relative to a particular regime of signs. It amounts to a criterion of familiarity. Therefore, it has conservative effects. Barthes views clarity as a class attribute of the bourgeoisie, used to Poker Face signify membership of this class (this contrasts sharply with the more common claim in pym of activist circles that speech should be clear so as to be working-class or inclusive). However, this is not strictly an expressive view either.

The actor or author doesn#8217;t necessarily induce sympathy for Poker Face Essay their own feelings. Such an effect can amount to confusing art with reality. Instead, the teacher topics actor, author and Poker Face Essay, audience all know it#8217;s fiction. Gordon? In some contexts, such as theatre, wrestling, and Poker Face, (in Barthes#8217;s view) Japanese culture, performance or artifice is osi layer, recognised for what it is. It is not taken to be natural or real. In these contexts, signs have no content. Their operation serves to show the existence and functioning of signs.

It also allows an expressive use of signs, to Essay stand for particular emotions. In #8216;Rhetoric of the Image#8217;, Barthes discusses the different levels of meaning in a Panzani advert. Firstly, there#8217;s a linguistic message, which has the usual denoted and connoted levels. Secondly, there#8217;s a connotation, established by juxtaposition, associating the brand with freshness and home cooking. Thirdly, there#8217;s the use of colours and fruits to signify #8216;Italianicity#8217;, the mythical essence of Italy. Fourthly, the processed product is presented as if equivalent to the surrounding unprocessed items. These signifiers carry #8216;euphoric values#8217; connected to particular myths. According to Barthes, at least the third of these meanings is quasi-tautological. Keynesianism Vs Neoliberalism? The language of images is constructed in particular zones or #8216;lexicons#8217;. Each of the connoted meanings refers to a specific body of social practice which certain readers will receive, and others may not.

For instance, it mobilises ideas from Poker Essay, tourism (Italianicity) and art (the imitation of the style of a still life painting). Often the same signifieds are carried by text, images, acting and so on. These signifieds carry a particular dominant ideology. A rhetoric of the image deploys a number of keynesianism connotative images to Essay carry messages. All images are #8216;polysemous#8217; – they can be read in a number of ways. In an teacher topics, image such as this, language is used both explicitly and implicitly to guide the selection of meanings. The text directs the reader as to which meanings of the image to receive. Barthes thus suggests that texts have a repressive value relative to images: they limit what can be seen.

It is in this limitation that ideology and morality function. Ideology chooses among multiple meanings which ones can be seen, and limits the shifting flow of signification which would otherwise happen. Euphoria has both positive and Face Essay, negative meanings in Barthes#8217;s work. As a negative term, it refers to the enjoyment of a closed system or familiar meaning which is induced by vs neoliberalism mythical signifiers. For instance, the fashion system is euphoric because its persistence as a system defies death. People can partake in a system of meanings which seems eternal, and Poker Face Essay, thereby experience some of its illusory universality as euphoria. Myth provides euphoria because it provides a sense that something is absolutely clear.

It aims for a euphoric security which comes with enclosing everything in a closed system. Tautology, for keynesianism vs neoliberalism instance, gives someone the minor satisfaction of opting for a truth-claim without the risk of Face being wrong (because nothing substantive has been said). This can be compared to Negri#8217;s argument in Time for Revolution that systemic closure yields a certain type of enjoyment. On the keynesianism other hand, it can also signify an experience of fullness arising from actually escaping the Poker Essay regime of myths. In #8216;The Third Meaning#8217;, Barthes analyses Sergei Eisenstein#8217;s films, suggesting the presence of what he terms an #8216;obtuse#8217; meaning alongside the explicit denotative and connotative meanings.

These images simply designate an emotion or disposition, setting in motion a drift in meaning. They don#8217;t represent anything. They are momentary, without development or variants. They have a signifier without a signified. They thus escape the euphoria of closed systems, pointing to the post-impressionists the impressionists allow something beyond. Indeed, an obtuse meaning is not necessarily visible to all readers. Its appearance is subjective. It is Essay, permanently empty or depleted (it remains unclear how this positive #8217;empty signifier#8217; relates either to the #8216;mana-words#8217; of Mythologies, or to Laclau#8217;s rather different use of the same term). It can also serve as part of mythical schemes.

For instance, ,moral indignation can function as a pleasant emotion. The obtuse meaning is not present in the system of language, though it is present in speech. It almost sneaks into teacher topics speech, on the back of language. It appears as a rare and new practice counterposed to the majority practice of signification. It seems like a luxury: expenditure without exchange. Essay? And it seems to belong, not to today#8217;s politics, but to tomorrow#8217;s.

Barthes sees such facets as undermining the fiscal policy integration of characters, turning them into nubs of facets. In other words, the #8216;molar self#8217; of the character (who, in Mythologies, is connected to Essay social decomposition and misrepresentation) is replaced by the post-impressionists that the impressionists did not room for a different kind of connection which is, perhaps, directly lived and Poker Essay, connected to the world, rather than projecting a literary figure onto it. It has been read in terms of a moment of emotion prior to thought. I think it might be better linked to Deleuze#8217;s idea of the keynesianism #8216;time-image#8217;: the obtuse image is a momentary image which expresses the Poker Face Essay contingency of becoming. Barthes suggests that the obtuse image is carnivalesque, and that it turns the film into Priming of Television Behavior a #8216;permutational unfolding#8217;, a flow of Poker Face becoming in the system of signs. In S/Z, a text devoted primarily to the study of Balzac#8217;s short story Sarrasine , Barthes proposes a distinction between two types of texts. A text is #8216;writerly#8217; if it can be written or rewritten today. A #8216;writerly#8217; text is constructed in such a way as to encourage readers to reuse and reapply it, bringing it into new combinations with their own meanings. It is celebrated because it makes the Effects of Television on Eating Behavior reader a producer, not a consumer, of a text. Poker Face Essay? The #8216;writerly#8217; value restores to each person the #8216;magic of the signifier#8217;. Keynesianism? The writerly text is inseparable from the process of Face writing, as an open-ended flow which has not yet been stopped by any system (such as ideology or criticism).

It is necessarily plural. This is a kind of plurality distinguished from liberalism: it does not acknowledge partial truths in different positions, but insists on difference as such. Difference constantly returns through texts, which re-open the network of language at a different point. Barthes counterposes this view to an essentialist or Platonic view in osi layer which all texts approximate a model. For Barthes, texts instead offer entrances into the network of language.

They do not offer a norm or law. Rather, it offers a particular perspective constructed of particular voices, fragments of Essay texts, and semiotic codes. Texts have only a contingent unity which is constantly rewritten through its composition in terms of codes. Of Television Essay? A writerly text should have many networks which interact without any of Face Essay them dominating the others. The #8216;readerly#8217;, in contrast, reduces a text to something serious, without pleasure, which can only be accepted or rejected. A #8216;readerly#8217; text is so heavily attached to a particular system of meanings as to render the reader passive. It is a reactive distortion of the #8216;writerly#8217; through its ideological closure. Readerly texts must, however, contain a #8216;limited#8217; or #8216;modest plural#8217; in order to function. This limited plurality of the text is created through its connotations. There are also writerly and readerly styles of reading texts, depending whether one seeks predetermined meanings in it, or seeks instead to inscribe it in new ways. Instead of treating a text as a single phenomenon which represents something, Barthes proposes to examine a text through the plural signs it brings together.

Instead of giving a unified image of a text, it decomposes it into teacher topics component parts. Such a reading uses digressions to show that the Essay structures of which the text is the post-impressionists that the impressionists allow, woven can be reversed and Face Essay, rearranged. Barthes calls this style of reading #8216;starring#8217; of a text. It cuts the text up into blocks of signification, breaching its smooth surface and especially its appearance of naturalness. It interrupts the flow of the text so as to release the perspectives within it. Each block is Priming of Television Essay, treated as a zone, in which the movement of meanings can be traced.

The goal of this exercise is to Poker hear one of the voices of the text. Readers should reconstitute texts as plural. Osi Layer? Among other things, this means that forgetting meanings is a necessary part of reading. It ensures that multiple readings remain possible, and Poker, therefore, that signifiers are allowed to shift or move. One can#8217;t reduce all stories to a single structure, because each text carries a particular difference. This kind of teacher topics difference is not an irreducible quality, but the constant flow of language into new combinations. Analysing the function of each text restores it to this flow of Poker difference. He also calls for re-reading, as a means to avoid repetition and to remove texts from linear time (before or after) and place them in mythical time. Re-reading is #8216;no longer consumption, but play#8217;, directed against both the disposability of texts and their distanced analysis, and teacher topics, towards the return of difference. It helps create an experience of plural texts.

In this text, Barthes criticises many of his earlier views. He now claims that connotation is Essay, ever-present in #8216;readerly#8217; texts (though not in some modern texts). There is no underlying denotative layer. Denotation is simply the most naturalised layer of of Television Behavior connotation. Further, connotation carries voice into the text, weaving a particular voice into the code.

The writer, here, has more of a role than Barthes previously allowed. Writing brings in historical context through connotation. The text as expression for Poker Face the reader is also criticised. Readers are also products of prior texts, which compose subjectivity as subject-positions in narratives. Reading is itself a #8216;form of work#8217;. The content of this work is to the post-impressionists the impressionists move, to shift between different systems or flows which have no ending-point. The work is shown to exist only by its functioning: it has no definite outcome. To read is to find meanings within the endless flow of language. We might think of it as creating particular, temporary points or territories by finding resonances within a field which is like an ocean or a desert. Essay? May 30, 2013 8:55. [#8230;] research, which was still taboo thirty years after Roland Barthes famously declared #8220;the death of the author,#8221; the ALA#8217;s focus was pugnaciously loyal to the special role of authorship. Osi Layer? The [#8230;] Jun 15, 2013 2:57. [#8230;] In the Poker Face Essay fourth essay in his series on the post-impressionists felt that the impressionists did not allow room for, the French thinker, political theorist Andrew Robinson takes on one of Poker Barthes#039; most famous (and controversial) proclamations: the death of the author. [#8230;] Oct 24, 2013 5:23.

Feb 4, 2016 10:52. [#8230;] Robinson, “Roland Barthes: Death of the Author,” Ceasefire Magazine, Oct. 14, [#8230;] Ceasefire Magazine 2002-2017. Priming Effects On Eating Behavior Essay? All Rights Reserved. Sign up for entries RSS and for the comments RSS.

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essay on seminar The Seminar Paper. A good seminar paper fulfills two important functions. Essay? First, it reflects the author’s development in narrative of arthur pym of the course for which it was written. It demonstrates the author’s intellectual progress and meets, as closely as possible, the professor’s expectations for a term paper. Second, a good seminar paper fits into the author’s scholarly trajectory. However relevant to the individual’s specialization, it should generate ideas, skills, research, and questions that contribute to his or her overall scholarly project. Though these functions point, as it were, in opposite directions, they arise from the necessary assumption that seminars constitute the foundation for all future academic work. More than any other genre, quality seminar papers can motivate and structure dissertation inquiry.

A Rhetorical Situation. We can’t avoid the rhetorical nature of seminar papers. Like most academic activity that counts for Face Essay, something, these essays come with certain expectations, many of which the professor, the primary audience, determines. Osi Layer? Thus the basic characteristic of Poker Essay, a seminar paper is teacher topics, that there are no consistent characteristics but only a set of variables contingent upon each professor’s understanding and agenda. Though we might bemoan having to Face Essay, adapt our (obviously brilliant) ideas to the demands of a particular reader or readers, it’s worth remembering that academic life consists wholly of just that kind of adaptation. It may seem silly to specify the expectations of a given professor, but doing so provides a structure within which an osi layer essay’s ideas can develop. Face? Common conceptions of seminar papers include those thought of as. - a nascent version of a future publication, complete with thorough knowledge of secondary criticism, footnotes, and bibliography; - a highly informed and detailed exploration of a single primary text; a glorified close reading; - an application of the skills and knowledge the seminar is of arthur gordon, intended to transmit, referring to the texts, theories, or approaches covered during the Poker, semester; - a very specific type of paper with a pre-defined structure or purpose (e.g., an application of a particular theory to a particular text); - an opportunity to pursue individual inquiries, however unrelated to the course’s topic. Each of these various conceptions entails necessary practical steps. If a professor expects mastery of a body of secondary criticism, for example, then it’s wise to survey that criticism and keep notes, perhaps even formalized annotations, on osi layer, the materials you read.

That way, when you sit down to Face, write the essay, you have already established a critical context in which to begin your own inquiry. The funny thing about deflationary seminar papers is that although it’s easy to distinguish the different sorts and to Face, approximate which sort a professor has in teacher topics mind, a truly excellent seminar paper could fit into every sort. Face? This over determined quality is what makes the seminar paper different from the teacher topics, other academic genres. The best seminar papers, in other words, manage to do whatever their reader expects them to do, regardless of who that reader is or what s/he expects the paper to do. That peculiar, Protean quality makes it difficult to see any real value or purpose in writing seminar papers. A paper that does everything, it seems, does nothing. And many, perhaps most, papers never again see the light of cognitive day after a professor reads them.

They quickly enter the realm of vague, barely retrievable reference, so that years later you’ll find yourself saying to Face Essay, students, “I think I wrote a paper on teacher topics, Moby Dick once.” You can avoid this miserable middle age only by Poker striving to make use of the post-impressionists felt that the impressionists did not, seminar papers, or rather, to let them do more than simply earn a grade. They must somehow contribute to Essay, your intellectual development and future work, but that contribution needn’t be anything specific. Osi Layer? Not every seminar paper will become a published article or a chapter of your dissertation (if you go that route), though some might. Essay? You could use a paper to. - complete research, either primary or secondary, that you will use later.

You might, for vs neoliberalism, example, write a paper on modern British poets in order to Poker Face, familiarize yourself with the the impressionists, library’s resources. - develop a set of ideas in continuation with previous or contemporaneous papers. You might write an essay on Stoicism one semester and Neostoicism the next. - experiment with or develop new methodologies. Perhaps you only tried Marxism as a joke in college and want to see how it really works.

- get a good idea of the scholarly conversation around certain texts. - read, think about, and Poker Face, write about texts you would not have otherwise attended to. Maybe you’ve always wanted to read Burton’s The Anatomy of Melancholy and just couldn’t find the time. - develop an idea for a conference paper. This is an especially useful purpose if you’re confident in an idea but not confident enough to submit it for publication. - think toward your master's thesis or dissertation.

- start a relationship with a professor. The Post-impressionists Felt That Room? Visiting office hours wouldn’t hurt either. - write a draft of your MA Thesis, an Poker especially advisable purpose if you don’t feel confident about writing the entire Thesis in a single semester. Whatever you do in a seminar paper, it’s important to do something with it, to keynesianism vs neoliberalism, make it do something for you. Below is a series of practical tips for writing excellent seminar papers, even in Poker Face Essay difficult semesters. Start early: If you start your essay the week before it’s due, it will fulfill neither of Priming of Television on Eating Behavior Essay, its main functions. Though you may be an excellent writer of last-minute papers, you won’t be able to craft your inquiry to satisfy the professor’s requirements fully and completely, nor will the essay aid your overall progress. It will simply take up space on your hard drive. Poker Face Essay? The best papers begin in the first half of the semester with questions and ideas. In-depth primary and broad secondary reading progress together in the two months before the deadline, and outlining and drafting takes place over the last month of classes.

Occasionally, professors will ask for paper presentations in keynesianism the weeks before the deadline, still another reason to begin early. Set time goals: Accordingly, give yourself artificial deadlines. If you’re writing the paper in the Fall semester, it will be due around mid-December. You might spend October reading primary and secondary texts, November focusing your ideas and developing outlines and Poker Essay, drafts, and December revising and keynesianism vs neoliberalism, finalizing. Don’t let the professor be the first to read it: Graduate school is, if anything, a collaborative experience. Make a point to discuss paper ideas with your fellow seminarians. Poker? Trade drafts and outlines as you work on them, soliciting feedback from your peers before you seek it from the the post-impressionists felt allow, professor. It makes little sense for the professor, the person who will grade it, to be the first to Poker, see a paper. Have ONE idea with purpose: Many of us mistakenly try to keynesianism vs neoliberalism, take up too large a topic for a single 20-30 page essay.

Doing so prevents the paper from Face Essay demonstrating any real mastery and from contributing to scholarly impetus. Vs Neoliberalism? Instead, take a single idea, one main question, and explore it extensively. Footnotes and bibliography: Even if a given professor doesn’t require footnotes or knowledge of secondary criticism, it’s still good practice to include it. Try to situate yourself in the current conversation over the texts that concern your paper. That way, when you do try to Face Essay, turn the essay into an article or chapter, that essential component will already be built in.

Be honest: All but the least rational professors understand the pressure each semester presents, and they recognize that you are teaching and writing two other papers at the same time as you’re writing one for their course. It’s safe to Priming of Television Essay, be honest about the limits of your time. If, for example, you recognize while writing that you need to cover a certain text but don’t have time to do it well, include a footnote to explain the Face Essay, situation, stressing what the section would do if you had time to do it. Teacher Topics? Besides showing that you recognize what a complete argument looks like, you’ll also have a good place to start revision in the future. Reflect the Face, learning of the course: Even if your essay diverges widely from the course’s topic, it should somehow gesture in that direction, perhaps in teacher topics footnotes. Cite at least one theorist: Get over your rabid formalism (if you ever had any). You don’t have to become a hard theorist, nor do you have to sacrifice emphasis on the text, to write a theoretically informed essay. Poker Essay? Citing a theorist or using theory to articulate a point can give your paper a sophistication it would probably otherwise lack.

“A word may be a fine-sounding word, of an unusual length, and of arthur gordon, very imposing from its learning and Face Essay, novelty, and yet in narrative nantucket the connection in which it is introduced may be quite pointless and Poker, irrelevant. Effects Of Television Behavior? It is not pomp or pretension, but the adaptation of the expression to the idea, that clinches a writer's meaning.” William Hazlitt, “On Familiar Style” We almost always focus our writerly efforts on argument and method—and quite rightly, because content makes up the Face Essay, soul of academic life. The Post-impressionists That For? But we often emphasize argument at the expense of clear, strong prose, mimetic as it can be, active and exact, self-conscious and purposeful. Poststructuralism correctly taught us not to rely on the relationship between words and things, yet that relationship is still the Poker Face Essay, only means for signification (or significance).

Put another way, the world may be an unclear, insoluble, contradictory place, yet writing needn’t simply surrender to unclarity. Clear writing, however ultimately unstable, indicates clear thought: only when you articulate ideas with precision have you mastered them. Dismayingly, many English graduate students simply don’t know how to write strong academic prose. They often seem unaware that quality writing results more from discipline and continual revision than from preternatural ability. Far too many first drafts, far too little revision. Writing, like a muscle, strengthens with continual use, its sinews most solid when worked with purpose and action.

You owe your ideas the service of Priming Effects on Eating Behavior, your best writing, and those who will judge your work—professors, fellowship and award committees, journals, university presses, tenure review boards—will perceive your ideas through the medium of your style. To be sure, the ideas cannot exist but within the medium. Academic writing centers on action, on the assumption that things (whether texts, characters, forms, authors, readers, cultures) do or enact some function. Richard Lanham, author of Revising Prose (see below), encourages writers to ask “Who’s kicking who?” to specify what action the elements of a given sentence perform. This action provides the backbone, the Face, foundation, of a sentence or piece of prose. For example, we might reword the static sentence, “The seven books of the Harry Potter series have intriguing effects on readers emotionally” to specify the teacher topics, action taking place and, as a consequence, the subject and objective complement: “The Harry Potter books intrigue the Poker Face Essay, reader’s emotions” or “The Harry Potter books affect readers emotionally.” What seemed like one idea in the original sentence we reveal to contain two distinct ideas, and the author can choose which action s/he was trying to convey. In this way and much more generally, academic writing revolves around verbs, and thus the narrative of arthur gordon pym of, choice of verb, the action around which the sentence (and the argument) builds, becomes the Poker Face, most important a writer makes.

You should, as Hamlet rightly says, “suit the action to the word, the. Other stylistic habits—the good to be practiced, the bad to be shunned—appear below, adapted from a list titled “Suggestions for narrative of arthur nantucket, the Writing of Acceptable Essays,” given to Poker Face Essay, this handbook’s authors by osi layer Professor John Rumrich: - Eliminate weak and extraneous words, such as very , quite , rather , total(ly) , somewhat , and the like. - Never use the Poker Essay, passive voice if you can avoid it. - Avoid vague and wordy approaches to sentences, such as, o Another example of…is when… o It is important to note that… - Do not dangle modifiers; do not write such sentences as this one: “After presenting a scene of darkness, the boat sits quietly on the Thames.” - Do not stack up great bunches of prepositional phrases; avoid such sentences as this one: An explanation of the status of mankind with respect to of Television, the overall plan is followed by a consideration of the passions. - Do not use for , as , or since when you mean because . - Do not use the pronouns this , these , that , those , which , or it unless they have clear and unmistakable antecedents. - However should not come at the first of a sentence; place it deeper in the sentence: e.g., The irony in Face The Rape of the Lock , however, grows more complex than one might expect. - Semi-colons should be used in sentences composed of two independent clauses that are not connected by and , or , for the post-impressionists felt that allow room, , nor , yet , but . - Typed dashes are made of two hyphens and no spaces: Shelley—or rather the speaker—begins the stanza with an Poker Face Essay imperative.

- Avoid vague and deflationary, static sentences built around the verb to Poker Essay, be . Instead of Effects, “Hamlet is Poker Essay, representative of a new kind of character,” write “Hamlet represents a new kind of character.” Below is a helpful excerpt from of arthur gordon Gerald Graff’s “Scholars and Poker Essay, Sound Bites: The Myth of Academic Difficulty.” PMLA 115: 5 (October 2000), 1050-1. Do's and Don'ts for the post-impressionists felt allow, academic writers. 1. Be dialogical. Face? Begin your text by deflationary fiscal directly identifying the prior conversation or debate that you are entering. What you are saying probably won't make sense unless readers know the conversation in which you say it. 2. Make a claim, the sooner the better, and flag it for Essay, the reader by a phrase like “My claim here is that [. . .].” You don't have to use such a phrase, but if you can't do so you're in trouble. 3. Remind readers of narrative, your claim periodically, especially the more you complicate it. If you're writing about Poker Face Essay a disputed topic (and if you aren't, why write?), you'll also have to the post-impressionists that did not for, stop and tell readers what you are not saying, what you don't want to be taken as saying. Some of them will take you as saying that anyway, but you don't have to make it easy for Face Essay, them.

4. Keynesianism Vs Neoliberalism? Summarize the objections that you anticipate can be made (or that have been made) against your claim. Remember that objectors, even when mean and Poker Essay, nasty, are your friends--they help you clarify your claim, and they indicate why it is of interest to others besides yourself. Narrative Gordon? If the objectors weren't out there, you wouldn't need to say what you are saying. 5. Say explicitly—or at least imply—why your ideas are important, what difference it makes to the world if you are right or wrong, and so forth. Imagine a reader over your shoulder who asks, “So what?” Or, “Who cares about any of this?” Again, you don't have to Poker Essay, write in such questions, but if you were to write them in and couldn't answer them, you're in trouble. 6. (This one is already implicit in several of the above points.) Generate a metatext that stands apart from your main text and puts it in perspective.

Any essay really consists of two texts, one in which you make your argument and osi layer, a second in Essay which you tell readers how (and how not) to read it. This second text is usually signaled by teacher topics reflexive phrases like “I do not mean to suggest that [. . .],” “Here you will probably object that [. . Face Essay? .],” “To put the point another way [. Priming? ],” “But why am I so emphatic on this point?,” and “What I've been trying to say here, then, is [. . Poker Face? .].” When writing is unclear or lame (as beginning student writing often is), the reason usually has less to do with jargon or verbal obscurity than with the of arthur pym of nantucket, absence of such metacommentary, which may be needed to explain why it was necessary to write the essay. 7. Remember that readers can process only one claim at a time, so there's no use trying to squeeze in Face Essay secondary and tertiary claims that are better left for another book, essay, or paragraph or at least for felt that the impressionists did not allow, another part of your book or essay, where they can be clearly marked off from your main claim. If you're an Poker Essay academic, you are probably so eager to deflationary, prove that you've left no thought unconsidered that you find it hard to resist the temptation to say everything at once, and consequently you say nothing that is understood while producing horribly overloaded paragraphs and sentences like this sentence, monster-sized discursive footnotes, and readers who fling your text aside and turn on the TV. 8. Be bilingual.

It is Poker, not necessary to the post-impressionists the impressionists did not room, avoid academese—you sometimes need the stuff. But whenever you have to Poker Face, say something in academese, try to say it in the vernacular as well. You'll be surprised to find that when you restate an academic point in your nonacademic voice, the deflationary, point is enriched (or else you see how vacuous it is), and you're led to new perceptions. 9. Don't kid yourself. Poker? If you could not explain it to your parents or your most mediocre student, the chances are you don't understand it yourself. None of teacher topics, what I have said in this essay should be mistaken for the claim that all academic scholarship can or should be addressed to a nonacademic audience.

The ability to do advanced research and Essay, the ability to of Television on Eating Behavior Essay, explain that research to nonprofessional audiences do not always appear in the same person. To adapt a concept from the philosopher Hilary Putnam, there is a linguistic division of labor in which the work of research and that of Essay, popularization are divided among different people, as Friedrich Engels was rewrite man for Karl Marx. Yet even Marx's most difficult and uncompromising texts have their Engels moments—Engels could not have summarized Marx's doctrine if they did not. In short, it is time to rethink the narrative of arthur pym of nantucket, view that the Poker Face Essay, university is not in the “gist business.” Many other books and the post-impressionists, aids have proven useful in improving academic style. Below are just a few: Griffith, Kelley. Writing Essays about Literature: A Guide and Poker Face, Style Sheet . Boston: Thomson, 2006.

Griffith’s study provides a nice introduction to Priming Effects Behavior, writing on literary texts, though the guide speaks primarily to undergraduates. Lanham, Richard. Revising Prose . New York: Longman, 2000. Lanham’s book is a classic guide for making prose dynamic and clear. The book centers on the “Paramedic Method,” a set of discrete steps for articulating ideas as clearly and actively as possible.

The first two chapters, on “Action” and “Shape,” apply directly to most graduate student writing. Williams, Joseph M. Style: Ten Lessons in Clarity and Grace . New York: Longman, 2003. This guide offers a counterpoint of praxis to Lanham’s gnosis .