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BizTalk Server and woman WCF Integration. Uses Technology! Atul Gupta (Infosys Technologies Ltd) Amit Praful Shah (Infosys Technologies Ltd) Jitendra Pal Thethi (Infosys Technologies Limited) September 17, 2007. Pretty Characters! This article describes the different approaches available to expose and for dna technology consume Windows Communication Framework (WCF) services from characters, BizTalk Server 2004 (BTS04) and BizTalk Server 2006 (BTS06). Code samples for integration of a WCF service with BizTalk Server 2004 are available here and for integration with BizTalk Server 2006 here. Thiosulfate Experiment! With the pretty characters, November 2006 release of internship report .NET Framework 3.0, the wait is finally over for pretty woman, software professionals. The core components of this managed code programming model – Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF), Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) and Windows Workflow Foundation (WF) – has revolutionized the way software is programmed. This article focuses on the different options available for Gabriel Realism, communication between WCF and BTS06. While much of the pretty woman characters, discussion will also be applicable to experiment, BTS04, any discrepancies in implementation for woman characters, BTS04 will be highlighted. There is a WCF Adapter for BTS06 is available on the CodePlex Web site.

An out-of-the-box adapter will be shipped with BizTalk Server 2006 R2 which may be released by the end of September 2007. An overview of the R2 WCF Adapter's capabilities is available at the following blog post. To try out the R2 WCF Adapter, download the BizTalk Server 2006 R2 Beta from the Microsoft Connect site. However, you may need to sodium, integrate existing BizTalk-based applications with WCF to do the same. In this article we present various options to achieve interoperability in cases where upgrading to BizTalk Server 2006 R2 is not possible. The article merely outlines the approaches and characters does not deal with them in deflationary fiscal, an exhaustive manner. Pretty Woman Characters! Nor does it provide a benchmark to compare the approaches. Sodium Experiment! You need to evaluate and pretty choose one among the suggested techniques after taking into account the needs of your application. Technological Advancements! Note: If you are upgrading to BizTalk 2006 R2, then working with WCF Adapter will be ideal due to the ease of pretty characters use, deployment and sodium thiosulfate management it offers.

Overview of woman characters WCF and BTS06 Technologies. Before getting into the specifics, it may be useful to uses for dna, get an overview of WCF and BTS06. If you are already familiar with these technologies, you may skip the introductions and proceed to characters, the section on 'WCF Service Used as Reference'. WCF is Microsoft's unified platform used for uses for dna, rapidly building secure, reliable and interoperable distributed applications. WCF combines the earlier disparate programming models into a single service-oriented programming model. In the world before WCF, software developers had to characters, pick from Decision-Making Models, numerous technology choices in woman characters, order to create and expose services that could be consumed in french revolution, a distributed environment. Woman! While developers chose web services for interoperability and internship conclusion Microsoft Message Queuing (MSMQ) for reliable messaging, they used Enterprise Services for transaction management, .NET Remoting for pretty woman, high performance systems and Web Service Enhancements (WSE) for Gabriel Garcia Marquez Realism Essay, secure messaging, resulting in the same logic being duplicated when the component had to pretty characters, be exposed over multiple channels.

At a high level, every WCF service consists of the following three parts: The Service Contract that defines 'what' the service does and a service class that contains the implementation for deflationary, the service. Configuration files consisting of bindings (the 'how' part) and pretty characters endpoints (the 'where' part) that define the way clients access the WCF service. These configuration files are independent of implementation. The binding specifies how a client communicates with the service in terms of transport and other attributes. The endpoint specifies the address at which this service is in ww2, exposed to woman characters, clients. Policy! A process that hosts the service implementation so that it can be invoked from client applications. The following diagram depicts a WCF service being invoked by a client: Figure 1: WCF Communication. Given below, are a sequence of steps that need to be followed for implementing and characters making a WCF service available for consumption. As with all service-oriented development, we follow a contract-first development model for WCF services.

Two types of culottes french revolution contracts need to be specified: Service contract: This contract defines the interface of the service, which is the woman, set of operations that are implemented and fiscal exposed by pretty characters the service. The service contract uses a specific attribute viz [OperationContract] to fiscal, define the operations. The code snippet given below shows how the class and method definitions are decorated with attributes to indicate the service contract. Characters! In the following example, the service contract (interface ICalculator) exposes two operations Add and Subtract, each of Decision-Making Models which expects 2 ComplexNumber input parameters and return a ComplexNumber as response. Data contract: Every service call will typically have a set of data elements that will be passed as input parameters and a output that is pretty characters, returned from the call.

The data contract helps in fiscal, formalizing this data exchange. Woman Characters! The data is typically modeled as a class or struct and is given attributes that define the contract. The data contract controls the fiscal, way the request object, which is passed as a parameter to the service call, is serialized and hence controls the SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) message format that flows on the wire. An example of a data contract is woman characters, given below. Gabriel Garcia Marquez Essay! Note that the DataContract and pretty characters DataMember attributes are used to decorate the class ComplexNumber, which is the review, data entity passed as input and woman characters output to the Add and Subtract operations in the service contract defined above. Once the Essay, service and woman data contracts are defined, you need to culottes revolution, create an implementation for the service.

This is done by characters first defining the class that will implement the sodium, interface in the service contract. Pretty Woman! The actual business logic for the operations is then included in the method implementations. For Dna Technology! As mentioned earlier, the pretty woman, service is implemented independent of the transport or address over which the service is Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Magical Realism, eventually exposed. This is possible because in WCF, the woman characters, transport and address details are specified as attributes in external configuration files. To configure end points exposed by conclusion WCF services, it is mandatory to define the characters, following details for advancements in ww2, each endpoint: Contract: The contract is the interface or the service contract that the pretty, service implements. Culottes! In the pretty woman, sample shown below, the endpoint is configured to conclusion, expose the ICalculator service contract. Binding: The binding specifies the protocol over which the pretty woman, service can be accessed along with attributes that define security, reliability and other requirements. Sodium Experiment! Address: The address is the physical URL where the pretty characters, service can be located. The key advantage of this configurability is that though the service is implemented just once, it can be accessed over sans, multiple endpoints, each defining a unique combination of pretty woman address and binding.

A sample configuration for culottes revolution, end points is as follows: The final step is to host the service in pretty, a process. For this, there are multiple options – Internet Information Services (IIS), Windows Activation Services (WAS) and managed Windows service. A service may also be hosted in a managed Windows application such as Windows Forms applications, console applications, etc. The following links provide more details about.NET Framework 3.0 and WCF: BizTalk Server is an policy, integration product from Microsoft that enables enterprises to automate, deploy and pretty characters monitor business processes. It offers Enterprise Application Integration (EAI), Business Process Management (BPM) and B2B integration capabilities. Advancements In Ww2! The BizTalk Server features can be categorized into two main areas—messaging and woman orchestration, which are described below. Internship! The messaging engine deals with parsing, sending/receiving, translating, and routing of messages to and from applications. It enables users to pretty woman, receive messages and uses for dna route them into a business process or send out woman characters a message from the process. The orchestration engine deals with modeling and uses technology executing processes, and pretty woman provides a tool to report, design and implement business processes.

BizTalk orchestration thus helps manage overall application business logic. Pretty Characters! Messaging and orchestration are used together; with messaging providing the receipt and movie delivery capabilities that orchestration rely on. The diagram below shows the woman, important components of sans BizTalk server: Figure 2: BizTalk Server Architecture. Pretty! Other important BizTalk server components include: Business Rules Engine (BRE): The BRE allows one to policy, create a set of pretty business rules as policies and evaluate data based on these rules. With this, business rules are maintained outside of the gatsby movie, business process, but can be invoked from within the pretty woman, process. For Dna Technology! This makes the systems easier to pretty, configure and maintain. Technological In Ww2! Business Activity Monitoring (BAM): The BAM component makes it possible for the extraction of relevant information from woman characters, business processes as they are executing and hence to monitor the processes in real time. Business Activity Services (BAS): The BAS portal, along with some of the components in BizTalk, enables the management of interactions with trading partners. Decision-Making! It also helps integrate an pretty woman, enterprise's business processes with those of the partners.

BizTalk allows you to create 'send' and Decision-Making Essay 'receive' port gateways through which external applications can exchange messages with BizTalk. The ports can be configured to woman characters, use a set of transport protocols and application adapters that are shipped with BizTalk Server. With these adapters, BizTalk can exchange messages over fiscal policy, multiple channels such as files, MSMQ, HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), SOAP, IBM MQ, etc. Pretty Characters! Application adapters, which can directly interact with packaged applications like PeopleSoft, SAP, Oracle Apps, etc, are also available. Additionally, BizTalk can understand both positional/delimited and Garcia Marquez XML message formats. It has a mapping engine that can help transform messages from pretty woman characters, one format to another. Deflationary Fiscal Policy! The flow of a message through BizTalk is pretty woman characters, shown in the diagram below: Figure 3: Message flow in BizTalk Server. Since BizTalk has HTTP and SOAP Adapters, it can interact with web-based applications, especially web services. The BizTalk Server interacts with services in the following two ways: BizTalk process orchestrations can be exposed as Web services. Advancements! In such a case, external clients can invoke the pretty woman, orchestration by Gabriel Garcia Realism Essay making SOAP/HTTP calls. BizTalk can consume Web services by using the SOAP Adapter.

More information on BizTalk Server 2006 is available at the following URLs: BizTalk Server 2006 Home. The WCF Service Used as Reference. This article uses the following WCF service to explain BizTalk-WCF integration options: In the above service, a Product ID is the input parameter expected by the GetStockInfo() method. The logic will query the pretty woman characters, Product Table to retrieve current stock details for the Product ID. The return value is an great gatsby review, integer indicating the woman characters, current stock available.

Both BizTalk Server and WCF are technologies that provide significant value by sodium themselves. However, a combination of the characters, two provides the broadest possible spectrum of connected system scenarios – both brokered and un-brokered – using open standard protocols. BizTalk provides business process orchestration, message transformation and movie review business activity monitoring through designers and pretty woman visual tools. WCF provides a unified framework for internship report conclusion, building secure, reliable and pretty woman transacted web services. The following sections will describe options for integrating BizTalk with WCF services. Consuming a WCF Services from experiment, BizTalk: Use the pretty woman characters, WCF Adapter. Currently in for dna, CTP, it will be released with BizTalk 2006 R2. Pretty Woman! WCF service exposed over basicHttpBinding and consumed from orchestration. WCF service exposed on Garcia and Magical Essay, wsHttpBinding endpoint. BizTalk communicates with the pretty woman, service using a WSE Adapter in a secure and reliable mode. WCF Service endpoint on msmqIntegrationBinding.

BizTalk consumes the Garcia Essay, service using an pretty woman characters, MSMQ Adapter. BizTalk consumes service using a wrapper around the great gatsby review, WCF proxy and invokes through BizTalk orchestration. This mechanism is used when a transport adapter corresponding to a particular type of WCF binding in BizTalk, e.g. netTCPBinding , is woman, not available in BizTalk. Exposing BizTalk orchestration as a WCF service having a basicHttpBinding binding. The following table shows the options for communication between BizTalk Server and a WCF service for Gabriel Realism Essay, various system-provided WCF bindings. These options are mapped to the features of woman each binding and indicate whether they are retained or are no longer available on selecting a given option. Use the sodium, following table to select the characters, option that satisfies all features required in your scenario: Options for gatsby, Communication.

Correlation and Duplex Channel. Orchestration using Send shapes bound to endpoint on HTTP Adapter. Wrap WCF Proxy as a .NET assembly. Orchestration using Send Shapes bound to endpoint on WSE Adapter. Woman! Wrap WCF Proxy as a .NET assembly. Orchestration using Send shapes bound to endpoint on internship, WSE Adapter. Wrap WCF proxy as a .NET assembly. Wrap service in woman, a .NET proxy assembly. Technology! Wrap Service in a .NET proxy assembly.

As MSMQ endpoint. Woman Characters! Requires additional transformation. Marquez Realism! Wrap service in a .NET proxy assembly. Pretty Characters! As MSMQ endpoint. Requires additional transformation. Wrap service in a .NET proxy assembly. Gatsby Movie Review! Wrap service in woman, a .NET proxy assembly. Table 1: Options for BizTalk – WCF integration.

The following business case sample may help you understand the technological advancements, working of pretty BizTalk and WCF: A user receives an invoice from a file receive location using the File Adapter. BizTalk forwards this invoice to internship, the WCF service to pretty woman, enquire about the stock availability based on thiosulfate experiment, the Prod ID mentioned in the invoice. WCF returns the stock status to BizTalk and pretty woman characters writes to Decision-Making Essay, an output file location using the File Adapter. Pretty Woman Characters! Accessing WCF Services from BizTalk Server. WCF Service with BasicHttpBinding binding, consumed from Gabriel Marquez Realism, BizTalk. In this technique, the SOAP adapter is used to woman, facilitate the communication. Uses Technology! BizTalk consumes the pretty woman, WCF service by making a web reference to the WCF service exposed over Gabriel Garcia and Magical Realism, basicHttpBinding . The basicProfileBinding conforms to WS-I Basic Profile 1.0 standards. The SOAP Send Adapter can be used to interface with such an endpoint. Woman! In order to consume a service that uses BasicHttpBinding : Add a web reference to the WSDL at endpoint address.

This creates the internship conclusion, necessary web port and pretty woman characters the multipart messages that need to be exchanged between BizTalk and deflationary WCF. Transform source messages to woman characters, request schema messages. Such messages can be sent from orchestrations. The following is the detailed sequence of advancements in ww2 steps to characters, be followed for internship report conclusion, consuming a WCF service exposed over the BasicHttpBinding : Create a new web site using the woman, WCF service template as shown below: Figure 4: Creating a new WCF Service project. Gabriel! An important snippet of the pretty, web.config file for advancements in ww2, basicHttpBinding is pretty woman, as follows: It defines the Decision-Making Models Essay, service contract of the WCF service and woman characters the binding information for sans french, basicHttpBinding . Refer to the MSDN site for more information on basicHttpBinding . Pretty Characters! Figure 5: Adding a web reference to advancements in ww2, the WCF service. Pretty! The web port type and multipart messages are automatically created after addition of the deflationary fiscal, web reference as seen in pretty woman characters, the orchestration view. Fiscal Policy! Logical ports can now be added to pretty characters, the orchestration design surface.

The WCF service can be invoked from the orchestration by culottes revolution passing the pretty woman characters, request message type to the port and sans culottes revolution subsequently receiving the response. Note: The steps remain the same when consuming the WCF service from BizTalk Server 2004 or BizTalk Server 2006. WCF Service Exposed on WsHttpBinding Endpoint. Woman! WCF services exposed using a wsHttpBinding are secure, reliable and internship conclusion interoperable. Woman! These services implement WS-Reliable messaging for reliability and WS-Security for message-level security. A WSE-enabled adapter is required to call services exposed using wsHttpBinding . Sans French! Microsoft has released a BTS04-compatible WSE 2.0 Adapter which can be used for communication. However, currently, there is no BTS06-compatible adapter for WSE 3.0 available from pretty, Microsoft.

One can either write a custom adapter or use a third-party adapter like the one provided by deflationary fiscal TwoConnect. Pretty! The WSE 2.0 Adapter, available for BTS04, can be used for interfacing. The supported standards are WS-Security (user / password token, Kerberos and X509) and Decision-Making Models WS-Reliability. Pretty Woman! More details are available on the MSDN web site. The WSE 2.0 adapter can be downloaded from here and thiosulfate experiment the SP1 is available here. A detailed walk through on characters, using the WSE 2.0 adapter is uses for dna technology, available in characters, this TechNet article. TwoConnect has published a WSE 3.0 Adapter to interface with WCF services exposed using wsHttpBinding endpoint.

You can find more details on sodium thiosulfate experiment, the adapter at pretty woman characters, http://adapterworx.com/cs/products/wse3.0.aspx. Garcia Marquez And Magical Realism Essay! For connecting to pretty, WCF using the sans french, WSE 3.0 Adapter from TwoConnect, follow the woman characters, steps given below: Create and publish a WCF service according to the steps listed in the basicHttpBinding section. An important snippet from the fiscal policy, web.config file is as follows: Figure 6: Referencing WSDL URL information in pretty woman characters, the Schema Generation Wizard. Figure 7: Specifying the web methods in the Schema Generation Wizard. WCF Service Endpoint on MsmqIntegrationBinding. Sodium Experiment! MSMQ bindings cover asynchronous message-based, inter-process communications using the MSMQ infrastructure. MSMQ provides the woman, infrastructure to send messages across machines in Essay, a secure and reliable environment and in a transactional scope. Pretty! This messaging pattern helps build scalable applications as the number of blocked and Models Essay wait threads is minimal. The sample described in this section, works as follows: BizTalk receives an invoice. It submits the message using an pretty, MSMQ Adapter to advancements, the private MSMQ queue present on a remote system where the WCF service is hosted.

The WCF service picks up the pretty woman, message from the MSMQ queue, finds out the stock status, updates the message, and posts it back to the same queue. BizTalk picks up the message from the queue and Decision-Making Models Essay posts it to characters, a send location using the sodium experiment, File Adapter. Woman! The WCF service is hosted inside a console application. Marquez And Magical Realism! Define the service contract as shown below: Note the use of the pretty woman, ServiceKnownType attribute. This helps expose .NET Types to the service so that they can be serialized and de-serialized when required. For Dna Technology! InvoiceType is a class with fields having one-to-one mapping. The source schema elements are present in the BizTalk message. Also note that since the message is pretty woman, passed to the WCF service over MSMQ, the parameter type of SubmitInvoice OperationContract will be of conclusion type MsmqMessage.

This class is pretty woman, marked with the Serializable attribute so that the objects of this type can be serialized and thiosulfate experiment de-serialized when required. Biztalk has send and pretty woman characters receive ports that send and advancements receive a message from MSMQ using the MSMQ Adapter. Woman! The port binding is set to the specify later option. After deployment, set the properties of the send and receive ports for MSMQ bindings from the thiosulfate, BizTalk Explorer as follows: Figure 8: Configuring the MSMQ Send Adapter. The above figure shows the pretty characters, property window for policy, the send port using MSMQ Adapter. Note that we have specified the name of the destination queue and pretty set the transactional property of the queue to true . Figure 9: Configuring the MSMQ Receive Adapter.

The above figure shows the property window for the receive port using the MSMQ Adapter. Sodium Experiment! The queue name has been specified and the transactional property is set to true . In case of pretty woman BizTalk Server 2004, the experiment, MSMQ Adapter needs to be downloaded. The adapter can be downloaded from here. Pretty Woman Characters! The steps specified above can be used when working with BizTalk 2004 and to deflationary fiscal, interact with a WCF service using MSMQ. Pretty! WCF Service Endpoint on sans, NetTCPBinding. NetTCPBinding uses the characters, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) channel to Models Essay, interact with the client and service.

There is no BizTalk adapter for TCP, hence the only option available while using the netTCP-bound endpoint is to pretty, employ the sodium experiment, proxy pattern discussed below. NetTCPBinding supports a duplex channel of pretty characters communication – the service calls on the client interface to technological in ww2, return the response without the client needing to characters, listen explicitly. Sodium Thiosulfate! In order to pretty woman, execute a sequence of process steps as a transaction, the expression shapes should be in technological, atomic transaction scope. Any exceptions occurring on the service call would show up as scope exception, which will also abort the ambient transaction. Pretty Woman! NetTCPBinding supports transport-level and Gabriel Garcia Realism message-level security as defined by the binding configuration. NetTCPBinding can work in scenarios where both client and service are on .NET. The working of this sample for consuming WCF service exposed over a NetTCPBinding is woman characters, as follows: Define and implement the uses, service contract as shown earlier.

Create a console application to host the woman characters, WCF service. Thiosulfate! Generate a proxy class using svcutil.exe against the service contract defined earlier by running the svcutil.exe tool as shown below. The assumption here is that the service is pretty woman, exposed at the URL http://localhost:8000/Service.svc. Essay! The URL should be replaced with the actual address of the service. svcutil.exe *.wsdl *.xsd. Pretty Woman Characters! A proxy class and configuration file will generated.

Note: We have tested the sodium thiosulfate experiment, sample in woman, this article using BizTalk 2006, not BizTalk 2004. Technological! While the pretty woman, steps for Gabriel Marquez and Magical, both are the woman characters, same, working with WCF on a BizTalk Server 2004 machine will require installation of the sodium thiosulfate, .NET framework 3.0. This is pretty woman, because a reference has to technology, be added to a project that contains code generated using WCF. Note: We are hosting the characters, service at port number 8000 and gatsby exposing the service endpoint at port 9000. Note: In the following code snippet, we are specifying the transport-level security and the credential type: The app.config is as follows: In this approach explained above, we have a reference to the WCF proxy inside BizTalk. We are invoking the characters, WCF-exposed service using the uses technology, Expression shape. The recommended approach is to pretty woman characters, send the message from BizTalk in deflationary, plain XML format to a .NET wrapper class.

This class will create a .NET object from woman, within its implementation and internship conclusion then call the WCF proxy. Pretty Woman! The transformations will be done in BizTalk but the deserialization will be handled in technological, the .NET assembly. Message translation is pretty characters, best handled in BizTalk via the mapper and the rich set of functoids. Hence, we recommend translating messages required by the WCF service within BizTalk using the Mapper. However, the report conclusion, WCF service may expect and return a .NET Type and not an XML. Woman Characters! In such a case, converting the XML message is best done in french revolution, the .NET assembly, helped by the rich serialization and pretty deserialization support available in Decision-Making Essay, the .NET Framework. Characters! The following table summarizes the same: Recommended (use BizTalk Mapper) Not recommended. Is an implementation overhead. Culottes! Exposing BizTalk Orchestrations as WCF Services.

The following sample describes how a BizTalk orchestration can be exposed as a WCF service. The steps are: Convert the orchestration to characters, a web service using the orchestration Web Services Publishing Wizard. Modify the culottes revolution, web service to a WCF service by manually editing the code contents of the web services as described in pretty woman, the 'Configuration' section below. Garcia Marquez Essay! Create a BizTalk project containing the orchestration which is to be first exposed as a ASMX web service. The orchestration process is pretty characters, as shown below and uses technology the actual code is woman characters, present in the attached sample code: Figure 10: BizTalk Orchestration to for dna technology, be exposed as WCF service. Note that the characters, orchestration has a public request response port through which it will interact with the great gatsby review, web service. Woman Characters! Figure 11: BizTalk Web Services Publishing Wizard. Report! Figure 12: Selecting the BizTalk assembly to pretty, be exposed as service. Decision-Making! Figure 13: Selecting Orchestration Port that is to be exported. Pretty Woman Characters! Figure 14: Specifying properties for gatsby movie review, ASP.NET web service project. Note that the pretty woman, service name inside the report conclusion, services tag should be the woman, fully qualified name, i.e. with namespace, and should match the technology, service in the WCF service (.svc) file. http://localhost/Invoice_Proxy/Invoice_InventoryProcessWS_Port_2.asmx BTS as WCF service.

These services can now be consumed from a client. The sample code has been tested with the pretty characters, WCF binding set as basicHttpBinding. To add a web reference to a WCF service in a BizTalk project, we need to great gatsby review, create the woman, service using the File New Web Site option and select the WCF service template. Models Essay! WCF service cannot be created using New Project option. If Visual Studio is unable to create code files when adding web reference to the WCF service created, it could be a proxy authentication issue. Check the proxy settings for the browser under Tools Internet options Connections LAN Settings. To view the woman characters, application errors and to Decision-Making Models, fully trust the target assembly, add the following sections under the web.config file for all scenarios: When sending messages from BizTalk to MSMQ we need to set the pretty woman, target namespace property of the review, schema to blank . Characters! If an instance of the schema is movie, generated with the target namespace property specified, the WCF service is unable to characters, process the message it picks up from fiscal, MSMQ. Characters! For e.g., we can have a schema as follows: And not as follows: Refer to this blog entry for technological, more details. When consuming a WCF service with wsHttpBinding from BizTalk 2004, the woman, WSE 2.0 Adapter is unable to understand the deflationary policy, WSDL generated by pretty characters the WCF service. The WSE 3.0 Adapter depends on technological, .NET Framework 3.0 which has to be installed on the BizTalk 2004 system.

It should solve the woman, issue of gatsby review consuming a WCF service with wsHttpBinding from a BizTalk 2004 application. Pretty Characters! Creating services using Service-Oriented principles is key in many software projects and WCF is great gatsby movie review, a very good framework for pretty woman, such a task. It enables developers to Decision-Making Essay, write the service logic once and woman expose the service over policy, various endpoints which can use different bindings like web services, MSMQ, TCP, etc. Characters! Microsoft BizTalk Server can then be used to orchestrate the internship report, services and implement business processes. This article presented options for enterprises that use BizTalk Server 2004 or BizTalk Server 2006 and wish to pretty woman characters, expose or consume WCF services from Gabriel Marquez Realism, BizTalk. However, enterprises should look to pretty woman, upgrading to BizTalk Server 2006 R2 that will have native support and out-of-the-box adapters for communicating with WCF services. The options given in this paper are meant for scenarios where an upgrade to BizTalk Server 2006 R2 is not possible.

Atul Gupta is Principal Architect with Microsoft Technology Center, Infosys. He works on great movie review, BizTalk Server 2006, BizTalk Server 2006 R2 and pretty characters Windows Presentation Foundation from .NET Framework 3.0 stack. Amit Shah is an Architect with Microsoft Technology Center (Infosys Technologies Ltd). He is currently working on Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Magical Realism Essay, the creation of integration solutions on the Microsoft platform using technologies like BizTalk Server, .NET Framework 3.0, Office SharePoint Server 2007 and SQL Server 2005. Jitendra Pal Thethi is Principal Architect with Microsoft Technology Center, Infosys. He is based out of woman Redmond and internship report conclusion part of the characters, Catalytic IT Solution Sales team and also the Infosys-MS Alliance team. Sarathy Sakshi is sodium experiment, a test lead in the Connected System Division of woman Microsoft and is based in technological advancements in ww2, Redmond, WA.

He has worked in various areas of BizTalk server and has most recently been working on the WCF Adapter. Yumay Chang is a Technology Development Manager in the Enterprise Partner Group at Microsoft. She leads the woman, partner strategy on SOA and Business Process Management and supports partner in their adoption of Microsoft technologies.

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Monique R. Morgan, “The Eruption of Krakatoa (also known as Krakatau) in 1883? This essay gives a brief overview of the events of 26-27 August 1883, when the volcanic island of Krakatoa in Indonesia exploded; it generated tsunamis which killed over 36,000 people, was heard 3,000 miles away, and produced measurable changes in pretty, sea level and air pressure across the policy world. The essay then discusses the findings of the Royal Society’s Report on Krakatoa, and pretty woman, the reports in the periodical press of uses for dna technology, lurid sunsets resulting from Krakatoa’s dust moving through the atmosphere. Pretty Characters! It closes by examining literature inspired by Krakatoa, including a letter by Gerard Manley Hopkins, a poem by Alfred Tennyson, and Gabriel Garcia and Magical Realism, novels by R. M. Ballantyne and M. Woman! P. Shiel. On 27 August 1883, after a day of alarming volcanic activity, an obscure, uninhabited island now widely known as Krakatoa (or Krakatau)[1] erupted with a force more than ten thousand times that of the atomic bomb dropped on fiscal, Hiroshima (Thornton 1). Pretty! The world quickly took notice. Officials reported the eruption via undersea telegraph cables. People thousands of miles away heard the great gatsby movie explosion, and instruments around the world recorded changes in air pressure and sea level. In the months that followed, newspapers and pretty woman characters, journals printed vivid accounts of spectacular sunsets caused by fine particles that the policy volcano spewed into the upper atmosphere and pretty woman, that circled the globe, gradually spreading further north and south.

The Royal Society, a British academy of scientists, formed a special Krakatoa committee to collect these articles, other eye-witness testimony, and more precise data (such as barograph readings of air pressure) to analyze the material meticulously and to publish a thorough report of their findings. Models! Krakatoa inspired not only scientific investigation, but also literary creations. Woman! Gerard Manley Hopkins published a letter describing the Krakatoa sunsets in Decision-Making Models Essay, evocative and figurative language. Alfred Lord Tennyson transmuted the crimson sunsets into pretty characters the setting, and the dominant imagery, of his poem “St. Telemachus.” In Blown to Bits , R. M. Ballantyne interwove a detailed, factual account of Krakatoa’s destruction with an Garcia Realism invented tale of exploration, revenge, and woman characters, romance, centered on fictional characters who narrowly escape the eruption and tsunamis. M. P. Shiel used a volcanic eruption as the major plot device in his last man novel, The Purple Cloud , and, in his depiction of a fictional eruption, Shiel mimicked the central place of the telegraph and the periodical press for scientists’ and laymen’s knowledge of Krakatoa. The August 1883 eruption was not entirely unexpected, but nearly so. Krakatoa had erupted violently from May 1680 through November 1681 (Symons 10), but had then been dormant for two centuries. The volcano stirred to deflationary, life on 20 May 1883 with a series of pretty woman characters, moderate eruptions (Symons 11). Locals took note but were not especially alarmed. In fact, the Decision-Making island briefly became a tourist attraction.

A steamship carrying an excursion party from Batavia (now called Jakarta) “reached the volcano on the Sunday morning, May the 27th, after witnessing, during the night, several tolerably strong explosions, which were accompanied by earthquake-shocks” (Symons 12). These visitors may have been foolhardy, but some were quite observant, and pretty characters, later were able to provide valuable data, such as estimates of the size of the crater, the frequency of explosions, and the height of the uses for dna vapor column. One took a photograph of the volcano exploding; another collected a pumice sample (Symons 12-13). Eruptions continued in June and July, but, in pretty, the words of the Royal Society’s 1888 report, “in a district where earthquakes and volcanic outbursts are so frequent, this eruption of Krakatoa during the experiment summer months of 1883 . . . Pretty! soon ceased to attract any particular attention” (Symons 13). Residents of the Javan and Sumatran coasts near Krakatoa quickly became alarmed on 26 August 1883 when more serious explosions began, some accompanied by tsunamis (Thornton 11-12). The next morning the situation became much more dire. Four great explosions, the third of which was the strongest, occurred at 5:30 a.m., 6:44 a.m., 10:02 a.m., and deflationary fiscal policy, 10:52a.m. Krakatoa time (Symons 22).[2] Two-thirds of the island of pretty woman characters, Krakatoa disappeared (Symons 23), likely by collapsing into Decision-Making Models the hollow cavity left by the eruption of pretty woman, pumice (Simkin and Fiske 18).

The resultant dust cloud immersed in darkness a region extending to Batavia, nearly a hundred miles distant, and to some villages 130 to 150 miles away (Symons 26-27). For those within a radius of 50 miles, the total darkness lasted over two days (Thornton 29).[3] The greatest destruction was caused not by ash and fire but by water. The most violent of the explosions, occurring at sans french, approximately 10:02 a.m. on 27 August 1883, triggered an pretty woman characters immense tsunami. The Royal Society Report on Krakatoa “assumed that the actual height of the wave, before it reached the shore, was about Decision-Making Models Essay, 50 feet,” but it also cites some eyewitnesses on the Javan shore who estimated the wave was 100 to characters, 135 feet (Symons 93); later investigators credit the larger estimates (Simkin and Fiske 15). Whatever its exact height, the wave was incredibly deadly and far-reaching. Officially, it killed 36,417 inhabitants of coastal towns and villages, though more may have died (Thornton 13; Simkin and Fiske 15), and its faint remnants were detected as far away as the English Channel (Thornton 18). The 10:02 a.m. explosion also produced the furthest-travelling audible sound in recorded history (Thornton 1); it was heard over almost one-thirteenth of the earth’s surface, including at review, Rodrigues Island approximately 3,000 miles across the Indian Ocean from Krakatoa (Symons 79). The reason such a violent eruption occurred at Krakatoa, rather than some other location, was partially understood by pretty woman characters, late-nineteenth-century science. According to the Royal Society’s 1888 Report on Krakatoa’s eruption, “The marked linear arrangement in this immense chain of volcanic mountains [across Java and Gabriel Marquez Realism Essay, Sumatra] points to the existence of a great fissure in the earth’s crust, along which the subterranean energy has been manifested” (Symons 4).

At the Straight of Sunda, a second fissure crosses it almost at a right angle (Symons 4), and Krakatoa lies “at the point of intersection of these two great lines of volcanic fissure” (Symons 5; see Fig. Pretty Characters! 1). Figure 1: Map from the Royal Society Report, labeled “Sketch-map of the Sunda Strait, showing the lines of volcanic fissure which appear to great gatsby movie, traverse the district” (Symons 4) Modern geology affirms this general idea, but offers a more specific explanation for the convergence of pretty woman, volcanic activity. In an ocean trench near Sumatra and Java, two tectonic plates collide in what is called a subduction zone, and the Indo-Australian plate is forced under the Asian plate into the molten mantle below (Thornton 41). As the Indo-Australian plate slides downward, some of it melts, and the range of volcanoes results from this molten magma occasionally rising to the earth’s surface and erupting (Thornton 41). For Dna! As Ian Thornton summarizes, “Geologists have shown that the rate of subduction of oceanic crust is faster, and the angle of subduction shallower, along the Sumatran trench than along the Javan trench. The change is woman characters, abrupt and occurs at Sunda Strait” (43), the fulcrum around which Sumatra has slowly rotated twenty degrees clockwise in relation to Java over the past two million years (Thornton 42-43). Krakatoa’s unique position as a center of volcanic and tectonic activity is now well understood, but several other aspects of the 1883 eruption are still open to scientific debate. Explanations for the cause of the third great explosion and the accompanying tsunami generally fall into two competing camps, with some arguing for an upward explosion as seawater reacted with hot magma, and others for the downward collapse of the volcano’s walls.

Simkin and Fiske consider the debate settled: “Verbeek, the sans french Dutch Mining engineer studying Krakatau immediately after the eruption, correctly deduced that the missing portion of the woman island had collapsed into gatsby movie review the circular void left by the eruption of huge volumes of pumice. Alternative explanations, such as the forceful blasting out of the missing portion of Krakatau, have not been supported, and Krakatau remains a type example of caldera collapse” (18). Pretty! Thornton, however, thinks these key questions remain unresolved and suggests that “[i]t is likely that during the course of so complex an eruption many events cited as evidence for and Magical Realism Essay, the competing theories occurred” (39). Scientists also continue to woman characters, scrutinize Krakatoa as a case study in the formation and development of an culottes revolution island ecosystem. Much of the attraction stems from Krakatoa’s likely status as an woman characters ecological tabula rasa in the immediate aftermath of the 1883 eruption; most biologists who have studied the island group agree that no life forms survived.[4] Subsequent volcanic activity at Krakatoa has provided an even clearer example of an island completely devoid of sodium, life progressing toward a complex ecosystem. Woman! On 26 January 26 1928, a new volcanic ash island broke through the deflationary sea’s surface; it was later named Anak Krakatau (Krakatau’s Child) (Thornton 132). The new island was destroyed by woman characters, sea erosion three times, but in August 1929 a fourth version of the island arose and became a permanent fixture in the Krakatoa island group (Thornton 133). The emerging ecosystems on both the for dna technology remnants of the old Krakatoa islands and on Anak Krakatau could provide guidance for reconstructing ecosystems that have been devastated by human activity, such as logging and mining (Thornton 251). As Thornton explains, the rules by which different species arrive and interact in a new ecosystem “appear to depend strongly on the historical context” (262), and Krakatoa offers an unusually thorough historical record for woman, current scientists because of the sustained and culottes french, systematic attention it has received since 1883. Such attention, from scientists and laymen around the pretty woman globe, began within hours of the eruption, because news of it travelled rapidly via the worldwide network of deflationary, telegraph lines. “The instantaneity of the pretty telegraph reports,” Richard Hamblyn argues, “create[ed] an entirely new category of sans culottes french, disaster: the universal news event, a story followed, in the case of Krakatau, by more than half the world’s population” (179).

The telegrams themselves are startling, and display a “terse eloquence” (Simkin and Fiske 15). A telegram sent from Batavia to Singapore on 27 August 1883 reads: Noon . —Serang in total darkness all morning—stones falling. Pretty! Village near Anjer washed away. Batavia now almost quite dark—gas lights extinguished during the night—unable communicate with Anjer—fear calamity there—several bridges destroyed, river having overflowed through rush sea inland. (qtd. in Simkin and Fiske 14) Calamity had, indeed, struck Anjer: at approximately 9:00 that morning, a large wave had inundated the coastal town (Simkin and Fiske 38). A few residents survived because they had fled a prior wave and had run to Decision-Making Models Essay, higher ground. Amongst them was Anjer’s recently appointed Telegraph-master, who was later able to provide a harrowing eyewitness account of events (Simkin and Fiske 69-73, 80-81). Despite, or perhaps because of, the pretty woman characters horrifying nature of the great eruption, some of the telegrams from Batavia are almost poetic in their condensed eloquence and evocative figurative language.

A telegram sent around noon on 28 August proclaimed, “Where once Mount Krakatau stood the sea now plays,” conveying calm, eerie beauty amid the desolation (qtd. in Simkin and Fiske 14). The telegraph coverage also enabled a more thorough scientific investigation of the eruption’s global effects, as Tom Simkin and characters, Richard S. Fiske stress in their magisterial centennial review of Krakatoa: Telegrams bearing news of the Krakatau eruption spread quickly and accounts soon appeared in newspapers around the world. . . . Much of the importance of the Krakatau eruption stems from the fact that its news traveled so fast, because the eruption’s effects also traveled far beyond the Sunda Straits and observations made a great distance from the volcano could be connected to the eruption.[5] (15) Because the global scope of both Krakatoa’s effects and the news of thiosulfate experiment, its eruption quickly reached many interested observers, “for the first time, discrete local observations . . Pretty! . assumed a contemporary global significance” (Hamblyn 179), and the eruption generated a wealth of potential data. On 17 January 1884, the Gabriel Marquez and Magical Realism Essay Royal Society, led by its president Thomas Henry Huxley, made use of this potential when it resolved that a committee would “collect the various accounts of the volcanic eruption at Krakatoa, and attendant phenomena, in such form as shall best provide for their preservation, and promote their usefulness” (Symons iii). (On Huxley, see Jonathan Smith, “The Huxley-Wilberforce ‘Debate’ on Evolution, 30 June 1860.?) It was not the first scientific group devoted to studying Krakatoa: three months earlier, on 4 October 1883, the Dutch Indian Government had appointed the Dutch Scientific Commission, led by the geologist R. D. M. Verbeek, to study the woman eruption. Verbeek’s report was published in two parts, in Dutch in 1884 and 1885, and in French in 1885 and 1886 (Symons 2). The Royal Society’s report, published in 1888, frequently refers to Verbeek’s findings, but it also includes a large quantity of independently collected data. The Royal Society was able to amass an extraordinary amount of Decision-Making, information by soliciting the public’s help. Pretty! The committee placed an advertisement in the London Times in February 1884 asking for gatsby movie review, “authenticated facts” and published papers concerning drifts of pumice, changes in barometric pressure and pretty woman characters, sea level, locations where explosions were heard, and Gabriel Garcia and Magical Realism, unusual optical effects in the atmosphere (Symons iv). Woman Characters! After it received numerous accounts from scientists and amateur observers, the multidisciplinary committee spent 28 months analyzing the data and writing the report, which was edited by uses, G. Woman Characters! J. Symons, the committee’s chair (Symons vi). The Times ad requested that “[c]orrespondents . . . be very particular in giving the date, exact time (stating whether Greenwich or local), and position whence all recorded facts were observed” (Symons iv).

Such specificity was essential for calculating the distances and velocities of the oceanic and atmospheric phenomena associated with the eruption. One such phenomenon was the unusually long-lasting and far-travelling air wave created by one of Krakatoa’s explosions, which was especially noteworthy because “large air waves passing round the earth’s surface had not previously been observed as a result of volcanic eruptions” (Thornton 17). The air wave expanded outward from Krakatoa until it formed a circle around the earth’s circumference, then it contracted to a point on the globe directly opposite Krakatoa (a point which happens to lie near Bogota, Colombia [Thornton 17]). The air wave then continued away from Bogota and Gabriel and Magical Essay, back toward Krakatoa, and the process repeated. According to Simkin and Fiske, “Every recording barograph in the world documented the passage of the airwave” (15). Some of them registered the air wave a total of seven times: four times as the wave travelled outward from Krakatoa, three as it returned toward the volcano (Symons 63). The committee used the precise times and locations of the barogram readings to calculate the woman characters speed of the air waves, which ranged from 674 to 726 miles per review hour, “very nearly the characteristic velocity of woman characters, sound” (Symons 72). The committee also discussed the Garcia Marquez and Magical Essay speed at which fine ash and dust travelled through the upper atmosphere. Woman Characters! Scientists inferred the presence of microscopic particles from the unusual atmospheric effects they produced, which included intense and long-lasting sunsets, a blue or green tinge to the sun and moon, and a large, corona-like haze around the Marquez Realism sun. Reverend Sereno E. Bishop in Honolulu, for whom the woman characters corona-like “Bishop’s Ring” was named, “was the first to document the westward movement around the equator of the high-altitude eruptive products (what he called the Equatorial Smoke Stream) as evidenced by their atmospheric effects” (Thornton 23). The Royal Society report further analyzed the direction and speed of the particulates based on the first onset of the characteristic atmospheric phenomena, and thus provided the uses for dna “first evidence of circulation patterns in pretty woman, the stratosphere” (Thornton 25).

The Krakatoa committee discovered that the equatorial smoke stream made a complete circuit around the globe several times, each time taking about thirteen days (Symons 322), “mov[ing] at about 73 miles an hour from east to sodium experiment, west, and gradually spread[ing] southwards and northwards” (Symons 325). By tracking the dates, the atmospheric effects first appeared at various locations and extrapolating backward in time, the committee verified their origin was around the Strait of Sunda, where Krakatoa had stood (Symons 179). Some of the descriptions are remarkably precise about not only the date and geographical location where a sunset afterglow was first observed, but also about the pretty timing and location in the sky of its particular colors. F. A. Rollo Russell, who compiled the Royal Society Report’s section on the unusual twilight glows, included his own description of the 11 December 1883 sunset in Surrey: At 4.15 green spot about Models Essay, 10° above the horizon. Pink up to and beyond zenith, and on both sides . . . . Whole sky at 4.15 appearing covered with a sea of streaky cloud film, regularly ranged S.S.W. to N.N.E.; no appearance of a radiant point. At 4.20 spot of green being closed in by bright pink all over western sky . . . . At 4.30 pink edge about 22° from horizon.

Green sunk beyond horizon. At 4.36 pink, about 15°. Sky blue. At 4.41 edge of red glow about 10° above horizon. (Symons 164) Such precision about the order and duration of the pretty characters sunset colors allowed the Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Magical committee to hypothesize the composition of the stratospheric particles from Krakatoa: “small reflecting dust, partially transparent and woman characters, partially opaque, or else . . . French! a mixture of transparent spherules and fragments” (Symons 186).

More recent studies have arrived at a more complete understanding of the optics involved. H. H. Lamb, writing in 1970, explains the pretty interaction of particles of different diameters with light of different wavelengths (and hence different colors). Lamb argues that volcanic dust smaller than ? micrometer (? µm = 1/51,000 inch) produces especially red suns, while blue suns and moons are produced by movie, larger particles of pretty woman characters, 1 to 5 µm, and the Bishop’s rings seen after Krakatoa resulted from many particles in the narrow size range of 0.8 to 1 µm (qtd. in Simkin and Fiske 404-05). Since larger dust particles fall out of the atmosphere more quickly and do not spread as far, “the bigger the particles the rarer, more localized and short-lived the occurrence” (Lamb, qtd. Gatsby Review! In Simkin and Fiske 407); hence the characters large temporal and geographical range of the lurid red sunsets, and more limited range of the blue and green suns. The widespread sunset effects attracted the Decision-Making Models attention of many observers, and the Royal Society Report quotes extensively from accounts of the sunsets previously published in the periodical press. Pretty Woman Characters! One such account is the poet Gerard Manley Hopkins’s letter in the 3 January 1884 edition of Nature . The Royal Society Report offers this summary: Mr. Gerard Hopkins of Stonyhurst College, notes the following difference between ordinary sunsets and for dna technology, the displays of 1883:— ‘(1).

They differ in their time and in the place of the sky where they appear. ‘(2). They differ in their periodic action or behaviour. ‘(3). They differ in the nature of the glow, which is both intense and lustreless. ‘(4). Woman Characters! They differ in the regularity of Decision-Making Essay, their colouring.

Four colours in particular have been noticeable, orange lowest and nearest the sundown; above this and broader, green; above this, and broader still, a variable red, ending in being crimson; above this, a faint lilac. The lilac disappears, the characters green deepens, spreads, and encroaches on the orange, and the red deepens, spreads, and encroaches on the green, till at last one red, varying downwards from crimson to scarlet or orange, fills the west and south. ‘(5). They differ in the colours themselves, which are impure and not of the spectrum. ‘(6). They differ in the texture of the sans culottes revolution coloured surfaces, which are neither distinct clouds of recognized make, nor yet translucent media.’ The above is merely an abstract of Mr.

Hopkins’s letter, to which he subjoins a very lucid description of the woman sunset of December 16, 1883. Deflationary Fiscal Policy! (Symons 172) For the woman most part, the Report’s authors directly quote Hopkins, though they paraphrase points one and six. Gatsby Movie! The remarkable aspect of their precis, however, is what it leaves out—extensive sections of pretty characters, evocative, metaphoric description. Hopkins describes the evening as follows: After the sunset the horizon was, by 4.10, lined a long way by a glowing tawny light, not very pure in colour and distinctly textured in hummocks, bodies like a shoal of dolphins, or in what are called gadroons, or as the Japanese conventionally represent waves. French! The glowing vapour above this was as yet colourless; then this took a beautiful olive or celadon green, not so vivid as the previous day’s, and delicately fluted; the green belt was broader than the orange, and pressed down on and contracted it. Above the green in turn appeared a red glow, broader and burlier in pretty, make; it was softly brindled, and in the ribs or bars the fiscal policy colour was rosier, in the channels where the blue of the sky shone through it was a mallow colour. Above this was a vague lilac. Pretty! (“Remarkable Sunsets” 223)

Hopkins’s poetic language has its own descriptive precision. As Thomas A. Zaniello argues, passages such as this “reveal Hopkins’ facility with both scientific detail and the painter’s palette” and “indicate a sensibility attempting to render the Decision-Making Models phenomena of the world without forcing a distinction between science and art” (261).[6] Indeed, to describe the texture of the “tawny light,” Hopkins first turns to nature (a metaphor drawn from a landscape and a simile from sea life) and then turns to art (both Western decorative carving and woman, Eastern painting). The letter also incorporates imagery and diction from sans culottes french some of the poems for which Hopkins is now best known. The “softly brindled” red glow evokes the opening of his 1877 poem “Pied Beauty,” which uses the more archaic form “brinded” to describe a streaked or flecked sky: “Glory be to God for dappled things— / For skies of couple-colour as a brinded cow” (1-2). Consider, too, the language in pretty, Hopkins’s explanation of uses technology, how normal, bright sunsets differ from the pretty lusterless Krakatoa afterglows: A bright sunset lines the clouds so that their brims look like gold, brass, bronze, or steel. It fetches out those dazzling flecks and spangles which people call fish-scales. It gives to a mackerel or dappled cloudrack the Gabriel Realism Essay appearance of quilted crimson silk, or a ploughed field glazed with crimson ice. These effects may have been seen in pretty characters, the late sunsets, but they are not the specific after-glow; that is, without gloss or lustre. (“Remarkable Sunsets” 222-23) The description of this streaked sky echoes both “Pied Beauty” and “The Windhover.” The letter’s use of “dappled” brings to mind the experiment former poem’s praise of “dappled things” (1), and characters, the latter poem’s description of the titular bird as a “dapple-dawn-drawn Falcon” (2).

The comparison of a typical sky at sunset to a “ploughed field glazed with crimson ice” recalls the “Landscape plotted and pieced—fold, fallow, and plough” in “Pied Beauty” (5). A similar image also occurs in “The Windhover”: “sheer plod makes plough down sillion / Shine” (12-13). Hopkins’s characteristic phrasing does not detract from the thiosulfate specificity and vividness of his description in Nature , though. Patricia Ball rightly claims that the letter uses “turns of phrase or analogy and pretty woman, a choice of words which are characteristic of him,” but they “serve the purpose to which the whole correspondence is directed, the accurate plotting of remarkable skyscapes” (116). Although the Models Royal Society Report omits these poetic sections of Hopkins’s letter in Nature , it does reprint some of the affective and pretty woman, figurative language from other articles about the Krakatoa sunsets. Gatsby Movie! As Richard Altick observes, even now the Royal Society Report conveys “a vivid sense of the excitement and wonder [created by] the worldwide effects of the eruption . . . . [T]he observers often abandoned scientific terminology in favor of a descriptive style that can only be called lyric—and when the sunsets of woman characters, late 1883 defied even poetic language the observers resorted at last to pictorial art: they said the sunsets were like those of Turner” (251).

Altick may have had in mind E. L. Layard’s account from New Caledonia of Krakatoa afterglows on cloudy nights: “[W]ho shall paint the glory of the heavens when flecked with clouds?— burnished gold, copper, brass, silver, such as Turner in his wildest dreams never saw, and of such fantastic forms!” (Symons 173). Turner himself was not alive to paint the Krakatoa afterglows, but they did attract the attention of some visual artists. Sodium Thiosulfate Experiment! Frederic Edwin Church’s “Sunset over the Ice of Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario,” a watercolor painted on 28 December 1883, is pretty woman, “the only major painting to be created in the immediate aftermath of Krakatoa” (Winchester 281). In London, both the minor artist William Ascroft and John Sanford Dyason of the Royal Meteorological Society sketched the sunsets in chalk pastels and exhibited their works at public meetings of the Royal Society (Zaniello 248). The frontispiece to the Royal Society’s Krakatoa Report reproduces six of Ascroft’s sketches “made on the bank of the Thames, a little west of London, on the evening of November 26th, 1883,” which “represent the uses technology general colouring of the western sky from shortly after sunset (3h. 57m. p.m.) to the final dying out of the after-glow at characters, about 5.15 p.m.” (Symons n.pag.).

Figures 2 and 3 reproduce the third and sixth sketches from the policy Report’s frontispiece. Figure 2: Sketch by William Ascroft of Krakatoa afterglow as seen in pretty woman, London at 4:30p.m. on 26 November 1883, from the frontispiece to the Royal Society Report. Figure 3: Sketch by William Ascroft of Krakatoa afterglow as seen in London at 5:15p.m. on 26 November 1883, from the frontispiece to the Royal Society Report. Earlier in E. L. Layard’s description of the sunset on french revolution, 6 January 1884, he uses what was arguably the most common simile in all the pretty verbal descriptions of Krakatoa afterglows: “about 8 p.m., there is only a glare in the sky, just over the sun’s path, as of a distant conflagration, till the fire in the west dies out” (Symons 173). The Royal Society Report certainly supports Simkin and great movie, Fiske’s claim that “[t]he most common analogy . . . Pretty Characters! was fire, and the word ‘conflagration’ was repeatedly used” (157). The Report even makes note of “the first instance of a comparison to a fire, which was afterwards frequent,” as occurring 30 August 1883 “from St. Helena, 16?S. 6?W., where at Garcia Realism, 4 a.m. on the 30 th a red light in woman, the south-east and south-west, ‘like a fire,’ alarmed one of the inhabitants” (Symons 316). Though it was originally published somewhat later, in September 1883, another quoted description has the sans revolution distinction of pretty characters, appearing first among those reprinted in the Royal Society Report, and it, too, compares the great afterglows to pretty woman characters, an immense fire.

The Reverend Sereno E. Bishop writes from Decision-Making Models Honolulu that one trait distinguishing these afterglows from usual sunsets is “[t]he peculiar lurid glow, as of a distant conflagration, totally unlike our common sunsets” (Symons 153). In some cases, observers actually mistook the characters glows for distant fires and brought in local fire brigades, as happened on sans french revolution, 27 November 1883 in New York and Connecticut (Thornton 24). The Krakatoa afterglows may have instigated panic, but they also inspired poetry and pretty, fiction. It was not the first time a volcano’s atmospheric effects influenced literature, however. The June 1783 eruption of Garcia Realism Essay, Laki in pretty characters, Iceland released massive amounts of sulfur dioxide, which produced noxious fogs, an unusually red sun, and an extremely hot summer followed by an extremely cold winter, conditions which influenced William Cowper’s depiction of time and uses, weather in The Task (Menely 480-89; Hamblyn 101-102). The gas and pretty woman, dust spewed into policy the atmosphere by the April 1815 eruption of Tambora in Indonesia disrupted usual rainfall patterns, cooled global temperatures, caused famines and epidemics, and instigated political upheavals, conditions which in pretty characters, turn inspired Mary Shelley’s desolate novel Frankenstein and Lord Byron’s apocalyptic poem “Darkness” (Wood). (On the eruption of Tambora, see Gillen D’Arcy Wood, “1816, The Year without a Summer.”) Fears of apocalypse also haunt some of the fiscal literature inspired by Krakatoa. Altick has gathered and compared writings by four Victorian poets that incorporate descriptions of the Krakatoa sunsets, including poems by Robert Bridges, Algernon Charles Swinburne, and Alfred Tennyson, and Hopkins’s letter in Nature . The most cheerful of them is the “March” section of Robert Bridges’s Eros and Psyche (1885), which includes a three-stanza description of a sunset, the second stanza of woman characters, which reads: Broad and low down, where late the sun had been. A wealth of orange-gold was thickly shed, Fading above into a field of great gatsby movie review, green,

Like apples ere they ripen into red, Then to the height a variable hue. Of rose and pink and crimson freak’d with blue, And olive-border’d clouds o’er lilac led. (st. Pretty! 25) Altick suspects the passage is derivative of Hopkins’s letter in Nature ; he notes the almost identical color terminology, and quotes a letter from Hopkins to Bridges in technology, which Hopkins politely comments on the similarity and inquires if Bridges read his Nature piece (256). Swinburne’s “A New-Year Ode: to Victor Hugo” repeatedly uses images of pretty woman, sunset and sunrise, clouds and storms, and deflationary, fire to represent both the woman eras Hugo depicted, and the one through which he lived. The poem contains a lengthy passage inspired by Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Magical Realism Essay, a particularly vivid sunset on 25 November 1883 (Altick 256), which thus describes “two sheer wings of sundering cloud” (st. 17) above the set sun: As midnight black, as twilight brown, they spread,

But feathered thick with flame that streaked and pretty characters, lined. Their living darkness, ominous else of dread, From south to northmost verge of heaven inclined. Most like some giant angel’s, whose bent head. Bowed earthward, as with message for mankind. Of doom or benediction to be shed. From passage of his presence.

Far behind, Heaven, manifest in manifold. Light of pure pallid amber, cheered with fire of gold. (st. 18) The detailed description of the sunset continues, and leads into a comparison of the sunset glow to Decision-Making Models, “light like fire of love” (st.

22), as Swinburne imagines that the love expressed by Victor Hugo’s writing spreads a beneficent influence over the world.[7] Flame also figures prominently in “St. Pretty Woman Characters! Telemachus” (1892), a poem by Tennyson whose opening lines were, according to Tennyson’s note, “[s]uggested by uses, the memory of the eruption of Krakatoa”: Had the fierce ashes of some fiery peak. Been hurled so high they ranged about the globe?

For day by day, through many a blood-red eve, In that four-hundredth summer after Christ, The wrathful sunset glared against a cross. Reared on the tumbled ruins of an old fane. No longer sacred to the Sun, and flamed. On one huge slope beyond. . . (1-8) The poem tells the pretty story of the hermit Telemachus’s divine inspiration to walk to the Roman Colosseum where he attempts to stop the gladiatorial combat.

The crowd is unpersuaded and stones Telemachus to death, but when the news reaches the Roman Emperor Honorius, he decrees an end to fiscal, the gladiatorial games. As Altick notes, Tennyson “moved the [Krakatoa] sunsets back fifteen centuries to provide a lurid background for the life of the saint” (253). If the Krakatoa sunsets struck some observers as “almost apocalyptic, often unnerving” (Winchester 290), then Tennyson’s portrayal of the sunsets as “blood-red” and “wrathful” captures their unnerving quality (3, 5), and his transposition of the sunsets to Telemachus’s “deed that woke the world” (70) associates them with the transition to a new epoch in history (from polytheism to Christianity). The sunsets are much more than background for pretty woman characters, Tennyson’s poem; the Krakatoa eruption and sunsets indirectly but thoroughly permeate its dramatic action, allegorical import, and imagery.[8] Tennyson imagines that St. Decision-Making! Telemachus, in the evenings when the fane was. Bathed in that lurid crimson—asked ‘Is earth.

On fire to the West? or is the Demon-god. Wroth at his fall?’ . Woman! . . Movie Review! (18-20) His questions juxtapose a common reaction to the Krakatoa sunsets (mistaking them for a distant conflagration) with Tennyson’s thematic use for them (the transition from paganism to Christianity). The lurid afterglows also play a role in the saint’s quest: Telemachus journeys west to Rome “Following a hundred sunsets” (31). Pretty Woman Characters! Other after-effects of Krakatoa’s eruption seem to have influenced Tennyson’s similes. When Telemachus arrives in Rome, he comes upon a crowd: And borne along by that full stream of men, Like some old wreck on some indrawing sea,

Gained their huge Colosseum. . . (43-45) The image of rushing sea water bearing a ship inward accords with the Krakatoa-induced tsunamis, one of which carried a ship two miles inland (Thornton 13).[9] Tennyson’s description of Telemachus’s death at sodium, the hands of the Colosseum crowd— “Then one deep roar as of a breaking sea, / And then a shower of stones that stoned him dead” (67-68)—literally depicts the saint’s death by woman characters, stoning but also evokes the sound of a tsunami and the hail of pumice unleashed by Krakatoa’s eruption. A much more direct, and much less somber, engagement with Krakatoa can be found in Blown to Bits, or The Lonely Man of Rakata , by R. M. Ballantyne. This 1889 adventure novel for boys shares many of the characteristics of sans culottes french revolution, a group of earlier, Pompeii-inspired eruption narratives recently discussed by Nicholas Daly. In late-eighteenth- and early-nineteeenth-century disaster narratives, “the volcano is there as a smoldering presence from the start, and characters, our pleasure in deflationary, other elements of our experience is both shadowed and enhanced by pretty characters, our knowledge that in the end it will explode” (Daly 257). The very title of sans culottes revolution, Ballantyne’s work directs his readers towards the novel’s explosive culmination, and the subtitle’s mention of Rakata, the mountain peak on Krakatoa’s main island, clearly identifies the characters source of the fiscal policy explosion. Ballantyne’s ominous foreshadowing is frequent and strong. The paralipsis in the opening chapter’s first sentence anticipates the disaster it says it won’t: “Blown to bits; bits so inconceivably, so ineffably, so ‘microscopically’ small that—but let us not anticipate” (ch. 1; n. pag.). Much later, chapter titles like “A Climax” and “Blown to Bits” indicate when the novel will reach its explosive conclusion. Before we get there, however, Ballantyne offers readers a series of adventures centering on Nigel Roy, the son of an English sea captain; Van der Kemp, the hermit of pretty, Rakata; and Moses, the hermit’s faithful servant.

Nigel befriends Moses, who introduces him to sans culottes, the hermit and the hermit’s well-equipped cave on Krakatoa. The three embark on a journey to several nearby islands and always are greeted hospitably by the locals, since Van der Kemp, despite his nickname of hermit, has travelled extensively and characters, made loyal friends seemingly everywhere. During their journey, the technology main characters encounter tigers, orangutans, a crocodile, a python, and pirates led by Baderoon, Van der Kemp’s mortal enemy. Years earlier, Baderoon had led an pretty woman characters attack which separated Van der Kemp from his young daughter, Winnie. Gatsby Movie Review! When Nigel hears the story, he suspects an characters orphan he met in the Cocos-Keeling Islands is Gabriel and Magical, Winnie, and he asks his father to pretty characters, transport Winnie to Anjer. Van der Kemp and his daughter are prematurely reunited when the hermit’s canoe is uses for dna technology, washed onto the deck of characters, Captain Roy’s boat in the midst of Krakatoa’s catastrophic eruption. The tsunami generated by Krakatoa’s third and largest explosion propels the boat over the ruined city of gatsby movie, Anjer and more than a mile inland, safely depositing the protagonists in a coconut grove.[10] Nigel and Winnie fall in characters, love, marry, and settle with their parents and Moses in the Cocos-Keeling Islands.

Its plot is improbable, yet Blown to Models Essay, Bits includes copious (and accurate) information about Krakatoa. Pretty Woman! As Joel D. Chaston remarks, “Ballantyne’s books are . . . important because, while sometimes far-fetched, they provide generally accurate scientific and geographic information, attempting to educate readers realistically about fiscal, other countries, cultures, and times” (20). In the preface to Blown to Bits , Ballantyne acknowledges his debt to the Royal Society Report for the facts of the pretty woman eruption, and he draws upon the Report quite extensively. The narrator sometimes directly quotes the Royal Society Report, as when he describes the gatsby movie review moderate eruptions of May 1883 (Ballantyne ch. 8; Symons 11). More often, the narrator slightly paraphrases or summarizes the Report, as he does in the extensive discussion in Chapter 29 of woman characters, Krakatoa’s global effects, including the sounds heard as far as Rodriguez, the air waves measured by barometers, the changes in Gabriel Marquez Essay, sea level, the dust particles and their rate of travel, and the resultant atmospheric effects. Pretty Woman! On occasion, Ballantyne even has Van der Kemp ventriloquize the Royal Society Report. The hermit thus informs Nigel of Krakatoa’s dangerous position in gatsby, a highly volcanic region: The island of Java, with an area about equal to that of England, contains no fewer than forty-nine great volcanic mountains, some of which rise to 12,000 feet above the sea-level. Many of these mountains are at the present time active . . . and woman characters, more than half of them have been seen in eruption since Java was occupied by Europeans. Great Gatsby Review! Hot springs, mud-volcanoes, and vapour-vents abound all over pretty characters the island, whilst earthquakes are by no means uncommon.

There is a distinct line in the chain of these mountains which seems to point to a great fissure in sans culottes french revolution, the earth’s crust, caused by the subterranean fires. This tremendous crack or fissure crosses the Straits of Sunda, and in consequence we find a number of these vents—as volcanic mountains may be styled—in the Island of Sumatra, which you saw to the nor’ard as you came along. But there is supposed to be another great crack in woman, the earth’s crust—indicated by several volcanic mountains—which crosses the Models Essay other fissure almost at right angles, and at the exact point where these two lines intersect stands this island of Krakatoa ! (ch. 7; n. Woman Characters! pag.)[11] Clearly, as Van der Kemp educates Nigel about the region, so, too, does Ballantyne educate his young readers, in keeping with his stated intention “to bring the matter [of Krakatoa’s 1883 eruption], in the garb of a tale, before that portion of the juvenile world which accords me a hearing” (preface; n. pag.) Krakatoa helped inspire not only revolution Ballantyne’s adventure novel and Tennyson’s ominous poem, but also two truly apocalyptic works of literature—Camille Flammarion’s Omega and M. Woman Characters! P. Shiel’s The Purple Cloud . Decision-Making Models Essay! Omega: The Last Days of the World (1894), the first English translation of Flammarion’s 1893 novel, originally titled La Fin du Monde , presents an array of possibilities for the world’s end. Woman! In the Decision-Making Models twenty-fifth century, astronomers predict a comet composed partly of poisonous carbon monoxide will collide with the pretty woman earth, and scientists speculate about numerous ways the uses comet might extinguish humanity. The comet is less destructive than feared, and the human race survives, but Flammarion then presents a further vision of earth ten million years in the future.

Only two people remain alive amidst an pretty characters entropic wasteland in which the earth’s elevations have eroded to fiscal policy, a near-uniform surface, its water vapor has dissipated, and its surface temperature has dropped too low to sustain life. In between these two apocalyptic scenarios, Flammarion inserts a chapter summarizing actual historical catastrophes and panics, including Krakatoa’s eruption (160-62), “in order to consider this new fear of the end of the world with others which have preceded it” (133). Flammarion writes of pretty characters, Krakatoa, “Those who escaped, or who saw the catastrophe from some vessel, and lived to welcome again the light of day, which had seemed forever extinguished, relate in culottes french revolution, terror with what resignation they expected the end of the world, persuaded that its very foundations were giving way and that the knell of a universal doom had sounded” (161). M. P. Shiel’s apocalyptic novel The Purple Cloud (1901) is characters, set in the much more immediate future, and it twice compares events in the early twentieth century to Krakatoa’s eruption and after-effects. In the first instance, the narrator, Adam Jeffson, recounts: [I]t was at for dna technology, sunset that my sense of the wondrously beautiful was roused and excited, in spite of that burden which I bore: for, certainly, I never saw sunsets . . . so flamboyant, exorbitant and distraught. . Characters! . . But many evenings I watched it with unintelligent awe, believing it but a portent of the unsheathed sword of the Almighty, until one morning . . . I suddenly remembered the wild sunsets of the nineteenth century witnessed in Europe, America, and, I think, everywhere, after the sodium thiosulfate eruption of the volcano of Krakatoa. (77-78) Adam has good reason to think the characters wild sunsets are a portent of apocalypse since the burden he bears is to live in the aftermath of a worldwide catastrophe.

Having been the first man to Realism Essay, reach the North Pole, Adam gradually realizes, as he returns home to England, that he is the last man left alive. A purple cloud of pretty characters, poisonous gas has enveloped nearly the entire planet, sparing only the very northernmost latitudes. It is this memory of the Krakatoa sunsets that leads Adam to suspect the source of the poison cloud was a volcanic eruption. This indirection surrounding the novel’s central event—the volcanic eruption—distinguishes The Purple Cloud from earlier disaster narratives discussed by Nicholas Daly. In Shiel’s story, the volcano’s eruption is not the dramatic climax; instead, over eighty percent of the novel focuses on Adam’s survival after the Decision-Making Models Essay disaster.[12] Adam frequently, and at great length, describes dead people and destroyed property, but he encounters them months or years after they perished. The novel does not offer a detailed, direct description of the actual eruption, and hence does not use the eruption itself as spectacle. Adam eventually stumbles across an eyewitness account of the characters eruption, but the account is brief, and Adam finds it two decades after the fact (180). Albert Tissu, a passenger on board the ship the Essay Marie Meyer (180), witnesses a volcanic island emerging from the sea and records the event in his journal: “we descry a shade rising, a shade, a mighty back, a new-born land, bearing skyward ten flames of fire, slowly, steadily, out of the sea” (181). Tissu hopes to be immortalized for documenting such an extraordinary event. He continues writing until the woman characters moment he unexpectedly succumbs to the almond-scented cyanide gas released from the volcano: “I rush down, I write it. . . . There is a running about on the decks—an odour like almonds—it is so dark, I—” (182).

Shiel’s inclusion of for dna, a shipboard eyewitness is in keeping with the significance of sailors’ accounts for understanding Krakatoa. The Royal Society Report suggested, “Perhaps . . . the most important evidence of what was actually going on at Krakatoa during the crisis of the eruption is that derived from pretty characters witnesses on board ships” (Symons 15), and the Report includes a three-page list and a map detailing the ships in or near the Sunda Strait during or soon after the eruption (Symons 15-18). Even Shiel’s choice of the ship’s name, the Marie Meyer , seems to echo one of the ships closest to the Krakatoa eruption—the Dutch trade vessel the Marie (Symons 15). Tissu’s shipboard account is not the only example of The Purple Cloud mimicking the methods of representation through which witnesses reported and scientists studied the deflationary fiscal Krakatoa eruption. The telegraph and the periodical press also play prominent roles in Shiel’s novel. As Adam returns to Europe from the North Pole and searches for woman, other survivors, he thinks of, but rejects, the telegraph and the wireless (the recently invented radio) as means of expediting his search: “I had some knowledge of the Morse code, of the manipulation of sans revolution, tape-machines, telegraphic typing-machines, wireless transmitting . . . so I could have wirelessed, or tried to wire from Bergen, to somewhere; but I would not: I was so afraid; afraid lest for ever from nowhere should occur one replying click, or stir of dial-needle” (78). Adam fears these technologies’ speed and scope will only hasten the certainty of his complete isolation.

So horrifying is this prospect that he focuses on the absence of impersonal, mechanical clicks and dials rather than the absence of the urgent interpersonal communication they were meant to facilitate. Adam has good reason to fear the telegraph’s silence. Pretty Characters! As he discovers through reading old newspapers, those yet unaffected by the cloud inferred its location and speed based on cessations of Decision-Making Models, telegraph contact. One report in The Kent Express laments, Communication with Tilsit, Insterburg, Warsaw, Cracow . . . and many smaller towns immediately east of the woman 21st of longitude has ceased during the night, though in policy, some at least of them there must have been operators still at their posts, undrawn into the westward-rolling torrent: but as all messages from Western Europe have been met only by that mysterious muteness which, three months and characters, two days since, astounded civilisation in the case of Eastern New Zealand, we can only assume that these towns, too, have been added to the mournful catalogue; . . . the Marquez and Magical Realism Essay rate of the slow-riding vapour which is touring our globe is no longer doubtful, having now been definitely fixed by Professor Craven at 100 ? miles a day—4 miles 330 yards an hour. (86-87)

Such “mysterious muteness” happened on a more local scale immediately after the Krakatoa eruption. On the day of the pretty characters catastrophe, the telegraph operator at deflationary, Batavia wired to Singapore, “unable [to] communicate with Anjer—fear calamity there” (qtd. in Simkin and Fiske 14). Shiel’s fictional newspaper article also resonates with the characters scientific analysis of Krakatoa in the periodical press, which included discussion of the speed at which particles from the Models Essay eruption spread over the earth’s surface. Adam finds additional scientific analysis when he reads the archives of The Times in their London office, and finds an woman ongoing debate about the policy composition of the deadly cloud. He finds an article by a Dublin scientist named Sloggett to be most persuasive, and Adam’s praise of Sloggett includes the novel’s second explicit reference to Krakatoa: This article was remarkable for its discernment, because written so early—not long, in fact, after the cessation of communication with Australia, at which date Sloggett stated that the pretty characters character of the devastation not only proved an fiscal policy eruption—another, but far greater Krakatoa, doubtless in some South Sea region—but indicated that its most active product must be, not CO, but potassic ferrocyanide (K 4 FeCn 6 ). (109) Shiel here uses the public’s memory of woman characters, Krakatoa and intensifies it, by making his fictional eruption even more catastrophic in force and more deadly in content than the disaster that inspired it. When Krakatoa exploded on 27 August 1883, it cloaked the surrounding area in darkness, inundated nearby shores, and killed tens of thousands. Movie Review! Over 7,000 miles away in England, sensitive instruments recorded air and sea waves, and pretty, observers admired and feared the lurid atmospheric effects.

But Krakatoa’s eruption also instigated scientists from sodium experiment varied specialties to cooperate with each other and to seek the public’s help in producing the massive Royal Society Report. Characters! The eruption and thiosulfate experiment, its aftereffects inspired Tennyson to depict a turning point in Western history and Shiel to imagine a harrowing future of human history’s end. Shiel’s protagonist laments, “nothing could be more appallingly insecure than living on a planet” (182). Krakatoa’s catastrophic eruption and its worldwide effects demonstrated the precariousness, and the interconnectedness, of life on pretty characters, earth. Monique R. Uses For Dna Technology! Morgan is an pretty woman characters Associate Professor of English at McGill University, where her research and teaching focus on fiscal, Romantic and pretty woman, Victorian literature, narrative theory, poetics, and early science fiction. Her monograph, Narrative Means, Lyric Ends: Temporality in the Nineteenth-Century British Long Poem , was published by Ohio State University Press in 2009. She is currently working on her second book, tentatively titled Estranged Cognition: Narrative and Epistemology in Victorian Science Fiction . HOW TO CITE THIS BRANCH ENTRY (MLA format) Morgan, Monique R. “The Eruption of Krakatoa (also known as Krakatau) in 1883.” BRANCH: Britain, Representation and Nineteenth-Century History . Ed. Fiscal! Dino Franco Felluga. Extension of Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net . Web. [Here, add your last date of access to BRANCH].

Altick, Richard D. “Four Victorian Poets and characters, an Exploding Island.” Victorian Studies 3.3 (1960): 249-60. JSTOR . Web. 5 Sept. 2011. Ball, Patricia M. The Science of Aspects: The Changing Role of Fact in Garcia Marquez Essay, the Work of Coleridge, Ruskin, and Hopkins . London: Athlone, 1971. Characters! Print. Ballantyne, R. M. Blown to Bits, or The Lonely Man of Decision-Making, Rakata . 1889. London: James Nisbet Co., 1894.

Project Gutenberg . Web. 20 Jan. 2012. Bridges, Robert. Eros and Psyche . Pretty Characters! The Poetical Works of for dna, Robert Bridges . Pretty Characters! 2nd ed. London: Oxford UP, 1964. 87-184. Print. Chaston, Joel D. “R. M. Marquez And Magical! Ballantyne (24 April 1825 –8 February 1894).” British Children’s Writers, 1800-1880 . Woman! Ed.

Meena Khorana. Dictionary of Literary Biography. Vol. 163. Decision-Making! Detroit: Gale Research, 1996. 8-20. Dictionary of Literary Biography Complete Online . Gale . Web. 23 Aug. Characters! 2012.

Daly, Nicholas. “The Volcanic Disaster Narrative: From Pleasure Garden to Canvas, Page, and review, Stage.” Victorian Studies 53.2 (2011): 255-85. Print. Flammarion, Camille. Omega: The Last Days of the World . 1893. Intro. Robert Silverberg.

Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1999. Print. Hamblyn, Richard. Terra, Tales of the Earth: Four Events that Changed the World . London: Picador, 2009. Print. Hopkins, Gerard Manley. “Pied Beauty.” The Poetical Works of Gerard Manley Hopkins . Ed. Norman H. Mackenzie. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1990. 144. Print. —–. “The Windhover.” The Poetical Works of Gerard Manley Hopkins . Ed.

Norman H. Mackenzie. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1990. 144. Pretty Woman! Print. Menely, Tobias. “‘The Present Obfuscation’: Cowper’s Task and the Time of Climate Change.” PMLA 127.3 (2012): 477-92. Thiosulfate! Print. “The Remarkable Sunsets.” Nature 29.740 (3 Jan. 1884): 222-225. Nature Publishing Group . Web. 27 Oct. 2011.

Roos, David A. “The ‘Aims and Intentions’ of Nature .” Victorian Science and pretty woman, Victorian Values: Literary Perspectives . Eds. James Paradis and Thomas Postlewait. Spec. Deflationary! issue of pretty characters, Annals of the New York Academy of the Sciences 360 (20 Apr. 1981): 159-80. Print. Shiel, M. P. The Purple Cloud . 1901. Sodium Thiosulfate! Rev. ed. Woman Characters! 1929. Intro. Policy! John Clute. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 2000.

Print. Simkin, Tom and Richard S. Fiske. Krakatau 1883: The Volcanic Eruption and Its Effects . Pretty Woman! Washington: Smithsonian Institution P, 1983. Print. Swinburne, Algernon Charles. “A New-Year Ode: To Victor Hugo.” Swinburne’s Collected Poetical Works . Vol. 2. London: William Heinemann, 1927. 865-82. Print. Symons, G. J., ed. The Eruption of Krakatoa, and Subsequent Phenomena : Report of the Krakatoa Committee of the sodium thiosulfate Royal Society . London: Trubner, 1888. Google Books . Web.

4 Sept. 2011. Tennyson, Alfred Lord. “St. Telemachus.” The Poems of Tennyson . Ed. Christopher Ricks. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. Berkeley: U of California P, 1987. 224-27. Print. Thornton, Ian.

Krakatau: The Destruction and Reassembly of an Island Ecosystem . Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1996. Print. Winchester, Simon. Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: August 27, 1883 . New York: Harper, 2003. Print.

Wood, Gillen D’Arcy. “1816, The Year without a Summer.” BRANCH: Britain, Representation and Nineteenth-Century History . Woman! Ed. Dino Franco Felluga. Extension of Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net . Web. 4 Sep. 2012. Zaniello, Thomas A. “The Spectacular English Sunsets of the 1880s.” Victorian Science and Victorian Values: Literary Perspectives . Eds.

James Paradis and Thomas Postlewait. Policy! Spec. Pretty! issue of Annals of the New York Academy of the Sciences 360 (20 Apr. Uses For Dna! 1981): 247-67. Print. [1] Discussions in English usually refer to the island and volcano as “Krakatoa.” The name now used by local inhabitants, and by international scientists who study the pretty characters island, is “Krakatau,” which was the name used in 1883 by the Dutch, who controlled the gatsby Dutch East Indies (today known as Indonesia). Richard Hamblyn claims there have been at least sixteen different spellings for the island (131). Pretty Woman Characters! Since this essay is concerned with late-nineteenth-century British representations of the deflationary volcano, it adopts the woman characters usage in most of sodium thiosulfate, its sources and refers to pretty characters, the island and volcano as Krakatoa. [2] There is some uncertainty about the exact times of the third and fourth large explosions. Ian Thornton estimates the third to sodium thiosulfate, have occurred just after 10:00 a.m. (13) rather than precisely at 10:02, and he gives varying times for pretty characters, the fourth explosion—sometimes 10:52 a.m. (14), and sometimes 10:45 a.m (18).

Simkin and Fiske note previous reports of 9:58, 10:00, and 10:02 for fiscal, the time of third great explosion, but decide on 9:58 for their chronology (38), and they give 10:45 as the time of the last explosion but acknowledge that the Royal Society claims 10:52 (40). Hamblyn misleadingly refers to the 10:02 eruption as Krakatoa’s “final blast,” “terminal eruption,” and woman characters, “final act of destruction” (160, 158, 157). [3] Simkin and Fiske give a more conservative timeline: “Darkness covered the Sunda Straits from 10 a.m. on the 27th until dawn the great gatsby movie next day” (15). [4] The first scientists to characters, study the islands after the 1883 eruption agreed that all life had been killed, but in 1929 C. A. Backer suggested that some species may have survived the eruption, spurring decades of Models Essay, debate (Thornton 79). Currently the vast majority of biologists who study Krakatoa think all life was killed (Thornton 93). [5] The authors of the Royal Society’s 1888 report on Krakatoa also emphasized the pretty global reach of Krakatoa’s effects, and the telegraph cables which carried news of them.

The Royal Society report begins: “During the closing days of the month of August, 1883, the telegraph-cable from uses for dna Batavia carried to Singapore, and thence to every part of the civilised world, the news of a terrible subterranean convulsion—one which in its destructive results to life and property, and in the startling character of the world-wide effects to which it gave rise, is pretty woman characters, perhaps without a parallel in historic times” (Symons 1). [6] According to David Roos, such a conjunction of science and art would have appealed to Nature ’s founder and editor, Norman Lockyer, who wanted the thiosulfate journal’s contents to woman characters, include all branches of knowledge and its readers and contributors to include both trained scientists and Models, interested laymen. As evidence of Lockyer’s success, Roos cites Hopkins’s letter (173), Lockyer’s own reviews of Royal Academy of Art exhibitions (172), and the frequent contributions of John Brett, “a member of pretty woman, both the Astronomical Society and the Royal Academy of Arts” (171). [7] Altick claims Swinburne “hold[s] the mirror of artifice up to nature” by “using his favorite image of flame and fire to describe sunsets which witnesses agree were marked by diffused rather than concentrated light” (259). Altick makes a valid point about the diffuse light of the Krakatoa sunset, yet, as we have seen, Swinburne was far from alone in using the analogy of fire. [8] Altick complains that Tennyson’s individual observations of the Krakatoa sunsets are “clouded by the dramatic or allegorical context[]” (260), and that “the lines he wrote have no necessary impress of personal experience” (258). In contrast, I think Tennyson successfully subsumes details of the Krakatoa phenomena to his dramatic and allegorical purposes. [9] There may be some ambiguity in Tennyson’s phrase “indrawing sea,” depending on the imagined perspective. The sea could be surging in toward the land, or the sea could be drawing itself in deflationary fiscal, away from the shore and stranding a ship that had been anchored. Both cases have parallels with the Krakatoa eruption, which created tsunamis but also caused sea levels to fall in some locations (Thornton 13). [10] In its happy ending, Blown to Bits differs from other disaster narratives designed to pretty woman characters, elicit “the pleasure of the reader or viewer in destruction—of people, of deflationary, property, of hopes” (Daly 255).

Ballantyne does describe Krakatoa’s destructive effects in chapter 29, but in a detached, impersonal tone. [11] Compare the opening of this passage to the nearly identical phrasing in pretty woman, the Royal Society Report: “The Island of Java, with an area about french, equal to that of England, contains no fewer than forty-nine great volcanic mountains, some of which rise to a height of 12,000 feet above the sea-level. Of these volcanoes, more than half have been seen in eruption during the short period of the woman characters European occupation of the island, while some are in a state of almost constant activity. Hot springs, mud-volcanoes, and vapour-vents abound in Java, while earthquakes are by no means unfrequent” (Symons 4). [12] In this focus on survival, The Purple Cloud more closely resembles the disaster narratives that followed it rather than those that preceded it.

According to Daly, “In twentieth- and twenty-first-century disaster texts the interest often resides in the post-disaster society, or the family unit that survives, say, malevolent weather, town-swallowing geological events, or nuclear armageddon” (255-56). Adam has the chance to form a family unit (and possibly repopulate the world) when he discovers a female survivor. One of Daly’s twentieth-century examples is the film The World, The Flesh, and the Devil (280 n1), which is a very loose adaptation of The Purple Cloud .

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The Art of the Developer Resume - Improving the Programmer Resume. Programmer resumes may seem like something of a mundane topic, but after spending the last few weeks wading through resumes from software developers, it is clear to me that most developers need help with their resumes. This impression is backed up by many past resume reading experiences. While I have come across very few truly awful resumes, the majority of the software developer resumes I have read in pretty characters, the last week have been substandard. Only a few have been what I would call really well done. Does that mean that the majority of the developers represented by great gatsby movie, these resumes are themselves substandard? Maybe so, but I would like to think not. While I am certain that there is a wide range of pretty, skill levels within the pool of deflationary fiscal policy, available developers, that does not mean that those developers who are not in pretty woman characters, the top percentiles should be described as substandard.

Not at french revolution all. Maybe not all of pretty woman characters, them are as sophisticated as I might be looking for, and maybe not all of them write the best looking code, but they will undoubtedly make some employer happy. Thiosulfate Experiment? My theory, instead, is that, because the pretty woman characters majority of these developers do not understand the french art of the resume (and more specifically, the art of the developer resume), their resumes may not do them justice. Pretty Woman Characters? In the paragraphs that follow, my aim is to reveal that art to you, and to deflationary fiscal policy, give you my perspective as someone who has often been in pretty characters, the position of sifting through resumes and hiring developers. Before getting into specifics, I would like to emphasize one thing: the goal of your resume is to land you an interview. Sans? Period.

If your resume does not get you an interview for a job, then it has failed. Keep this thought in the front of pretty woman, your mind as you think about and work on your resume. (Getting the interview is the first step in a four step process: getting the interview, excelling in the interview, deciding whether you want the movie job, and closing the deal—but I’ll save those last three steps for future essays.) Put yourself in pretty woman characters, the shoes of the hiring manager, who is movie review, likely a senior developer (or formerly was one): she is sitting there at her desk, with a fairly good idea of pretty, what sort of developer she needs to hire (or maybe not), and in front of her is a thick stack of movie, resumes. In a slow job market like we are in at the time of this writing, it might be a huge stack of resumes. Woman Characters? I personally know of an deflationary fiscal employer who received 240 resumes for a single job posting. You can believe it is not a fun job having to sift through those resumes, and this hiring manager knows it. In fact, they’ve been sitting on her desk for almost a week, because she’s been dreading the task. This hiring manager is very busy, and only has time to perform a limited number of phone screenings and pretty woman, interviews, so it’s a given that only a small percentage of these resumes is going to make it into culottes french, the keepers pile. Pretty Woman? The ones that make the keepers pile get a phone call and great gatsby, an interview. The ones that don’t go in the trash.

Given this scenario, it is important to realize three things: First, this hiring manager desperately wants to pretty characters, find a sufficient number of stand-out resumes as soon as possible. Second, the best candidates will not get the interviews—the best resumes will. Sodium Experiment? The ideal candidate’s resume may very well end up in the trash. Third, since the majority of the pretty characters developers out there are not good at writing resumes, if you can make yours shine, it will almost always make it into the keepers pile (assuming you are a fit for the position).

So how do you make sure your resume stands out? What follows are my guidelines for winning developer resumes. Disclaimers: Take what you like from my suggestions and leave what you don’t like. Many people have very specific ideas about how a resume should look and what it should contain, and I certainly do not mean to suggest that a resume that does not follow my formula is Marquez and Magical Essay, automatically a bad resume. There is no one-size-fits-all formula. Also, I’m not making any claims that any of characters, these tips and tricks are my own unique creation. Decision-Making Essay? My formula is culled from reading several books on job hunting and resume writing, reading hundreds of resumes, frequent tweaking and updating of my own resume, and helping friends with their resumes over the years. In my opinion, the ideal resume length is two to three pages. Pretty Woman? If you have several years of experience, three pages is ideal. If you have less experience, then two pages is uses technology, ideal. On the first page, you should have your identifying information at the top; an Objective section (if you decide to use one; see below); a Summary of Qualifications section (see below); followed by the beginning of your Professional Experience section.

The first page should end with the description of your most recent position. Then the next most recent position would appear at the top of the second page, and pretty woman, so on. If you’re having trouble filling out two pages, chances are you are not digging deep enough or going into enough detail in fiscal policy, your Professional Experience section (see below). If your resume is longer than three pages, chances are you are either providing too much detail, you have extraneous sections, or you are not using creative layout techniques (such as two-column bulleted lists) to make it fit; gigantic amounts of woman, white space is a common flaw leading to overly long resumes. Beware of making your resume go beyond three pages. Remember the harried hiring manager: you want to give enough information to make a strong statement and represent yourself properly, but you don’t want to give so much that you overwhelm or exhaust. In my most recent round of resume shifting, I received several seven and eight page resumes from one agency. Decision-Making? Seven and eight pages!

I didn’t read past page three on a single one of them. If your resume goes beyond three pages, does that mean you are dead in pretty woman, the water? Not necessarily. I called a couple of for dna, those developers with the excessively long resumes. I am talking here about the pretty woman ideal resume length. Maybe you have a couple decades of Garcia Marquez and Magical, experience, multiple certifications, a couple degrees, some honors and awards, and magazine and book publication to your credit. If that is the case, more power to you: make your resume longer than three pages. Pretty? That said, I stick by my assertion that three pages is plenty for almost any developer’s resume. On 95% of the uses for dna technology resumes that have an Objective section, the section adds no value whatsoever. I know that all the resume books, and your high school guidance counselor, told you to put this section at pretty the top of Decision-Making, your resume, but I personally do not use an Objective section on my resume. Characters? Here’s a typical objective: Seeking a rewarding, challenging position with growth potential in a dynamic company.

Well of course you are! Who isn’t? Why waste this precious space on experiment something so bland, generic, and unremarkable? Remember, you want your resume to stand out, to rise above the sea of substandard resumes. On my resume, I want the pretty first thing that hiring manager reads to make a strong statement about Garcia Realism Essay, me —to hook the reader, so to speak. The goal of my resume is to sell me, to land that interview. I only have a few moments of the reader’s attention. I start my resume off with the heading, Summary of Qualifications. (I’ll go into more detail on this section below.) Each of the bullet points at the beginning of this section makes a strong, specific statement about me, my experience, my skill level, the technologies in which I am proficient, etc. Woman Characters? In this way, not only Gabriel Garcia Essay am I making a statement about what kind of candidate I am, my objective is implied: I’m looking for a position that is going to match my skill level and experience, using the technologies in woman characters, which I am an expert, and utilizing my leadership skills and experience.

If you’ve got something within those parameters, let’s talk. Does that I mean I would never use an movie review Objective section on characters my resume? Does that mean you should not have an Objective section on your resume? Not necessarily. The Objective section can be useful if you really have some kind of specific situation that you are looking for.

Maybe you only want to work in a specific industry, or on a particular kind of project, or only using bleeding edge technology. However, for great my own resume, unless I really had a strong feeling about one of these criteria, I’d probably leave the Objective section off—especially in a slower job market, because I’d rather have the pretty woman opportunity to sans culottes revolution, turn a position down than never know it might have been offered to me because of pretty woman, my narrowly stated objective. As I mentioned above, I start my resume off with a section called Summary of Qualifications. The idea is to give a kind of executive summary, like you’d see in a business plan or marketing report. Decision-Making? There are a few reasons for this: one, I’m always picturing the harried hiring manager and her huge stack of resumes. Pretty Woman? I want to grab her attention as quickly as possible.

Two, I know from my studies of sans culottes revolution, marketing and journalism that many (if not most) people will never read past the pretty first few sentences or paragraphs of anything if they don’t have to. It’s a blow to my ego sometimes, but I know that most people who start reading this essay will never make it this far. The same goes for my resume—maybe even doubly so. For this large percentage of people, I need to deflationary policy, get my point across quickly. Pretty? So there’s reason number three: even for the people who do read the rest of the Models Essay resume thoroughly, I want to pretty woman, sell them on the idea that I might be their ideal candidate right away, so that they spend the rest of their time with my resume seeking support and justification for that conclusion. In other words, I make bold claims in great gatsby, my Summary of Qualifications section, and then I make sure the woman information in Models Essay, my Professional Experience section (see below) supports those claims. Like most of pretty, my resume, the format of the Summary of Qualifications section is uses, bullet points. I like bullet points because they are easy to read, they don’t look daunting on characters the page like a thick paragraph does, and they appeal to people’s short attention spans. For Dna? I start the characters section off with more general points, and uses for dna, then get more specific. As I mentioned, I like to make bold statements that sell me to woman, the reader. Here is the Models Essay first bullet point on my resume:

Daniel Read is a well-rounded professional software developer with over eleven years experience developing and maintaining a wide variety of systems for large international corporations and pretty woman, small businesses. Daniel’s specialties are working with business experts, designing technical and non-technical solutions to meet the needs of the business, crafting and implementing development processes, and leading teams to deliver software. Decision-Making Models Essay? He is also a skilled programmer. From there I start getting more specific. You should, of course, tailor the characters boldness of these kinds of statements to match your experience and qualifications.

Don’t make claims you can’t back up. Finally, don’t worry if some of these bullet points are sentence fragments; sentence fragments are permissible in bullet points and on resumes. I end the Summary of sans french revolution, Qualifications section with a two-column bulleted list of specific technologies, languages, and woman, tools with which I am proficient. By this point, I have used up at least the experiment first half of the first page. This is woman characters, where most developers need the most help on their resumes. You can call this section whatever you like, but on my resume I call it, Professional Experience.

When I read through this section of fiscal policy, a job candidate’s resume, I am looking for disqualifiers. In other words, I am looking for characters reasons not to put this resume in the keepers pile. Uses For Dna Technology? Remember that as the woman hiring manager I have a huge stack of resumes, and if I don’t use some kind of criteria to trim them down, I’ll never get to go home. What has this developer really done? Does her experience back up her claims of what technologies and experience he says he has?

Has he worked on similar projects to what I am looking for? Has she stayed around at jobs long enough to see her code go into sodium thiosulfate, production and through subsequent releases? Does he jump around jobs too frequently? Was his participation in these projects substantial or only peripheral? There are many questions such as these, and every hiring manager has different hot buttons. Knowing this, and knowing I cannot hope to please everyone or be the ideal candidate for every job, my goal on my own resume is to simply be as specific as possible (within reason, of pretty characters, course) and back up the claims I made in my Summary of Qualifications section. My goal is also to deflationary, continue to pretty characters, sell. French? What I am selling are my abilities (which are proven by the technologies I have worked on, the types of woman, software I have built) and policy, the positive effect I have had wherever I have been . This latter part is pretty characters, what too many developers miss. Putting it in marketing terms, it’s about selling the benefits. When advertisers promote a car or box of culottes french, laundry detergent, they don’t just list the facts about the product—they present the product so that the consumer imagines the benefits of owning the pretty characters product. On your resume you don’t want to just say, I wrote code.

You want to say, I wrote code, which had the lowest defect rate on the team, resulting in a shortened testing cycle. Show the reader of your resume the Gabriel Garcia Marquez Realism Essay benefits which past employers have enjoyed from pretty characters your work, and a prospective employer will be able to imagine himself enjoying those benefits as well. Going back to formatting, what I do is make sure that the Models second half of the first page of my resume contains the entirety of my most recent position. Then I continue with the rest of pretty woman, my positions on the second and third pages. I start each position description with the Decision-Making Essay company name, location, and pretty, date ranges of employment. Underneath that, I list my job title, followed by a brief description of the type of company, the project(s) I worked on, and the role I played. This description should not exceed two sentences. This is a big mistake that I see on deflationary fiscal many resumes. Too many people will spend a paragraph or two describing the woman characters project and the company, and then barely spend any time at all getting specific about thiosulfate experiment, what they did . These developers will go into detail about what type of company it was, what division they worked in, what the purpose of the pretty woman characters software was, what technologies were used (whether or not they personally had anything to do with those technologies or not), how many team members there were, etc., etc. Thiosulfate Experiment? Is some of this information relevant? Probably—but you have to keep this sort of thing to a bare minimum.

Your resume’s job is to sell you , to pretty woman characters, land you an interview. When I encounter this technique on a resume, I am left to great movie, conclude that this developer didn’t really do all that much on this project, and is therefore trying to make it look like he worked on a lot of pretty woman, stuff he really didn’t by describing a lot of for dna, stuff he was simply associated with . You can get away with this to a point, depending on the shrewdness of the resume reader, but only if you also follow it up with good specifics about what you did. Another thought regarding this problem: I see this technique often on the resumes of people from pretty woman other countries besides the United States. I don’t have any facts to prove this, but my sense is that perhaps in some cultures it is considered unseemly to technology, draw too much attention to oneself; in other words, you worked as part of characters, a team, and it would be disrespectful to the team to shine a spotlight on yourself apart from the team. If this is indeed a cultural difference between the US and other countries, then I absolutely respect that. If you live and uses for dna, work in a country besides the US, then maybe none of this resume advice of mine applies. Pretty Woman Characters? I can’t say, because my view is totally provincial to the US job market. That said, if you are from fiscal policy another country or culture, and are seeking a job in the US, then you cannot afford on pretty characters your resume to be shy. I am not saying you should be boastful, but neither can you afford to be modest.

So after this two-to-three sentences of summary, I launch into bullet points. These bullet points are intended to describe what specific things I did for the company and for the project, what technologies I worked with, and whenever possible, the great movie benefits that my efforts had for the team and for the company. Here are a few random examples from my resume: Designed a large web-based e-commerce application from scratch, including requirements, database design, object/component design, security design, design of logical and physical tiers, and pretty, user interface design. Wrote a 100+ page design document for the entire system. Co-wrote a reusable application framework for state machine/unattended execution type applications. This framework cuts two weeks from the construction of these types of applications, which were common for for dna technology this development shop. Also wrote additional applications using the framework. Designed and wrote, from woman scratch, a large client/server system with a traditional Visual Basic front end.

This system was very successful for the company’s largest client, and consists of thousands of lines of code in over 50 files, plus dozens of stored procedures and triggers. It was written in a combination of Visual Basic for great gatsby review the logical front and middle tiers, and T-SQL for woman the data tier. Wrote, edited, and directed a complete rewrite of all program documentation, converting them from bound books and printed release notes to an electronic hypertext publishing system, resulting in four book-length on-line manuals and a $15-per-unit reduction in deliverables costs. Here are some tips for writing bullet points for your Professional Experience section: Start each bullet with a strong action verb: wrote, designed, researched, compiled, supported, built, led, coordinated, initiated, conceived, etc. Gabriel Marquez Realism Essay? Try to avoid using the same verbs over and over. Imagine the word I in front of pretty, each bullet: I conceived , I wrote , I built , etc.—only leave out the actual word I when you write it. Use the active voice.

You do not want to sound wishy-washy or passive. Uses? Here is passive voice: The system was written in C. And here is active voice: I wrote the system in C. Characters? Your resume is selling you , and the passive voice takes you out of the picture. Be specific about what you did, and be specific about the technologies you used. Don’t try to be clever by mentioning a lot of uses, technologies that other people worked on, because you will get busted in the interview. Be specific about the types of projects you worked on, what parts of them you worked on, and characters, what phase(s) you were involved in. For Dna Technology? Did you work on GUI elements, the middle tier(s), or the database? Did you participate or lead requirements and/or design, or were you involved mainly in the construction? Did you spec out the hardware? Did you assist or lead the deployment of your software, and see it through into the maintenance phase?

Sell success. Woman? Don’t be shy about pointing out the benefits that the Garcia and Magical team and company accrued from your efforts. Pretty Woman Characters? Did your project have a successful rollout with a very low bug count? Did the software you worked on policy make a lot of pretty woman characters, money for the company? Did the improvements you made to the software result in reductions to the help desk staff?

Sell that stuff. When selling the benefits of uses technology, your work, use numbers where possible. Managers, especially, love numbers. Can you quote a certain percentage of performance gain or reduction in memory usage from your efforts? Can you point to an increase in sales after you added new features to characters, the software? Use relevant buzzwords, but don’t go overboard—and don’t use buzzwords you are not confident you can define and discuss. Don’t leave out non-coding tasks like documentation, training, support, mentoring, etc. These things demonstrate that you are a well rounded individual. When reading developer resumes, I am always looking for Garcia Marquez and Magical this. As you go from position to pretty woman, position on revolution your resume, if you are having trouble keeping within the two or three page limit, you may need to start progressively shortening the section for each position, even getting really old positions down to one bullet point.

How much detail do you really need to woman characters, go into describing your work with technology that has been virtually obsolete for ten years? Finally, if you have part of your work experience in non-computer-related fields, and do not feel that it is great gatsby, relevant, then just list that period of pretty, time as Non IT-Related Employment and put the date range. French Revolution? This is pretty woman characters, how I sum up my three years of retail management experience immediately after college. Deflationary? The harried hiring manager does not care that right out of college I spent a year and a half at a department store building shelf displays in the middle of the night. So far, I have only described two primary sections, Summary of Qualifications and Professional Experience (plus the optional Objective section). In fact, these two primary sections are the only sections on my resume. What about some other traditional resume sections? I am not necessarily opposed to other sections, but these two sections serve me well all by themselves, and pretty, I suspect they will serve most developer’s resumes equally well. Some other sections you might be wondering about:

Education I do not use this section on my resume because I put my single relevant educational fact in my Summary of Qualifications section. Decision-Making Models Essay? I have a Bachelor of Arts degree in Creative Writing, and have never felt that this one modest fact is enough to warrant a whole section on my resume. Even if I had one or two more degrees, I still don’t think I would create a separate Education section on my resume. The main reason for this is that education is one of those touchy subjects that people are sensitive to. Many people are insecure about their education level, and this seems to be equally true of pretty woman, people who never went to college as it is of people who have a two Bachelors degrees, a Ph.D., and an MBA. The other reason is that I don’t view education level as a reliable barometer for a developer’s qualifications. I don’t even view a computer science degree as a reliable barometer for a developer’s qualifications. Does this mean you should not put a separate Education section on your resume, or that I would hold it against a resume that did?

Absolutely not. I just don’t like to waste the space on my own resume. Training and Certification This is another gray area. Some people might lump training and certification into the Education section, and and Magical, others like to break it out into characters, its own section. Movie Review? I don’t do either. If I had taken some training that I felt was relevant, than I would put it in my Summary of Qualifications section. I do the characters same with certifications. If you’ve taken a large amount of training, have a lot of certifications, or are particularly proud of your efforts in these areas, then by all means, add a section for it. That said, be aware that there are many people who have very strong negative feelings, even contempt, for certifications. These people are usually fairly irrational about it, in my experience, and culottes french, I would not advocate hiding your hard-earned certifications from these narrow minded people.

But that fact might make you reconsider how much attention to draw to your certification(s), and also whether or not you would want to embed certification logos in your resume. Other Interests I strongly recommend against this kind of section, where well meaning people like to list things like hobbies and outside interests. Some people like to pretty, also create Professional Affiliation sections in which to list memberships in clubs and associations. The reason I recommend against these kind of sections is that I believe in keeping anything potentially controversial in the background, or preferably off the resume altogether. Remember that harried hiring managers are looking for uses technology disqualifiers on your resume—don’t hand them over on a silver platter. Regardless of whether you add these, or other sections, to your resume, I strongly recommend putting them at the end of your resume, after the Professional Experience section. I won’t be going into characters, a lot of detail regarding resume layout, but I would like to say that layout is extremely important.

Issues such as font choice, margins, white space, and using small blocks of text that are inviting to the reader are crucial in the construction of your resume. I wish I had time to tell you about some of the horrid looking resumes I’ve been reading these past few weeks. If desktop publishing, layout, and word processor magic are not your strengths, then by all means get the help of thiosulfate, a friend who is good in these areas. There are also many good resume books that contain layout tips and templates. The bottom line is woman characters, this: your resume represents you. When I see a developer’s resume that is sloppy and unbalanced, then I have to french, assume that his code will look that way too. This is a huge pet peeve of mine. Contracting and placement agencies have this nice habit of pretty, taking the perfect resume that you spent hours on and totally making a mess of it. It’s really shameful. I understand that agencies want to cover up the Gabriel Marquez and Magical Realism personal contact info at the top of your resume and that they want to put their logo at the top.

I have no problem with that, which is why I leave room at the top of pretty, my resume for them to do this. But too often (most of the time, really) the agency people who are changing these resumes a) don’t have a clue what they are doing, and b) don’t give a damn about french, how good the woman layout on your resume looks. Worse yet, many agencies require that all resumes be in policy, the same format, so they retype them into some proprietary software, which usually pumps out something that looks like crap, or that comes out seven or eight pages long. I have a policy: before I will let any agency submit my resume for a position, I require final approval on the resume they are going to submit. Characters? I play hardball on this one.

If an uses for dna agency won’t work with me on this, then they don’t get to represent me. If they need a copy of my resume without my personal info and pretty, with their logo added, then they can send me the great gatsby movie review logo graphic, and woman, I’ll be happy to make them one. I have been burned too many times on this: I show up for the interview, get a look at the mess of a resume the sodium thiosulfate agency sent over, and I end up apologizing for the way it looks. Maybe I’m being silly, but the pretty woman characters way I look at great it is that until a potential employer meets me and woman characters, gets to know me and my work, the resume is great gatsby movie, me and my work. An often overlooked tidbit: when you have a multi-page resume, make sure you put a footer on all of the pages after the first one. In the footer, put the page number, your name, and pretty woman, your phone number and/or e-mail address. The reason for Essay this is that pages get lost and separated and pretty characters, mixed up. Beware of agency mutilation of your footers (see above). Quickly, here are some things to avoid on movie review your resume:

Don’t stretch or otherwise misrepresent the pretty characters truth. Don’t oversell. Don’t be trivial. By this I mean, don’t include your typing speed and culottes french, filing skills on pretty woman characters your resume, and don’t list every silly third party library or component that you’ve ever worked with. Trivialities expose or suggest lack of experience. Gabriel Marquez? Don’t be negative. This tip applies to characters, the whole job seeking process.

Don’t put anything negative (such as how you left your last job because your boss didn’t respect you) on your resume. At all costs, avoid misspellings, poor grammar, and technical mistakes on your resume. Have at least two other people read your resume before you send it out to anyone. No disrespect intended to my beloved international readers, but if English is not your first language and you are applying for a job in the US, I strongly recommend getting a native English speaker with good writing skills to proofread your resume. To wrap this up, let me say that I realize that all of this may seem overwhelming and intimidating if you do not have a great deal of experience or if you are not overflowing with self confidence. If you are lacking experience, do not let that discourage you. Everyone starts out with a lack of experience. Put extra effort into your resume and demonstrate that you are a person who cares about quality, is willing to put in extra effort, has a good attitude, and has a strong interest in fiscal, software development as a craft and discipline. If you are lacking experience and pretty characters, are not doing a lot of reading and a lot of self practice, then you are not helping yourself. You of course need to be reading technical materials about your chosen tools, but you also need to be doing a lot of non-technology-specific general software development reading. There are plenty of companies and teams looking to hire less experienced people who have the Models Essay right attitude, who show a lot of initiative, and who demonstrate dedication to quality.

I myself have hired less experienced developers many times. Find creative ways to make your resume demonstrate these things about you, and someone will give you a shot at pretty woman an interview. As for lack of self confidence, the best method I know for overcoming that is to fake it. The first place to start faking it is in your resume. Your resume cannot reveal a lack of confidence. Sodium Thiosulfate? If you are unsure about pretty, your resume, get a friend, colleague, or mentor that you trust to help you with it. A strong resume that you are proud of is Gabriel Realism Essay, a great way to woman characters, make sure that you can walk into an interview feeling confident. Remember where this essay started: most of the policy resumes you are competing with are crap, and now you know some techniques for making sure yours will stand out.

If you feel like you need more, there is no shortage of resume advice out there. Note: the author made minor changes and updates to this article on July 20, 2005. No list sharing of any kind. No special offers from partners. No webinars. No Special Reports. by Robert L. Woman? Glass.

All content copyright 2000-2006 by the individual specified authors (and where not specified, copyright by Read Media, LLC). Reprint or redistribute only sans revolution with written permission from the author and/or developer.*.

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33 Inspiring B2B digital marketing case studies. First, a few depressing facts: 86 percent of B2B companies say they are doing content marketing Just 38 percent say it is effective 21 perecnt are able to woman characters, track a return on deflationary fiscal investment (ROI) (source: Content Marketing Institute) Benefits from marketing and attribution of results always seem harder for woman, B2B companies than B2C. Maybe it’s because the buying cycle takes longer, more people are involved in purchase decisions and sales are made for rational, not emotional, reasons. Is it harder or are we not looking hard enough? If you need convincing, here are 32 B2B digital marketing case studies that prove the potental ROI. Sans French Revolution? In this post, we wil feature case studies in the areas of content marketing, social media marketingm social CRM, social selling, LinkedIn marketing, and webinars.

ADP: Developed a content marketing campaign to pretty woman, connect and engage with their target audience on sodium a ADP solution using white papers and a diagnostic assessment tool. The campaign generated over $1 million in new sales opportunities with several deals closed within the first 3 months of launch. CROWE HORWATH: the public accounting firm used 48 pieces of content in 4 different topic areas, this campaign targeted C-level prospects in financial institutions with $1 billion or more in assets across the woman buying cycle. Content tactics included: executive briefs, case studies, infographics, checklists, Q and A, and Brainshark video. Decision-Making Essay? 778 contacts were engaged with a 70% open rate (vs. 10%), 2 engagement worth $250k in revenue. Pretty Woman Characters? DEMANDBASE : A B2B marketing cloud, helped B2B marketers make the right content technology investment by using a white paper, infographic, webinar, Slideshare and a live presentation to culottes french revolution, spotlight tools that can maximize the power of content.

The results of the woman characters campaign generated 1,700 leads, 125 webinar participants, 5,000 views on Slideshare and $1 million in new business. FISHER TANK: Makes giant, above-ground welded steel tanks. With clients in the fuel industries, waste water, pulp paper and other industrial and municipal areas, projects tend to be big (multi-million dollar) and take a long time to sell (12 months and longer). For more than 60 years, the company has made its sales primarily through cold calling and Garcia and Magical Realism referrals from existing clients. So it took some moxy to pretty, launch a content marketing strategy online. The plan including sprucing up the website, integrating a blog and thiosulfate social sharing, and offering some valuable content by free download. Characters? The campaign increased web traffic by 119%, traffic from deflationary policy social media by 4800%, lead conversions by 3900%, quote requests by woman characters, 500% and new qualified sales opportunities by $3.4 million. LOGICALL: A company that focuses on inbound and outbound customer management solutions, uses content assets such as emails, microsite and ebook, Logicalis developed a thought leadership effort that supported sales teams by enabling custom messaging based on the prospects interaction with the campaign. With a target audience of about 2,000, nearly $8 million in new pipeline business was closed.

OPENTEXT: A software solution for enterprise information management, created a personalized new customer onboarding site offering a variety of assets (white papers, checklists, product pages, ebooks, case studies) and content to french, welcome new clients and pretty characters provide upsell, cross-sell opportunities. French Revolution? The campaign also included a two phase nurturing program. 1,700 new contacts were identified along with 31 new opportunities worth $1.8 million. OPTUM: A health services business, created an integrated marketing campaign to support the launch of a new solution, support sales and build thought leadership. Pretty Woman? The content marketing mix included: advertorials, display ads, email, direct mail and a campaign website. The successful campaign earned a 23.5 lead to conversion rate, 475% increase in website traffic, 2,500+ resource downloads, 28% increase in sodium thiosulfate YoY blog followers and $52 million in contract value of woman characters new business with less than $ 1,000,000 invested. Great Review? RS COMPONENTS: The electronic product distribution company created a specific social hub, spanning four different languages, having the purpose of being a collaboration and engagement hub for Electronic Design Engineering. One of the centrepieces of the site is the free tool store, which includes a free design tool that’s been downloaded more than 60,000 times and the site itself gathered more than 45,000 members within its first 12-month period. SAP: The global strategy was aimed at enabling cross-cultural information to be efficiently shared around the company. SAP Latin AmericaOne year after implementing this strategy SAP Latin America had more than 100,000 fans and followers (an increase of 900%) and achieved a 17% interaction rate across the pretty woman region, while a campaign featuring a social app targeting specific buying centers drove more than 12,000 visitors and a 15% engagement rate. has four Facebook pages, four Twitter feeds and two LinkedIn accounts. Uses? These profiles are split out by language (e.g.

Portuguese and woman characters Spanish) rather than country and aim at achieving a split of 20% promotion material vs. 80% of interesting, engaging content for its community. XEROX: Created a targeted “Get Optimistic” campaign to connect with 30 top accounts and Marquez and Magical Essay partnered with Forbes to create a magazine that offered relevant business tips. 70% of targeted companies interacted with the microsite, readership increased 300-400% over previous email campaigns, added 20,000 new contacts, generated 1,000+ scheduled appointments, and get this: yielded $1.3 BILLION in pipeline revenue. CISCO: Established a social media listening center. It listens to more than 5000 social mentions a day on Facebook, Twitter, and other social channels. Cisco has been able to woman, control outside agency fees, avoid other customer and partner interaction costs, increase team productivity, and identify new sales opportunities. The social media listening center has had an ROI of culottes revolution +281% in 5 months to generate an annual benefits of pretty woman characters $1,596,292. MAERSK: Danish shipping company Maersk first began using social back in 2011 to raise brand awareness, gain insight into the market, increase employee satisfaction and uses technology get closer to its customers, It focuses on the stories that emerge from within the business, such as how it is helping fuel a boom in pretty the sale of Kenyan avocados and where its staff come from.

Its presence on each network is tailored to that platform, so for example on LinkedIn it promotes job vacancies and publishes articles about the work culture within the business, while on Instagram it encourages followers to post photos of its ships using the hashtag #Maersk. Great Gatsby Movie Review? Maersk now has more than 1.5m Facebook fans (of which around 15% are customers) and 12,000 Twitter followers, as well as active accounts on Instagram, Tumblr, YouTube and Google+. DELL sought to go where its customers are — on social media — by offering technical support, responding to customer concerns and building business digitally . The company launched @DellCares, a program that uses social media platforms and online communities to address customer questions and reply directly to customers through tweets and other response methods. According to Amy Marquez Bivin, Social Media Outreach Manager, 98 percent of customer issues responded to through @DellCares are resolved without customers needing to work with an agent and 85 percent of social-media-assisted customers with negative initial opinions of woman characters Dell reported a positive opinion following the review support experience. The program is also generating an average of $265,000 in additional weekly revenue. SHIPSERV: It’s difficult to pretty woman characters, imagine the maritime industry getting to grips with social media, but Shipserv one of the leading industry marketplaces, proves that in can be done very successfully. As part of a wider marketing strategy and customer engagement strategy, various social approaches were taken, resulting in greater site traffic, alongside increased brand awareness and Decision-Making Essay lead opportunities. From an initial $30,000 social media marketing investment, it’s estimated the overall results achieved would have cost more than $150,000 through traditional media.

ALLINA HEALTH: Used CRM to manage its data warehouse. It’s identified benefits that include reduced patient length of stay, reduced admissions, and improved health outcomes in stroke, depression, and angioplasty treatments. Pretty Characters? Within 2 years, the CRM initiative had an ROI of +152% and generated $1,052,828 each year. GET SATISFACTION: A leading online customer community platform that companies use or customer support, idea submission, marketing and gatsby movie review sales questions, and capturing positive feedback, focused traffic driving strategies on search, social media, blogging, and pretty woman building a content community. The CRM strategy achieved an ROI of +104% in month one, +168% in month two and +248% in month three. Gabriel Garcia Marquez Realism Essay? TYROIT: is Europe’s largest manufacturer of bonded grinding, cutting-off, sawing, and drilling tools generating $416 million in annual revenue from more than 70,000 unique products produced in 19 plants for 60 countries. Tyroit used CRM to integrate products and solutions to reduce the woman characters number of contact points and transaction costs. Models Essay? It increased bottom line costs by +25% and produced an ROI of +183% within 2 years. Pretty Characters? ATT: Put together a new sales team to re-build business relationships with a Fortune 100 company in Atlanta. They decided to take an entirely new approach that heavily favored building relationships through social media.

They had to try something new. Relationships with a key client had suffered in the past five years, creating strain and technology sales had dried up. With training from Mark Schaefer and support from our internal team, they began implementing a content strategy aimed at strategic “persons of interest” from the woman former customer. Inside of 18 months $47 million in brand new business was awarded to ATT, directly attributable to social media outreach. IBM: Traditional ways of finding B2B customers for hardware and software products – telemarketing and email – were not producing the same results when applied to uses, selling web-based services such as cloud computing and data security. Pretty? IBM launched a program called “intelligent listening” within social media to experiment, learn what conversations about cloud computing were going on, what trends and issues were being discussed, and what the pretty characters hot-button topics in the field were for users. Sales reps could simply check an great review RSS feed, find some content that fit the context of any discussion they were seeing, and upload them to social media and also to their new individual rep profile pages within the IBM site. The result was 10 orders the first day, and pretty characters orders for product during the quarter that were 4X higher than during the same time the year before. INCONTACT: A call center software company, trained half their team to learn and engage with customers through Social Selling using LinkedIn and the marketing automation software, Eloqua. Deflationary Fiscal? Within a year, the half of the team that was trained saw a 122% increase in revenue for those sales reps using LinkedIn; 157% increase in revenue for those sales reps using LinkedIn Eloqua.

Now the entire company is trained in Social Selling Here is characters, a brief video to explain the Garcia and Magical Realism Essay story. INDIUM: Social Media in manufacturing is a rarity. Several of their engineers (17 or so, and 73 blogs.) write blog articles to share their expertise with customers, prospects and people with questions about the technical applications related to solder. They shifted from traditional white papers to blog articles, supported by extensive measurements. Video is woman, part of the mix too, to sans, develop high value conversations, and this rolls over into pretty woman, trade show attendance. Marquez Realism Essay? The video highlights key points for success and insights. SEO improved significantly.

Leads increased significantly while trade-show costs decreased 75%. HUBSPOT: Focused social media on pretty woman characters solving customers’ problems as a way to earn leads. For example, HubSpot is first to sans french, release guidebooks their target market needs to create success. When something changes in online marketing, HubSpot is there with a guide to manage the change. They share the woman characters best advice, fast and have earned a reputation as THE educational resource for the market they serve. They give knowledge and advice (content) away free and make sure it’s the very best stuff possible. This (now) famous software start-up exploded onto the scene in sodium thiosulfate experiment 2006. Two years later they hit $2.2 million in sales and $52 million 4 years later. LINKEDIN: Had to be converted to social selling. After the release of pretty characters tools such as Sales Navigator and TeamLink, LinkedIn’s own sales team began seeing significant results. Ralf VonSosen, the company’s head of marketing for Marquez and Magical Realism, sales solutions notes, “We started seeing a 50% increase in leads to meeting conversion rates.” LOGMYCALLS: A call tracking service, practiced a“ 150 Blog Posts in 50 Days ” effort. Pretty? “With a company our size, the commitment has to be significant in order to produce 3 unique and useful blog posts a day,” says Inbound Marketing Manager, McKay Allen. “After all, we also produce 2 original marketing webinars each week, monthly case studies, a variety of deflationary fiscal policy marketing White Papers, and some humorous and awesome marketing call tracking videos.” The result of woman this original and sodium experiment relevant content: A 400% increase in leads within 90 days.

AXWAY: Is a software service that manages, runs, secures, and monitors all your business interactions – emails, files, messages, services, events, and processes. Although Google Adwords was successful at generating leads for Axway, competition for top keywords was fierce and drove up conversion costs. Woman Characters? Axway used LinkedIn Ads specifically targeting the job titles, industries and sans job functions. They tested over 30 ads with custom landing pages. The LinkedIn campaigns generated +25% conversion rate with the lowest cost per conversion ever achieved.

JMF INTERNATIONAL TRADE GROUP: Is a business consultancy and contract manufacturer run by James Filbird. What Jim did is something any of us could do to grow a business but most of us don’t. He: 1) kept his profile up-to-date, 2) joined 50 LinkedIn Groups, 3) scoured Group Digests, 4) engaged in discussions, 5) connected, 6) moved the characters conversation offline, mostly through Skype and 7) re-evaluated his groups and contacts, regularly. Decision-Making? He attributes the company he built to $5,000,000 in revenue largely to pretty woman, LinkedIn. Realism Essay? GOSHIDO: a software solution that makes is easier for people around the pretty woman characters world to work together and deflationary fiscal policy collaborated, used LinkedIn to find seed capital for its own creation. This was done by identifying and leveraging connections who could be potential investors. Approximately $150,000 was raised. Pretty? HEWLETT PACKARD: is the sodium thiosulfate first company to hit 1,000,000 Followers for woman, a Company Page. They also set up a specific Discussion Group to attract small businesses that has 5,500+ members; 75% who actively engage in discussions and fiscal who are 2X more likely to recommend HP. Since a video tell more than 1,000 words, here’s the story.

INSPIRED MARKETING: Sells digital materials and online training programs about using social networking tools such as LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter to create and market a successful business. In 2010, the pretty woman partners presented more than 300 webinars (both their own and Decision-Making through other people). They investment could be tracked to characters, over $2.5 million in for dna technology sales for 2011. Pretty? “In January 2011, we had sales of $250,000 from just seven GoToWebinar events,” says President and Co-founder, Lewis Howes. LUMEDX: Is a small healthcare technology company with 100 person staff. It needed to stand out in the face of Models large brand competition. Lumedx used webinars to cost effectively build awareness of its cardiovascular information and imaging systems product, drive lead generation campaigns and characters build customer rapport. Lumeds increased contact with over 500 clients, gained competitive edge over much larger companies and drove over$600,000 in annual sales. MARKETO: Is a leading provider of marketing analytics software. The company recognized webinars as a key piece in and Magical Realism the marketing tool kit to promote thought leadership and generate leads. Pretty? As with many webinars, people registered but didn’t always attend. Models? They used a simple, recorded phone message reminder in characters addition to email.

Although th ephone reminder added $2 for every registrant, it increased conversion of people who attended from 26% to 48% and, according to for dna, Marketo, was well worth the investment in terms of sales results according to a company rep. Pretty Woman? PINPOINTE: Is a provider of great movie review on-demand email marketing automation services for mid-market and large enterprises. Pinpointe depended upon free,15-day trials of its service together with traditional sales outreach to generate leads and win new customers. Pretty Characters? However, the company wanted to find additional ways to increase awareness, leads and sales. When webinars were added, 1000 new leads per Decision-Making, month are added; 25 become customers who each generate $200/month in Pinpointe services adding $6,250 and $75,000 to the bottom line. Woman Characters? SEAGATE: Is a large 52000+ staff technology company, Seagate wanted to bypass traditional B2B channels and market its new product directly to sans culottes revolution, end users. Webinars facilitated a B2C product launch and attracted 1500+ attendees with zero advertising budget. Pretty? Seagate also used webinars to assemble far-flung speakers for webcasts without travel costs.

Seagate exceeded initial sales unit goal by 300 percent, doubling sales forecast within one week of launch. Once they put the webcast on YouTube, a viral marketing effect created 38,800 within 4 months. Essay? Did you find one relevant to your business? Did these case studies convince you digital marketing works for your B2B business? Rob Petersen is an experienced advertising and characters marketing executive and the founder of the BarnRaisers agency anbd a strategic partner of Schaefer Marketing Solutions. Follow Rob on Twitter: @RobPetersen. Hi Rob, enjoyed your examples. But here is what I#8217;ve noticed: A bunch of the B2B firms I have worked with don#8217;t truly understand their buyer process and pain points. Marquez Realism Essay? So, they end up spending a fortune on pretty woman content creation, with little movement of the needle. Technology? Sometimes, the buyer persona starting point is nothing more than a mish-mash of every salesperson#8217;s theory of what buyers want and need, without any validation of pretty woman what matters most.

Unless you do some research around that you can spend a lot on content and social, with little to show for it. My two cents #8230; but great post nonetheless! Thanks Rhonda. I agree with you Buyer Personas are one of the most important starting points for any business but especially B2B. While I don#8217;t know how many of the case study companies did this, I do know the likelihood of positive ROI is sodium thiosulfate experiment, greater if they did. Hope all it well with you. Pretty Woman? Be great to uses for dna technology, catch up when it works for you. This is very much great and hope fully nice blog. Every body can easily get perfect information from here.

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You’re in marketing for one reason: Grow. Grow your company, reputation, customers, impact, profits. Grow yourself. This is a community that will help. It will stretch your mind, connect you to fascinating people, and provide some fun along the way. I am so glad you’re here. -Mark Schaefer. Why not tune into pretty characters, the world’s most entertaining marketing podcast that I co-host with Tom Webster.

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Finding creative ways to woman, help our clients make the world better. What is the difference between marketing and branding? In a recent conversation with a very senior person at a financial institution my colleague was told, “I think private wealth managers will have a hard time seeing the value of branding—they see marketing as a cost center, not a driver of sales.” How did we go from technology branding to marketing in one sentence like that? What is marketing? What is branding? How do they differ? There is pretty characters a spectrum of opinions here, but in my view, marketing is actively promoting a product or service. It’s a push tactic. It’s pushing out a message to get sales results: “Buy our product because it’s better than theirs.” (Or because it’s cool, or because this celebrity likes it, or because you have this problem and this thing will fix it, etc.) This is oversimplification, but that’s it in a nutshell. This is not branding.

Branding should both precede and underlie any marketing effort. Branding is sodium not push, but pull. Branding is the expression of the essential truth or value of an organization, product, or service. It is communication of characteristics, values, and attributes that clarify what this particular brand is and is not. A brand will help encourage someone to buy a product, and pretty characters, it directly supports whatever sales or marketing activities are in play, but the brand does not explicitly say “buy me.” Instead, it says “This is what I am. This is why I exist. If you agree, if you like me, you can buy me, support me, and recommend me to your friends.”

Branding is strategic. Marketing is tactical. Marketing may contribute to a brand, but the brand is bigger than any particular marketing effort. Gabriel Garcia Marquez And Magical Essay! The brand is pretty characters what remains after the marketing has swept through the room. It’s what sticks in your mind associated with a product, service, or organization—whether or not, at sodium thiosulfate that particular moment, you bought or did not buy. The brand is ultimately what determines if you will become a loyal customer or not. The marketing may convince you to buy a particular Toyota, and pretty woman characters, maybe it’s the first foreign car you ever owned, but it is the brand that will determine if you will only buy Toyotas for the rest of french revolution, your life.

The brand is woman built from many things. Very important among these things is the gatsby movie, lived experience of the brand. Did that car deliver on its brand promise of reliability? Did the maker continue to uphold the quality standards that made them what they are? Did the sales guy or the service center mechanic know what they were talking about? Marketing unearths and pretty woman, activates buyers.

Branding makes loyal customers, advocates, even evangelists, out of those who buy. This works the sans culottes, same way for all types of businesses and organizations. All organizations must sell (including nonprofits). How they sell may differ, and everyone in an organization is, with their every action, either constructing or deconstructing the brand. Every thought, every action, every policy, every ad, every marketing promotion has the effect of either inspiring or deterring brand loyalty in whomever is exposed to it. All of this affects sales.

Back to our financial expert. Is marketing a cost center? Poorly researched and executed marketing activities can certainly be a cost center, but well-researched and characters, well-executed marketing is an investment that pays for itself in sales and and Magical Essay, brand reinforcement. Is branding a cost center? On the surface, yes, but the return is pretty loyalty.

The return is salespeople whose jobs are easier and more effective, employees who stay longer and work harder, customers who become ambassadors and advocates for the organization. Branding is as vital to the success of great gatsby, a business or nonprofit as having financial coherence, having a vision for woman the future, or having quality employees. It is the essential foundation for a successful operation. So yes, it’s a cost center, like good employees, financial experts, and business or organizational innovators are. They are cost centers, but what is REALLY costly is not to have them, or to movie, have substandard ones. Do you need an woman, affordable way to improve your brand today? Because we know that not everyone needs or can afford our full process, we created a guided tutorial package for our foundational brand strategy tool: the Brand Pyramid. Watch the video for a preview.

For more information on the brand strategy tutorial, visit here where you will find a fuller explanation and link to a free download of the first video. Illustration above for sans culottes revolution Tronvig Group by Sage Einarsen. Thanks for this James – branding and marketing definitely get confused too often … we definitely serve our clients better when we explain the pretty woman, differences clearly. Well, just to challenge the standard view a bit: what if the idea that branding precedes marketing comes from uses for dna a too narrow view of marketing? If marketing is seen from the point of view of old-fashioned production or selling orientation, it certainly looks as if branding is the woman, heart of everything, and culottes french revolution, marketing is just about characters ‘selling techniques’. But marketing has been developed also as a strategic tool, which is itself at the very core of the entire business strategy. How can branding suddenly take its place?

As I started to develop city marketing in the 1980s, when branding was not developed at all in this particular area, I seem to have developed a different view than those who see marketing as just a tool for branding. Rather, and deflationary policy, this is woman very tentative, I think that branding developed simply from a ‘product’ dimension of Gabriel Garcia and Magical, 4P, extending to pretty woman, such directions as identity and positioning, which in sodium thiosulfate experiment the current market and competitive condition gained a special role in marketing. Thus, it is still an integral part of strategic marketing. Does this make any sense? Dr.

Rudy Cardona says. By the way, and as you probably know, the term “city marketing” speaks of the city in generic terms. City Branding, or Destination Branding, implies now a generic city with its own brand using strategic marketing actions to characters, promote itself in a fierce competitive global landscape. Dr. Gabriel And Magical Realism Essay! Rudy Cardona says. In total agreement with your comment!! Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko — I fully agree with your explanation. Mr. Heaton, please consider the pretty woman characters, explanation and do implore the same.

Brand management being strategic and marketing being tactical seem like a myopic view of the subject of marketing for those who are studying it. I, too, agree that brand management is a subset of marketing first and not independent. I think it does make sense, and deflationary fiscal policy, thank you very much for your thoughtful comments. Sometimes I think this argument might be no more than a kind of pretty woman characters, childish fight: “My tool is bigger than your tool.” and culottes french, I may have played into this by saying, “Branding is strategic. Marketing is tactical.” I was perhaps arguing that my tool is bigger. One might also say that strategic marketing is just as strategic as strategic branding, so my statement IS an oversimplification, but its intent was clarification for pretty woman those confused about how the two different processes operate, which I hope is a useful larger point. Marketing operates primarily through tactical means, and great gatsby movie, branding, while manifest in all things including every tactical action, is to woman, my view, really about great movie what people hold in their minds, and this is significantly more about strategic positioning than tactical action. I’m not sure I still believe unequivocally that branding is woman primary, and our understanding of marketing continues to evolve. As it does, it’s getting more powerful and more strategic, and it’s also eating up ground once occupied for me by branding.

So it goes. In the 15 months since I wrote this post, I have, it turns out, spent more time talking about sans marketing than I have about branding, and this could be a reflection of pretty, my own awakening to just how much strategic ground marketing could be made to cover. Branding though still remains, for me, fundamental. To take your example, when it comes to marketing a city, is it more important to look inward and create a brand that is true to the experience of those living or visiting that place, or is it more important to think about what the city has to deflationary fiscal policy, offer in terms on the needs of pretty, those who use it? For me this difference in approach is a key difference between branding and marketing. Each approach to the problem of what to do yields a slightly different outcome. Each implies differing tactical actions, and (I now believe) each approach benefits from the insights brought by the other. In our own Branding and Marketing Discovery process, we now do both things—we try to get at the truth of the brand from the thiosulfate, perspective of those who know it well, and pretty characters, then we also try to great movie review, understand the brand offer in terms of the needs of pretty woman characters, those who do and might potentially consume it. This second set of fiscal policy, findings often suggests changes/improvements. Woman! Do you/we then, as in policy your example, ask a city to pretty characters, change something fundamental about itself so that it will be a better sell?

Is this what really happens? I’m guessing the answer might sometimes be yes. That’s interesting, and I’m curious to know your experience. In any event, thanks for for dna technology helping me think about it. I will continue to do so as I want to always be learning.

Thanks for your thoughtful reply. Characters! Good points. I am luckily out of the whole marketing game. This is why I do not have any particular need to participate in that “my tool is bigger than yours” game. And I am glad you have a rather pragmatic view of it, too. But about the original question, I probably have a simply old-fashioned view of it, as I was like sleeping for culottes french some twenty years — I had nothing to woman characters, do with marketing after the latter half of the 1980s — and when I returned to the topic recently, it seemed that the discourse was more about deflationary fiscal policy branding than marketing, and it sure attracted my attention. As I said, my field is city marketing and city branding, and pretty, that is a special field that may also partly explain my view of the marketing/branding relationship.

If I try to explain what I meant in the previous reply, I simply see that the product dimension of marketing grew out from its original place in sodium experiment 4Ps and became a kind of spearhead dimension through the interplay of business strategy, product development, and the symbolic aspect of communication, which for understandable reasons started to woman characters, change the uses technology, traditional idea of the marketing mix. This, together with fundamental changes in the economy (of which you know more than I do) and what Lash and Urry, for example, refer to as economies of signs and space , and a general emphasis on the increased symbolic nature of economic life (incl. digitalisation), and with increased awareness of brand values and global brand names since the 1990s, has created a completely new way of looking at the symbolic aspect of a product. This is why I see that the DNA of branding is in the interplay within the pretty woman characters, product-communication axis. Fiscal Policy! Hence the brand is now at the core of the woman, new discourse. The story is much longer and nuanced, but I tried to keep it short.

As to your question about city branding, I guess I am not completely wrong if I translate the dilemma into the relationship of brand identity and experiment, the brand promise of the city. Characters! And if you ask me, you do exactly the right thing: you have to work on both dimensions. Yet, there are two extremely important things to take into account. First, a city is a reflexive entity. There is no ‘real’ city here and the ‘represented’ city there, but instead a reflexive entity that changes through its symbolic expressions — sometimes slowly, and sometimes only culottes, slightly — but the pretty, reflexivity is there. Thus, when we brand a city, we are also reworking the Gabriel Realism Essay, identity of the city, because there is characters no longer the same identity that there was before we started our endeavour. Of course, this requires that our actions are influential and Models Essay, meaningful to the community.

With this exaggeration I am just trying to point out the very evolutionary nature of pretty woman characters, brand identity in the case of city branding. Great Gatsby Review! And second, we have to keep in mind that in city branding the ‘identity’ is an aggregate of experiences of pretty, people living and deflationary fiscal policy, visiting the city, and a set of key attributes as expressed in urban symbolism, and this is not and should not be treated as a sacred cow. Branding is meant to point out weak points, gaps, cleavages, and tensions that require not only narrowly defined branding designed for external audiences but also profound changes in the self-perception, conditions, and policies of the urban community in question. This is a well-known story in many post-industrial cities which really needed a large-scale restructuring in order provide decent working and living conditions for pretty characters their citizens. Gabriel Marquez Essay! Sometimes it works, sometimes not, but in woman characters such cases there is no other way than just to try. Deflationary Fiscal! Glasgow, Bilbao, Pittsburgh etc. are textbook cases of such changes, but only a tip of the iceberg. This message is pretty woman getting too long, but let me just summarise. Yes, sometimes you must ask the thiosulfate experiment, city to reform itself in order to be able to attract desired values from the space of flows. Pretty Characters! (This is actually the key message of my ‘city attraction hypothesis’).

Lastly, thanks for the interesting conversation and stimulating ideas! Thank you for taking the time to gatsby review, thoughtfully answer my question. You look too young to have been branding cities in the 1980’s, or is that the prerogative of the very young in pretty woman Europe? ;) I see you are publishing what looks to be a fascinating book on policy this subject: The Political Economy of City Branding. I will have to read your ‘city attraction hypothesis.’ It’s a topic that is pretty characters becoming surprisingly germane to our work. We are beginning to brush up against these very issues as we work on uses for dna technology branding and marketing projects involving keynote public institutions—like museums—in smaller cities. Their fate and identity is deeply intertwined with that of the city itself. So the questions we face sometimes grow larger as we get deeper into the real issues at pretty woman play, until we are inevitably talking about the brand of the city itself, and how that will change or force changes on the institutions we are seeking to help and vice versa. I must soundly disagree with your position.

Do you disagree with Peter Drucker’s statement that “There are two, and only two, essential functions for Garcia Marquez and Magical Realism any business: marketing and innovation. Pretty Characters! Everything else is Gabriel Garcia Marquez Realism Essay a cost.” Your view of marketing as a tactic is much too narrow and pretty woman characters, simple. Marketing is everything that an organization does to get and keep a customer. Branding came into sodium experiment, vogue due to the success of the company’s marketing – see Coke. James Heaton says.

Tim: Thanks for the comment and for bringing up Peter Drucker. Sorry for the lateness of my reply. Characters! I was off grid practicing what I preach in How Not to Vacation. I do not disagree with you at thiosulfate experiment the level of the most general definition of marketing. Woman! I’m not sure how helpful that kind of definition is though since it tends to consume everything and then just sit there bloated and unhelpful. Peter Drucker’s “marketing” certainly includes all of what I refer to thiosulfate, as branding along with all that I refer to pretty woman, as marketing. You might also notice that I touch on the question of the great gatsby, ongoing debate over whose concept is bigger in my discussion above with Professor Anttiroiko. I do not want to add fire to that. If you want marketing to be the first principal, fine, but the pretty woman, marketing approach and the branding approach remain distinct and complementary aspects of the what should be a synthetic and deflationary fiscal policy, comprehensive process. I maintain that understanding their distinctive roles and pretty woman characters, contributions to this process makes for better marketing (your definition). I certainly do NOT disagree with Peter Drucker or his statement about the essential role of movie, marketing for all businesses.

On this point, please see my post: Marketing is Not Optional. It is helpful when you differentiate branding from marketing, as many people get confused when talking about this stuff. It was a pleasure reading your post. More Power! Graphic Design Company in Philadelphia says. Then what does it mean when people say you need branding for your business?

I mean, if branding is what we are then why do we have to do it? James Heaton says. Thanks for the question. I have to pretty characters, assume it’s rhetorical since you are a graphic design firm, but let me take the Marquez and Magical Realism, opportunity to elaborate on the sentence. Your brand IS what you are, but more importantly it is what you are in pretty characters the MINDS of your brand consumers. So, the truth and effectiveness of sans culottes revolution, your brand expression matters a great deal. Your brand must have clarity and pretty woman, an idea that is strong enough, coherent enough and distinctive enough to be able to lodge in your brand consumer’s mind. This requires expert and persistent articulation and supporting expression across all the sodium, constituent elements of pretty woman characters, your brand, at least those over which you exercise direct and indirect control.

This includes, but is technology not limited to, your employee training, your vision statement, your physical spaces if you have them, all of your deployed brand assets such as photography, videos, logos, graphics, colors, how you use language, and of course, your marketing communications expressed through websites, printed materials and all manner of advertising. Pretty Woman Characters! Your brand is uses for dna a living, breathing thing that is pretty characters simultaneously within your organization and spread across all those who ever have and will ever encounter you. So, in answer to sans revolution, your question, you only have to “do it” in woman the sense that not doing it will likely result in deflationary policy your brand being incoherent and diffuse, a state described by some as having no brand at all. This is pretty woman a very relevant and articulate article. But if I may, I’d like to present a contrarian view: The Brand is “what you are”, and Marketing is Gabriel Marquez Realism Essay “what you do”… BUT “what you do” (habits) eventually defines “what you are” (personality). In my opinion, Branding and Marketing, and pretty woman, Sales, are more intimately connected than we think… And they should be treated as one function. As a Creative Director, I know that Advertising for the same Brand tends to have very different flavours depending on whether the brief is from policy Brand Manager or the pretty characters, CMO/Marketing Manager… In my opinion, that it’s because even though they profess otherwise, they have considerably different incentives and “end results” in mind.

Case in point: Dove ‘brand’ ads are empathetic and appreciative of “natural beauty”, whereas Dove ‘marketing’ ads prey on insecurities like any cosmetic product… http://inkstainedmind.blogspot.com/2013/04/excuse-me-while-i-wash-my-mouth-out.html. Hi guys! I am a bit confused about this answer from a startup company “We are not spending any money on for dna technology branding right now.” Can one be spending money on branding? If yes, can you give me an example? Because I think more that what they mean is pretty “we are not spending money on MARKETING right now” ? From what I understand here on this site, branding is the “ID” of the company which is Decision-Making stored in the minds of the consumers. So I guess that this ID is woman built up by marketing tactics, which cost money. Am I wrong? Please clarify it for Decision-Making Models Essay me :) James Heaton says. Marinela, what an interesting thought. Characters! Thank you.

Branding, in part, could be seen as the “id” of an organization. It can and should also be more than that. Crucially, it has to have external manifestations through whatever means (including marketing). Your brand exists, I think, in the interplay between what you are and fiscal, what you do (including your marketing tactics) on pretty woman one side, and the idea your consumers retain about french you on the other. So I see marketing and branding as two essential aspects of the ongoing relationship organizations have with the world. As succinctly pointed out by Peter Drucker (and Tim) “There are two, and only two, essential functions for any business: marketing and innovation.

Everything else is a cost.” Contained inside Peter Drucker’s notion of marketing with a capital M, brand work is there, and serves as the internal foundation upon pretty woman which marketing execution can be built. Culottes Revolution! Marketing, as I describe it, is characters also there looking at the issue from its vantage point in the mind of the consumer. They are fraternal twins that see the world differently, but should be loved equally by mother business. Organizations do not HAVE to spend money on branding, but many do and rightly so. They spend money on branding when they need assistance with what should be natural and easy, but actually is not—finding clarity. Organizations also often have to spend money on branding, when they or their marketplace is evolving or changing, or when they are having trouble expressing themselves effectively across all communication pathways. We actually have two rubrics for strategy: one that assesses the great gatsby movie, brand viability of an idea or execution (from the mind of the organization) and another that assesses the marketing viability (from the perspective of the mind of the pretty woman, target consumer).

Together these two can serve as a strategic guide for effective communications. Neither is truly fixed. It’s remarkable how many organizations actually do need branding help, let alone marketing help. Perhaps this is just the deflationary fiscal policy, consequence of a basic reality: things always change—markets, people, tastes. It does often take an outside guide to help an organization back or forward to the right (meaning most effective) actions. In the end, brand communications (natural or supported) should serve to foster a more positive and constructive influence over your brand as it exists (and evolves) in the mind of characters, your brand consumers.

I think it worth mentioning that for sodium thiosulfate experiment a company to succeed, it needs both branding and marketing. It doesn’t cut it with just one or the other. Marketing for short term cash flow, and pretty, Branding for fiscal building the loyalty or equity. Marketing will help boost the product or service distribution and Branding will help retain customers and grow more. I learned way back in my research about branding, that a brand is the ‘personality’ of your product that you are trying to pretty, market. Your brand will develop a reputation, initially by marketing tactics, but ultimately by consumer experience. Deflationary Fiscal! It can be bad, or it can be good. (Don’t forget Public Relations, it’s up to PR to make sure the reputation is characters protected by uses for dna technology, enhancing the good and downplaying the bad.) Marketing ‘uses’ the good qualities of the woman characters, brand to ‘sell’ to the public. And marketing will match graphic elements to technology, reflect the positive qualities of the product by using colors, photographs, a logo and characters, even fonts. These elements will create a visual identity for the ‘personality.’

For example, Superman is associated trustworthiness and culottes french revolution, dependability in a time of need. Pretty Woman! He has a good reputation. He is identified with a logo—the letter ‘S’. His colors are mainly blue and red with a touch of yellow, and uses technology, he has a cape that is unique to him. (This identifies him and separates him from, say, Batman, who also has a cape and a good reputation, but wears black. Branding needs to clarify a unique personality.) Superman gets publicity for his good deeds.

News stories and headlines are the PR that communicates to pretty woman characters, the public the good deeds he is associated with, and helps spread this knowledge. This helps enhance his word-of-mouth reputation. Marketing strategies establish the graphics, the colors and the logo to match the uses for dna technology, personality to a visual identity. And these will be used leveraging his perceived positive qualities to sell Superman products like movies and toys… I have a bit of a different view on this. For LARGE companies with lots of marketing dollars to spend, they can do a lot of branding. If you”re a small company, sales professional or start-up, FOCUS on pretty woman characters LEAD GENERATION.

Let brand building be the BY-PRODUCT of your lead generation activities. Not a strategy onto itself. Far too many small businesses are VICTIMS of brand building. Flushing their limited marketing dollars down the drain. James Heaton says. Ken, thank you for great your comment and insight.

I agree with you that there is pretty woman characters a danger in gatsby spending lots of money on what some people think of as branding. And I agree that some small companies are victims of this. For me though, one of the essential functions of branding is to sort out how you are going to pretty woman characters, communicate your value so that those outside your company or organization (or your own head) can understand it. Not doing this can also be very costly. Casting many lines may seem like the logical first step, but it is infinitely wiser to cast them strategically—knowledge of precisely where to great, cast those lines (who to talk to) can only be gleaned once the hard internal work, which involves getting clear on your brand and offer, is done.

Fishing lines do not pay for themselves, and every dead end, every wasted opportunity, is money spent. Branding should not be about spending a lot of money to make your logo look pretty, but it should be about making sure your energies are focused strategically on those things that will yield the results you want out in the world. Maybe another way to put this is … beware of branding companies who will give you a brand without first helping you establish a strategic foundation for pretty woman characters its operation within your tactical activities (such as lead generation, or your website, or whatever marketing activation you have taken on). So, is Essay branding more closely related to pretty woman characters, the old-fashioned “word-of-mouth” advertising? Is brand also more likely to be affected by unpaid publicity (e.g. journalist reports on culottes TV, radio, internet or newspaper)? I’m predicting the answer is “yes” to both of these questions, but I’m just checking that I do understand how it all works together. James Heaton says.

Kerrie, as you predict, yes. It’s appropriate here to quote Walter Landor: “Products are made in the factory, but brands are created in pretty woman the mind.” So, all of the stuff you mention impacts the brand, as does your marketing activity, of course. Hi James, this is a wonderful article…I just stumbled upon it today and have enjoyed reading both it and the ensuing comments. I do wonder, as an great gatsby review, aspiring brand manager I see a lot of variation in woman characters how companies approach the topic of brand and more specifically rebranding. Is there a framework you’d recommend that fleshes out and touches on more than the brand ID elements (which most seem to sans french, get hung up on) in a rebrand process? I have a hard time articulating the importance of digging deeper beyond these elements when working with a team considering a rebrand. Thank you. Thank you again, I’ll be following the characters, blog. James Heaton says. Roger, I just wrote another post on this topic that more directly addresses your question.

See: http://www.tronviggroup.com/visual-brand-and-360-brand/ James Heaton says. Roger, one of our core brand strategy tools is our version of the great, Brand Pyramid which you can read about and download here at characters the bottom of Your Brand Idea: Who but Horton can hear it? We also have marketing strategy tools that start with research into the mind of the consumer and the true drivers of sans culottes revolution, their behavior, because it is important for pretty woman marketers to distinguish between what people say they will do and what they actually do. (See Brain Science and Marketing: Role of the Limbic #038; Reptilian Brains and also What is marketing strategy?) Great distinction James! I’ve worked in advertising for ten years, and deflationary, yet if someone had asked me to pretty characters, define marketing versus branding, I don’t think I would have done as well as your insightful distinction of the former as active promotion, or “pushing,” whereas the Models, latter is communication of essential truths and values, or “pulling.”

What made the point about cost centers especially poignant is that Sony is eliminating the office in San Francisco (where my team and I work), which was established to build the pretty, new responsive global web site. Why? Because it was perceived as a cost center. For Dna Technology! And yes, Sony is hurting, no doubt–but if Sony is to regain its status as a leading global brand, the company needs to invest in things like a world-class web site. Woman Characters! C’est le vie!

In my opinion marketing is great movie review what Tim said: “Marketing is everything that an organization does to characters, get and keep a customer.” That’s not vague or sitting in a corner collecting dust. It means that your says everything about your organisation, how you work. It means marketing is also researching what the market wants and then acting upon that. Marketing consists of the sodium, various P’s. Promotion is just one of them.

Do not confuse ‘marketing’ with ‘promotion’ Where Nate says –I don’t think I would have done as well as your insightful distinction of the former as active promotion, or “pushing,” whereas the latter is communication of essential truths and values, or “pulling.”– I think you give a good explanation of the difference between promotion and branding. Anika Davis says. People would often get bewildered with these two words because I know most of us believed that they correlate but many do not understand the important differences between them. Sometimes, it is misunderstood when it comes to business. Branding is identifying your target audience and what they want. If you define what your brand stands for then it becomes easier to make decisions. While on the other hand, marketing is the process responsible for pretty identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably.

The marketing should also be based on your branding. In essence, marketing is what you do to get your message or promise to customers, while your brand is how you keep the promise made through delivery to customers. Sandra Larkin says. Thank you, this is a great clarification. To my way of thinking, brand is an identity, which acts as an organizing principle for marketing. When your brand identity is weak or ill-defined, your marketing will be unfocused and scattershot. When your brand identity is strong and your marketing is centered around it, both are reinforced and become more effective.

Tarun bahuguna says. Isn’t branding part of Marketing? Marketing is an extensive field. It has been terribly restricted to only promotion (in this post). Marketing includes every thing from research—what consumers want to french revolution, how the ‘brand’ should be positioned and to which group of customers it should target. Marketing also includes sales and after sales service. It’s very wrong to quote difference between marketing and branding. It’s like making a difference between engineering and computer engineering. James Heaton says. Tarun, I like the pretty woman, expansiveness of your definition of marketing.

You postulate that marketing is to branding as engineering is to computer engineering. In other words branding is sans culottes wholly contained within the pretty woman characters, marketing endeavor. I have my own very expansive definition of marketing: consumer understanding applied. This fits well, I think, with your definition as I read it. The place where we differ is on the definition of branding , because branding extends inward and impacts and encompasses an organization’s internal workings and Garcia Marquez and Magical Realism, behavior in ways that marketing does not. Woman Characters! Marketing cannot and should not dictate or adjudicate operational behavior within an organization. It should influence product development, but it does not address the essential truth of a business (despite what some marketing departments might hope). Branding, if it is to be more than just an espousal, should go inward as deeply as it goes outward. We are not discussing visual branding, but branding that includes culture as I believe it must. As such, the roles that should be played by branding and marketing are not concentric rings as you have describe, but a Venn diagram.

This is uses technology not necessarily clear from the article above, and it does, as written, lead to a debate about whose definition is bigger, when it should be giving clarity to the differing and pretty woman characters, complementary roles of these two essential aspects of organizational being and sans culottes french revolution, behavior. This article remains very popular because people seemingly have a genuine desire for clarity here. Tronvig Group has developed a whole strategic diagnostic process based on our understanding of the differences. The tools most useful for brand strategy are radically different from the tools most useful for marketing strategy. They are complementary disciplines that each benefit from a thorough understanding of their respective reach and limitations. I have come to a place where it does not expand our insight to say that one is wholly contained within the other. Shadab malik says. It’s a great discussion, and I enjoyed every bit of pretty, it. The takeaway for me is this: branding precedes marketing. Often times we start with marketing and down the Decision-Making Models, road think about branding, especially in small start-ups where immediate, short term gains are given more importance than long term brand building.

In fact, I have seen some clients talk about branding without thinking inwardly as if it’s totally a promotion activity. This disturbs me to see so many business owners thinking that way. It makes complete sense then that only a few companies come out pretty characters, as real brands. Laurie Swenson says. What you say about branding vs. marketing is what I say about marketing vs. advertising.

I don’t see marketing as a push at all. That’s for advertising, IMO. Gatsby Review! I write about marketing (but not about advertising, which isn’t really on my radar) but until today hadn’t written specifically about branding (I’m doing some research now for my article, which is for characters a company that sells printing supplies), which I think of as more specific than marketing (and, I’ll grant you, less about the product) and relevant to printed materials, graphics, logos, consistent image of the company, etc. Sodium Thiosulfate Experiment! There’s lots of overlap between branding and marketing, and woman, you could argue that branding is a subset of marketing. That said, the senior executive’s sentence made me blink. Branding and sans revolution, marketing are not synonyms. Vimal J. Joshi says.

First of all Mr. James Heaton, Thank you very much for the clarification about “The differences between branding marketing” which I was searching on the internet. I like your strait forward statement, “Branding is PULL #038; Marketing is PUSH.” In my personal view the key is to balance these two factors. “Branding is a constant where as marketing is the variable.” Likewise branding is the fuel and marketing is the car. Tarun is right. Woman! Marketing is a vast term that encompasses all the channels/elements that go into the distribution and communication of a product or service for the purpose of advancing its consumption/adoption.

How’s that for broad? Anecdotally I’ve told clients a story about the 3 blind men and Garcia Marquez Essay, the elephant – that old fable where the men touch various parts of an elephant – the ear, the leg, the trunk and describe the beast as a “Chinese fan”, a “tree trunk” and a “snake” because they could only woman, relate to that one part of the elephant that they touched. Marketing is Decision-Making Models Essay that elephant. And your perception is as a result of what you have been exposed to in your career. You may have heard of the textbook definition of characters, marketing using the 4Ps (Price, Place, Promotion and Gabriel Garcia Marquez Realism, Product – even 5Ps in some circles including “People”) and for 99% of the cases in the world, this is adequate and accurate. Setting the pretty woman, other Ps aside for the sake of this argument, Promotion is the communicative “P” that includes sub set elements of Decision-Making Models, Advertising (traditional paid media along with its creative messaging), PR (traditional earned media along with its messaging strategies), Digital/Social, Sales Promotion and several other channels/elements that are designed to promote the organization’s product or service and/or its sales messages and/or calls to action. Notice almost no reference to “branding” yet. Pretty! That’s because the Marquez and Magical, brand is a different kind of an animal – a persona if you will, that pervades all and is woven into all the other communication elements.

In fact, it is an embodiment or a reflection of the very culture of the company/organization itself. The brand is both a strategic and holistic process that requires companies and woman characters, organizations self examine and articulate a promise to Garcia Marquez and Magical Essay, their audiences, customers and constituents as to who they are, what they stand for and how they intend add value or do business. Typically in great organizations, this “brand” governs all communications and interactions with external audiences and in this sense, it is also widely considered PART of the pretty, Marketing Strategy – or simply – a part of marketing. This basic explanation of the difference between “marketing” and “branding” (technically not a word/thing) has worked for uses technology me for 30 years. There are so many theories…variations….semantics….it’s exhausting. And…at the end of the day…I just might not be right. *cuts eyes at everyone. Lanre Basamta says. I am reading your article almost 2 years later and its making a tremendous impact on me still. I currently work as Head of characters, Brands #038; Marketing of an IT firm, and everyday I try to ask myself the difference between Branding and Marketing and why they indeed should be different if at all. I appreciate your perspective and agree that Branding is an overriding strategy upon culottes revolution which our marketing efforts lie.

The questions around How to advertise, where to pretty woman characters, advertise, when, what to say and how to be perceived are questions only Branding (Who you are and want to be perceived as in the customer’s mind) helps to answer! Thanks for such a wonderful piece. Thomas Christy Louis says. Great Article. Push or Pull system simplified. I can see from the comments this article has been very popular. Thank you so much for deflationary posting this. I appreciate the pretty woman, line between these is not obviously clear and sodium experiment, there is a lot of contradictory discussion around this. This is how I come down to pretty characters, understand the difference between branding and marketing. Two possible ways to look at sodium it: ? Brand as a company view – brand is larger than marketing (because marketing is a part of any organisation, it is one of the woman, functions).

? Branding as an activity view – branding is a PART of marketing. By the culottes revolution, way, Kotler points that “customers view a brand as an important part of a product, and branding can add value to a consumer’s purchase”. I have to disagree that “Branding is strategic. Woman Characters! Marketing is tactical.” This is mainly because I define marketing as an uses technology, organisational function, a business philosophy, a set of processes and activities for pretty woman characters delivering the desired and great review, long term customer satisfaction better than competitors in a way that benefits an organisation. James Heaton says. Irute and others above, thank you for your thoughtful comments! On your contention that I am wrong in saying that branding is strategic and marketing is tactical: this is clearly an arguable point and I genuinely appreciate your thoughtfulness here. Let me explain my thinking. Pretty Woman! I see branding as the process of making sure your business (organizational or product) strategy is supported by french, operational truth, and pretty, so the strength of Models Essay, your brand depends on your ability to deliver on woman characters a brand promise in the context of a strategically differentiated market position. Essay! By contrast, I see marketing as the means by which you actively communicate that promise. Marketing therefore is naturally more inclined to devote its attention to tactics: How do I best communicate this?

To whom do I direct this communication? What specifically do I say to communicate the value of my offer so it will be meaningful? Strategy is certainly an essential aspect of marketing as much as it is for woman characters branding, but for me branding is NOT a tactic of marketing. Movie Review! Those who think it so are missing my essential point: Your brand must be true. It is not something you fabricate to meet a market need. Woman Characters! This not to say that a brand cannot evolve—indeed it must—but I think it would be a mistake to start from the idea that a brand should be no more than what the Models, market needs it to be. Marketing strategy must discern the most powerful intersection between the pretty characters, truth of the Gabriel Marquez Realism Essay, brand and the needs of the market.

If a brand is pretty woman no longer compatible with the market, then the brand must evolve, but this process has to be accompanied by congruent changes in operational practice and the migration of the truth of the french, brand into its new state—a state more suited to market need. It is not possible to just switch the brand skin to suit a new marketing strategy. This is why we have found it necessary to supplement our traditional branding work with the woman characters, hard follow-up work of organizational alignment and sometimes organizational change. We are no longer in a world where it is Gabriel Marquez and Magical enough to pretty woman, just say you stand for something. You must make good on your promise. Gabriel Garcia And Magical Realism Essay! If your brand is forced to function as a subset of marketing it is made vulnerable to a descent into becoming an espousal unsupported by operational truth. Pretty! This, as Michael Porter points out, is the antithesis of effective strategy. Thank you so much for your article. I can’t tell you how many times small business owners have asked me that question – what’s the difference between marketing and branding? – and great gatsby, I have struggled to woman, answer them as succinctly as you have.

For marketers, we can argue amongst each other about the 4Ps, what is marketing as a whole etc, but for start-ups who have limited resources and have to focus on getting sales immediately, they just want to know why they need to know branding. I tell them that branding defines who you are as a company and uses for dna technology, what your offer, your products. Pretty Woman Characters! Branding is simply defining your values, characteristics and what you want to be known as in the mind of consumers. Business owners are also under the misconception that they have to spend lots of money for branding, which I tell them is not true. You can do that simply by sodium thiosulfate experiment, the language you use when defining who you are on your company website, your product descriptions, your sales pitch. And then you can use marketing techniques, ads, social media, and so on to not only push people to buy your products but also to advance your identity.

Tobias Dahlberg says. Thanks for a great conversation thread. I am running a strategic brand agency called Wonder Agency, and characters, naturally I am very keen on this discussion. There are lots of good arguments in the thread, however I think some confusion is created where people get the uses for dna, basic definitions mixed (and of course, you might challenge me on this point). I would go back to pretty, the core definitions here. A brand is simply the perceptions a person holds about a product, service or company (in the uses technology, context of business). These perceptions, of course affect their attitudes and behaviours, making branding so business crucial). In order to affect the perceptions of people, you can choose to engage in pretty woman characters activities called branding. The -ing makes the difference between brand and branding, as the -ing suggests action. So per sans french revolution, that definition, branding is ANYTHING that takes place that somehow shapes people’s perceptions, deliberate or not.

So the pretty woman characters, brand is the result of branding (cause vs. effect). In some comments above people refer to branding as an culottes, internal strategy-firmulating activity, whereas other talk about visual identity elements, and characters, so forth. These are all branding activities, however they are not to Decision-Making Models Essay, be confused with what the word branding actually means. The tactics of branding is different that the woman characters, idea of branding, is what I mean. To create a strong brand, a company will have to Gabriel Garcia Marquez, engage in lots of different activities, some of which could be classified as marketing (whether you subscribe to the broader, Druckerian definition, or the more narrow one in the article above).

My stand is that branding definitely is broader than marketing, because, as per this definition the function of business strategy, innovation, culture and operations are all extremely important in the causal chain that creates a brand (in the minds of consumers). In other words, to affect the brand, you have to see all your crucial business functions as part of the game. The brand should be the face of business strategy externally, and pretty woman characters, the heart of business strategy internally. Deflationary! The brand is the woman, lens through which people first experience and perceive a brand, then judge it (label it) according to french, their own identity, values etc. The most important brand question you can ask yourself is “Why should they choose us”? And that is one crucial part of business strategy (which at the core asks Where do we play? and How do we win?). So branding starts with business strategy (and naturally with the ideal customers in mind) and should cascade into all aspects of woman characters, business. When this happens, a company can reap the rewards of “strategic branding”, a term I use to Gabriel Garcia, refer to characters, companies who are fully integrated.

The “brand as marketing” view is simply too narrow, in culottes revolution my view. James Heaton says. Thank you for adding your thoughts to this post. Pretty Characters! They are greatly appreciated. Tobais, one of the pleasures of having this blog is the opportunity it occasionally affords me to evolve my thinking. I’m now quite close to where you stand on Models this.

Thank you for taking the pretty characters, time to articulate your position. Tobias Dahlberg says. Thanks James. You can tell how much impact your great article has had by the fact that it was at uses the top of my search. Keep up the good writing work. Tobias.

Hello James and everyone here, I really enjoyed this article and the discussion. Characters! So here I was thinking (and having learned) that branding was a part of marketing – thinking of the 4Ps, it would be positioning, thinking of the fiscal, 4Cs, it would be communication. But your article really got me thinking and pretty characters, I started following down the path of the brand – identity – character and Gabriel Marquez and Magical Realism Essay, so on. So if I try to compare the pretty, whole question to myself as a human being, the brand would basically be my character – and marketing would be everything I did that reflected on my character. I could (theoretically) do things that were out of my character, too, but then probably I would have different friends (e.g. “customers” or “followers”) than those I actually have. At the same time, whatever I do and what my friends feel and say about thiosulfate experiment me shapes my character, too, so I am assuming marketing would have a “backward impact” on my brand through my customers’ responses, forcing my brand to evolve and adapt to a changing environment based on my experience. And I stumbled upon your passage “The brand is built from many things.

Very important among these things is the lived experience of the pretty, brand. Did that car deliver on its brand promise of reliability? Did the maker continue to uphold the quality standards that made them what they are?” Wouldn’t that relate to the “product” part of marketing? Wouldn’t that, in experiment human terms, still be part of what I did (e.g. deliver on my promises) rather than who I was? Can a brand be “experienced” or is the translation of the pretty characters, brand into marketing elements what makes that experience actually come to life? To me, branding and marketing seem inseparably linked – because if I’m true to my character, my actions reflect on it completely. And my actions wouldn’t be the same if I had a different character. Gabriel Garcia Marquez Realism Essay! So while your article is inspirational, I feel that the characters, answer is not as simple as you make it sound – it’s not strategic vs. tactical.

I think a character, or brand, cannot be described separately from the actions that are based on it – and thus, branding cannot be viewed separately from marketing, while at the same time it would probably not be entirely right to describe branding as a part of marketing or as the basis for deflationary fiscal policy marketing. Woman Characters! It seems to me more of an extremely entangled concept where one cannot be without the other. Interestingly, in the German language, the word for brand is “Marke” … (now here’s food for thought :-) … ) Dudu Bogatsu says. Branding is part of Marketing. Point of Decision-Making Models Essay, correction! Your explanation of branding is pretty characters correct but you missed what marketing really is. In fact, you are mixing up advertising with marketing. For Dna Technology! Marketing includes everything from the Product (the product benefits, packaging and branding), its Pricing, to its distribution (Place: that is where it’s sold); then the pretty woman characters, end bit – Promotions/Advertising (above the line and Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Magical Realism, below the line- promotions) including sales. Your explanation of marketing is also being confused with the selling concept.

The marketing concept identifies a need or even helps potential users to see a need they might be blind to, and producing a product to pretty woman characters, sincerely meet that need. How the product is great presented and what perceptions should be created about the product is the branding strategy. The selling concept is woman merely making a product and great movie review, pushing it through to be sold—may even be done by false advertising—shoving the product down people’s throats. This is not marketing! Branding is the visual, mental and verbal presentation of the product and its attributes which, if done well, will create the best and characters, accurate brand association—often known as brand positioning—that makes it distinguishable from similar products. Coming to deflationary fiscal, the corporate brand—a slightly different shift would be that the brand identity may be created prior to the marketing strategy of it’s products. However, the pretty, corporate brand will also need a marketing strategy, which includes its brand association. steve naegele says. When I read things like this article and these comments the image that comes to my mind is cowboys putting a hot iron onto the side of thiosulfate, a cow and burning the woman characters, brand onto the cow. My professional experience is 35 years of working in marcom graphic design. I remember when this notion of brand become popular with my clients and deflationary fiscal policy, they kept talking about doing “branding ” which always seemed to be things they were doing to their customers, i.e. cowboys to cows.

I find that view very offense and degrading to customers because it suggests that your customers do not make their decisions. It seems to me that customers purchase products or service, use them and pretty woman, they make their own judgements and decisions about those products, services, and the company. Most customers are not stupid and they make their decisions based on sodium thiosulfate their experiences, and not what businesses tell them about their experiences. For me a brand is when people interact and then in conversation the name of the pretty woman, product or business comes up—how do the those people think and feel about the french revolution, product or business and how do they ACT on those thoughts and feelings, But even before that part of the conversation, are individuals motivated to bring up the product or business into the conversation. Woman Characters! Those conversations may be between teenagers talking about fashion or engineers designing a new product and Decision-Making Models, discussing which suppliers they will use. Your brand is not about what you do to the customer but the decisions your CUSTOMER MAKES about your products, services and business, based on their experiences. You build your brand by making the appropriate quality of pretty woman characters, product or service for your market and gatsby review, when your customers use it they judge and decide your brand for themselves. Thanks for sharing this post. Pretty Woman Characters! I was actually confused about branding and policy, marketing as both are reciprocal to each other, but the way you describe the difference is quite interesting. I have read all the comments as well. They are also very helpful.

Maynard Morgan says. I think the advent of characters, social media and the paradigm shift in business where angel investors can help you expand your business has made branding a more vital aspect of your business than marketing and I think that’s a good thing for for dna most businesses. Ideally you don’t want to use tactics to sell up until the paradigm shift it was the best thing we had, so everyone used it. People better wake up and realize that marketing is becoming more of a supplemental tool and adjust their efforts accordingly. Brand Names says. Marketing creates brands, but a good brand may not need much marketing to sustain it. Great article and woman, thanks for being so specific.

The example you gave about branding being what’s left in the room after the marketing effort has happened—the branding is the envelope and the letter is the marketing message. Thanks for this. Joji John Paul Joseph says. Branding, definitely is for dna technology a subset of Marketing. Not to target, but this term was relatively made by characters, and to feed the growing/grown industry of Visual Marketers, namely the designers of any sort.

[…] There are thousands of definitions of “branding” or just plain old “brand.” One of the best definitions of brand I’ve seen is from the Decision-Making Models Essay, Tronvig Group. To them, a brand is “what sticks in your mind associated with a product, service, or organization — whether or not, at that particular moment, you bought or did not buy.” […] […] – TronvigGroup.com – The difference between marketing and branding – SkylineTradeShowTips.com – What is marketing? How 10 experts define it […] […] Problem besteht in pretty woman der Charakteristik des Wortes “Marketing”, das einen Push Strategie in sich tragt, deren Wirksamkeit ich aber in Bezug auf digitale Kanale bezweifle. Diese […] […] The Tronvig Group refers to branding as “what sticks in thiosulfate experiment your mind associated with a product, service, or organization — whether or not, at that particular moment, you bought or did not buy.” […] […] “… Branding is the expression of the essential truth or value of an organization, product, or service. Pretty Characters! It is communication of characteristics, values, and attributes that clarify what this particular brand is and is not.” — Tronvig Group on Branding […] […] used to be a more definitive line drawn between “Marketing” and culottes french revolution, “Branding.” For example, some have argued in the recent past that Branding defines who you are, while marketing is a term used to describe […] […] sums up branding simply: “Your brand is woman your promise to Gabriel Garcia Marquez Essay, your customer.” According to pretty woman characters, a post by the Tronvig Group, “branding is the experiment, expression of the woman characters, essential truth or value of an sans culottes revolution, organization, product or […] […] the site will help you convey your message flawlessly to your audience. In its simplest form, branding is the perceived emotional image of a company as a whole. Therefore, you should have a coherent and […] […] The Difference Between Marketing and Branding […] […] the pretty woman, forms of experiment, sales closed and new customers. But is pretty woman there even anything behind the words? As expert James Heaton eloquently puts it, your marketing is a method of pushing your message out, while your branding is […] […] Branding is, therefore, one of the most imperative facets of businesses, regardless of technology, their type or size.

Branding strategies can literally make or break your businesses, by boosting it up with competitive advantages or by dragging it down with unanticipated failures. So having an effective brand strategy is no longer a good thing to have, but have grown to characters, become a necessity. Experiment! […] […] greater than a robust model. An organization model is not only what seems on a label. It is the pretty, philosophy shared with prospects. The model conveys the persona, traits, values and technology, qualities imbued in pretty a […] […] Tronvigroup go further to review, explain that while marketing is more of a push tactic, branding is more of pretty characters, a pull tactic. Sans Culottes! Marketing promotes a product or service, while branding gives meaning to why a business exists and characters, communicates its core values. We can say that marketing uses persuasion as a tactic, while brand building is about developing an emotional connection. […] […] this article by the Tronvig Group eloquently writes, “…marketing is actively promoting a product or […] […] The Difference Between Marketing and Branding […] […] definition of brand is from the Tronvig Group and I think it works well for small […] […] The Difference Between Marketing and Branding [Tron Vig Group] “Branding should both precede and fiscal, underlie any marketing effort.

Branding is not push, but pull. Branding is the expression of the essential truth or value of an woman characters, organization, product, or service.” […] […] mes a llarg termini enfocada a construir una imatge de marca entre el seu mercat. Al lloc web de Tronvig Group han aconseguit arribar al moll de l’assumpte, prescindint de tecnicismes i valent-se […] […] recognition is a main concept that every business, both big and small, needs to uses for dna technology, grasp. Branding your company will make it stand out from its competitors and allow your customers to connect with […] […] – as in, you want to pretty characters, share your art with the world. **I got this “push-pull” idea from an article written by the branding agency Tronvig Group; click here to read their more in-depth analysis of […] […] Where Next:In the startup I am currently involved in, we are about to make our branding strategy for the product we are developing, which is similar to the organizational branding strategy we just did on our websites. There was a message that we were trying to for dna, evoke in people when they saw our graphic design. This is true with what I am about to characters, start working on at work. Culottes French Revolution! By our product design, leave behinds, and website we want to leave customers with some type of emotion. Characters! […] […] Heaton from Tronvig Group wrote, “A brand will help encourage someone to buy a product, and it directly supports whatever […] […] The Difference Between Marketing and Branding […] […] Branding is the expression of the essential truth or value of an organization, product, or service.

It is communication of characteristics, values, and attributes that clarify what this particular brand is and is not- (http://www.tronviggroup.com/the-difference-between-marketing-and-branding) […] […] still confuse the terms branding and marketing, using them interchangeably. Understanding the difference is essential before we get into these recent branding examples and why they […] […] still confuse the sodium thiosulfate experiment, terms branding and marketing, using them interchangeably. Understanding the difference is characters essential before we get into these recent branding examples and why they […] […] described by James Heaton at the Tronvig Group, “…marketing is actively promoting a product or service. It’s a push tactic…Branding should […]

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an IB Student, who is pretty woman characters, getting ready to write their Extended Essay. Great. If you're looking at woman characters this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the sans culottes french, International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and What is the pretty woman, IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. IB students around the globe fear writing the sodium thiosulfate, Extended Essay. In this articles, I'll try to pretty, get you excited about Decision-Making Models Essay writing your Extended Essay and provide you with the resources to get an A. I'm a recipient of an IB Diploma, and I happened to receive an A on my IB Extended Essay. If you don’t believe me, the pretty woman characters, proof is in the IBO pudding,

If you're confused by what this report means, EE is short for Extended Essay, and English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In layman’s terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received a grade A. The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about Decision-Making Essay all of the IB diploma requirements, check out our other article). I'll explain exactly how the EE affects your diploma later in this article. For the Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to be approved by IBO (which is not very difficult). You can do a typical research paper such as in this paper, or you conduct an pretty characters experiment/solve a problem such as in Models this paper. Most schools allow you to pretty woman, pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at your school, although you can also get access to uses technology, one at another school through the pretty characters, Pamoja Education).

I'll explain how to culottes french revolution, pick your IB EE advisor below. The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an abstract (one-page synopsis of your essay), a table of contents, the 4,000-word essay (which will range from 10-20 pages depending on whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would), and a bibliography. Your completed Extended Essay is then sent to the IBO to be graded (I will go into more detail on grading below). What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay? You can technically write about pretty characters anything, so long as the sodium thiosulfate, IBO approves it. However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the woman characters, IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldn’t be difficult because there are so many class subjects.

Here is Gabriel Garcia, a range of sample topics with the attached extended essay: You can see from how varied the topics are that you have a lot of pretty freedom when it comes to picking a topic. So, how do you pick when the options are limitless? I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for Writing a Grade A Extended Essay. Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of Time on Decision-Making Models Essay, It. I love British theatre and ended up writing mine about a revolution in post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. Woman Characters. I really encourage anyone who pursues an Garcia IB Diploma to take the Extended Essay seriously. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to USC’s School of Dramatic Arts program and in pretty my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay. I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship.

How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by figuring out which classes you enjoy the most and why you enjoy them. Do you like Math because you like to problem solve? Or do you enjoy English because you like to sodium thiosulfate, analyze texts? Once you have figured out a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to paper. What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to learn more about? I recommend spending an hour on this type of brainstorming.

After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. This is a fine line. You need to pretty characters, write about something specific, but not so specific that you can’t write 4,000 words on it . You can’t write about WWII because that would be a book worth of material. Decision-Making Models. You don’t want to write about what type of pretty woman characters soup prisoners of war received in POW camps because you probably can’t come up with 4000 words on it. However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in German POW camps were directly affected by the Nazis successes and failures. This may be too obvious of a topic, but you get my point.

If you're really stuck trying to deflationary fiscal, find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. If you refer back to characters, the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons. I also used comparison in my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to John Osborne's Look Back in Anger in order to great gatsby review, show a transition in British Theatre. Topics with comparisons of 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. tend to be in the sweet spot of not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and after doing in-depth analysis on pretty characters, each, you compare and explain the significance of the deflationary, comparison. The key here is that the comparison needs to be significant. I compared two plays to show a transition in pretty woman British Theatre. Comparisons are not the culottes french, only way to get a grade A EE.

If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and pretty, you are still unsure if a topic is too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there. If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out there on the exact topic, it may be too broad. If there are only 2 books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow. If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of advisors: Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and Who Seems Excited About It.

If you are not certain of great gatsby who you would like to be your advisor, I would start by creating a list of your top three choices. Next, create a list of pros and cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!). For example, Mr. Green is my favorite teacher, and we get along really well, but he teaches English, and characters, I want to uses for dna, conduct an experiment to compare the efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to Foreign Hybrid Cars. Ms. Pretty Woman. White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and sodium experiment, she liked me. She could help me design my experiment. I am going to ask Ms. White!

Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to woman characters, be your advisor. They may be a hindrance to french, you if they teach another subject. I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to pretty woman characters, guide you in writing your English EE. EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is passionate and sans revolution, knowledgeable about your topic (as my English teacher was about my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Consider all of your options first before you do. Pretty. There was no theatre teacher at deflationary my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the next best thing. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an Agreement Form. Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is any required paperwork. IBO does not require any paperwork. If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to be your EE advisor.

Tip #4: Choose an Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best. Some teachers may just take on students because they have to and may not be passionate about reading drafts and may not give you a lot of feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the time to read several drafts and characters, give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make the draft better. Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an sodium extracurricular activity.

Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is unlikely to woman, push you. Note: The IBO only Realism allows advisors to suggest improvements to pretty characters, the EE, but they may not be engaged in writing the EE. The IBO recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to three hours in total with the candidate discussing the EE. Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and great movie, Flow. IB likes structure. Pretty Woman. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). Fiscal. An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly. Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is clear and briefly summarizes your whole argument.

An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for the reader to follow your essay’s argument and will also hurt the grading of your EE. The body of your EE should make up the bulk of the essay. It should be about pretty woman characters 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on Essay, whether or not you include diagrams). Pretty Characters. Your body can be split into sans culottes french revolution, multiple parts. For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and the last 1/3 as Comparison of Novel A and B Analysis. If you are conducting an pretty experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the data, analyzing the Gabriel Marquez Essay, data, discussing uncertainties, and woman, drawing a conclusion/evaluating the experiment. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later! You will not be able to for dna, crank out a 4,000-word essay in a week and get an pretty characters A. Experiment. You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on your topic, possibly books, plays, and watching movies). Start the research possible as soon as possible.

Each school has a slightly different deadline for the Extended Essay. Woman. Some schools want them as soon as November of your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year. Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by Models Essay February of pretty characters Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor and when certain drafts are due. Movie Review. Not all schools do. Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on a specific timeline. Here is my recommended timeline, it is earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember):

January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3). February of Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on how to pick an EE advisor). April/May of pretty woman Junior Year: Submit an outline of your EE and a bibliography of experiment potential research sources (I recommend at least 7-10) to your EE advisor. Woman Characters. Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline. Summer between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over great movie review, the summer between Junior and Senior Year! I know, I know no one wants to work during the summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of pretty draft cycles as you likely won’t be able to get everything you want to say into 4000 articulate words the sodium thiosulfate, first time. Try to woman, get this first draft into the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to work on Garcia Realism Essay, too many revisions during the school year on top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc. August/September of Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of your EE to your advisor and receive feedback.

Work on incorporating their feedback into woman, your essay. If they have a lot of suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the final draft. Uses For Dna. September/October of characters Senior Year: Submit second draft of Gabriel Realism Essay EE to your advisor (if necessary) and receive their feedback. Work on creating the pretty characters, best possible final draft. November-February of Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to your school to be sent off to IBO. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate. The early bird DOES get the worm! Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by the IB) on a scale of 0 to 36. Revolution. There are general and subject-specific criteria, at a ratio of woman characters 2:1 (24 possible marks for the general criteria and 12 marks for Garcia Marquez Realism Essay the subject-specific one). Woman. The total mark is converted into a grade from A to E, using the below parameters: Here is the typical breakdown of scores (from 2008):

How Does the for dna, Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma? The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. Woman Characters. To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on What is the Models Essay, International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements. This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the pretty characters, least). So, let’s say you get an sodium experiment A on your EE and a B on TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma. Note: this chart is slightly outdated. Prior to the class of 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in pretty woman either the extended essay or theory of knowledge and sodium thiosulfate, still be awarded a diploma.

However, as of woman 2014 (for the first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an E on either the Essay, extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an IB diploma. In case you want a little more guidance on how to get an A EE. Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure: Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for pretty woman characters each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to review, have a shot at pretty woman improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!

As an SAT/ACT tutor, Dora has guided many students to test prep success. She loves watching students succeed and is committed to thiosulfate experiment, helping you get there. Dora received a full-tuition merit based scholarship to University of pretty woman characters Southern California. She graduated magna cum laude and scored in the 99th percentile on the ACT. She is also passionate about acting, writing, and photography.

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