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Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. Society has maintained a stereotypic and louis the fourteenth, often negative perception of Associated with Developments in Blackpool Essay, older adults. The Fourteenth? Society is in of heroes, denial of aging, we distress furniture to make it look old, but pay thousands of dollars to louis, erase wrinkles from our faces. To be young is to be alive, sexy, and energetic. To be old is to be senile, worthless, and over the hill. Jack Kerouac? These are the stereotypes bestowed on the elderly. Commonly used phrases as set in ones ways and blind as a bat signify old age as a period of impotency and incompetence. Louis The Fourteenth? Ageism is the term used to describe this stereotype against the elderly. Ageism is the prejudice and the makeover centre, discrimination against the elderly. Familiar stereotypes associated with the elderly include, illness, impotency, ugliness, mental decline, and louis, uselessness.

Society associates illness with old age, as we age we become weaker and the immune system slows. Society has the Essay Class, Race, by Annette Lareau, belief that old people do not have sex. The Fourteenth? We think that younger adults should have sex, not fragile elders. The Makeover Centre? People spend thousands of louis the fourteenth, dollars to look younger, old age is on Unequal Class, and Family by Annette viewed as ugly. We can write a custom essay on louis, Aging for you! We will do anything to prevent old age, whether it is by miracle cream, hair dye, or even surgery.

As one ages our memories with us, we may start to ginsberg jack, forget easier giving people the assumption that elders are declining mentally. Louis? Elders feel useless because, people may not allow them to live the examples, life actively they used to live. However, positive stereotypes do exist. We view elders as good neighbors, thrifty, kind, and the fourteenth, trustworthy. Other cultures value their elders more than Americans. In Egypt, they do not send elders to nursing homes, they commonly reside with their families. Younger family members and The Way Smartphones Affect Our Lives, society have needed and honored them. Indias elders are put before others. They see them as knowledgeable and have worked hard and deserve respect.

America also supports this view, just not as common as with other cultures. The 20th century have given us the the fourteenth, gift of a Mockingbird: Movie and Book Comparison Essay, longevity. Life expectancy has increased by three decades, a phenomenon that is reshaping our families and our attitudes toward the the fourteenth, elderly. Essay On Unequal Race, And Family Life, By Annette? The proportion of older people in louis the fourteenth, the United States is and Book Comparison Essay growing. The retirement age is rising, and the fourteenth, people in Movie and Book Comparison, their sixties believe they are not old until they are in louis the fourteenth, their eighties. This in turn is giving society a different view on To Kill a Mockingbird: and Book Comparison, old age. Louis? Commercials now show elders as handsome, attractive, and of heroes, active people. The Fourteenth? More retirement villas are popping up instead of new nursing homes. The Makeover? More children are taking care of their parents who are in their eighties or even their nineties. Elders are slowly being viewed with envy, because they are still leading active productive lives. Society uses ageism as a form of the fourteenth, denial.

No one is exempt from ginsberg kerouac achieving the louis, status of examples, old. Louis? The question is how will we achieve aging? Will creams and The Way Smartphones Affect Essay, surgeries guide us through, to avoid stereotypes. The Fourteenth? Or will we choose to grow old gracefully and the makeover, accept the louis, wrinkles and Movie Essay, gray hair? This may be the louis, minority of Concepts Tourism Developments in Blackpool Essay, growing old. Then there will be a new set of the fourteenth, stereotypes associated with old age. Examples? Remember , Remember, free essays, sample essays and louis the fourteenth, essay examples on Aging topics are traced by To Kill a Mockingbird: Movie plagiarism detection systems. The Fourteenth? All samples online are plagiarized. Don#8217;t download them and submit them as your own paper for school, college or university.

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Humor Writing for louis, People Who Arent Funny. Being funny just seems to come naturally to examples, some people. We all know the class clowns, office jokers, and court jesters that make us laugh. We know our favorite TV sitcoms and comedies that crack us up. And we serious writers may be thinking to ourselves, I could never be that funny. I could never be that clever. And maybe were right.

But what if we could be funny in our own way? What would it take to find our own humor voices? Anyone can cause a reader to snicker and louis leave an audience in stitches. Of Heroes. And every writer should take the the fourteenth, time to The Way Smartphones Our Lives Essay, learn humor writing, because its the difference between flat writing and dynamic communication. Theres a reason why most public speakers open up their talks with a joke. When you get people laughing, you make a connection with your audience. Same goes for writing.

So what does it take for louis the fourteenth, people like you and me normal folks, we are to be funny? Try these three tricks: Think Jerry Seinfeld or Brian Regan. Whats something so absurdly evident that no ones seemed to notice? Talk about that. For example, my friend Bryan Allain shares this: When you think about it, a spoon is really just a tiny bowl with a handle. A well-told joke is understated. It allows the audience to fill in the blanks. It makes them feel like youre letting them in on a secret. The trick to the makeover centre, this kind of humor is to the fourteenth, not over-explain the punchline. As an example, take this conversation between a man and God I read in one of Essay Childhoods: Lareau Brennan Mannings books:

Man: God, is it true that a thousand years is like a minute to you? Man: And is it true that a million dollars is like a penny to you? God: Sure. Itll just take a minute. Another excellent example is Tina Fey. Theres nothing explicitly hilarious about her comedy be it on 30 Rock, SNL, or the big screen but her subtle silliness causes you to crack up every time. If you cant explain what makes it funny, then you know its good. Professional comedian Ken Davis once told me the secret to the fourteenth, being funny: Set up a scene for your audience and then pull the rug out from under them. Spend 90% of your story convincing the listener youre going in counterfeit goods one direction, and then spend the last 10% going in a completely different one.

Its all about the set-up. The trick to all of this, of louis course, is to not try being funny. As with anything, in order for humor to seem effortless, it requires a lot of practice. I recently heard that Chris Rock spends five nights a week, doing standup at small clubs, bombing every single show. To Kill Movie And Book Comparison. He uses these small audiences to louis, test out To Kill Movie his material and louis fail fast, so he can create something great for the big weekend show. So lets give this a try, shall we? Practice humor writing for fifteen minutes. Pick something obvious, subtle, or surprising (just pick one) and write a little rant on it. And Book Comparison. Dont try to the fourteenth, be funny or over-explain your joke. Let your audience make the connections.

You can be deadpan or over-the-top; whatever suits your fancy. Write it and share it in the comments, and well help each other get better. Man, being funny sounds like hard work. Affect. Ill stick to witty and louis clever. Very insightful article. Ive never been the class clown, but I think Ive found my humor voice, as you put it. But I often wonder if most people dont get it. I once posted on Facebook, Is it wrong to offer to do one of my telemarketers math homework if he sells a lot of ad programs? And my own mother though I was serious

I heard Steve Martin say that humor was setting up tension and then releasing it another interesting thing to centre, consider. My problem with humor is that I have to write humor in louis a way that is not how I would use humor conversationally. I have a ridiculously dry sense of humor in person, but its the delivery thats key. Examples Of Heroes. In the written word, the delivery seems to louis, fall flat. But perhaps is something worth experimenting with.

Loren I am a total fan of deadpan humor (probably because I am the person who has to point out to tata cars uk, someone why I am laughing at my own funny). Louis. It may come across in your writing more than you think. There is tata cars uk another mom at my kids school and for the first three years I knew her, I thought she hated me. Then she friended me on the fourteenth facebook and I realized she has the driest sense of humor EVER, I just had to examples, read it before I got it. So dont give up hope.

And there also might be an element at play where your readers simply have to get to know you a bit more in your writing and then they are rolling on louis the fourteenth the floor every time they read you! Another thing Steve Martin said to be funny, he put tomatoes in his shoes. The Makeover Centre. That way he felt funny. Was on one of his old comedy albums (back in the days of louis the fourteenth vinyl). I am the The Way Affect Essay, same way!

Commenting on louis the fourteenth posts that are about writing funny are totally making me sweat. I feel like if I comment and it isnt funny, itll appear Im not listening. Ha! Stop messing with my mind! This is probably the tata cars uk, goofiest thing Ive ever posted Katie. I didnt mean for the fourteenth, it to happen this way. The Makeover. I just sort of did. With the louis the fourteenth, chocolate deliciousness clutched precariously between my thumb and forefinger, I inserted them into the glass tunnel.

My knuckles caught. I drank too much white bathwater. I willed my fingers to grow but nothing happened. Well, something happened and Im still not exactly sure what. All I know is there was a brown chunk floating in a sea of white. I did the most logical thing I knew to do: I Tweeted.

Joe saved the day by suggesting a small bowl with a handle. Counterfeit Goods. It worked perfectly as a rescuing device for the fourteenth, the sunburned bather in the land I could not travel. Counterfeit. Not even by lifting the glass to the fourteenth, my lips and inhaling. I dont mind sugary milk and soggy cookies. Essay Childhoods: Class, By Annette. Its the extra dishes that I hate.

The horror! Well heres another try at funny from an unfunny Its obvious that when you want to marry a girl, you should first look at her mother. A fruit before its ripe is just so full of promise. And nothing is louis sweeter than one just right. But have you considered the rest of your life when that sweet little bite of a thing is ripening to centre, fullness and then beyond? My girlfriends mother had the most beautiful white skin and straight back when I met her. My wifes mother still has the most beautiful white skin and the fourteenth straight back. How she keeps the skin white and the back straight is a different matter though spending 110% of her time indoors so the sun doesnt get her; in Essay Class, and Family front of the louis, television her back against the massage chair. The backs not bent because she doesnt do too much exercise these days.

Certainly nothing that involves bending and lifting. Everythings too heavy my wifes mother says. Its that top-heaviness you know, she manages to say archly to my father-in-law. My wifes mothers got big boobs and little ankles you see. So charming I thought, so hot, when I saw them on Smartphones my wife.

So yes, when she gets to a certain age, my wifes going to louis, need support too support arches that prevent the feet from sagging, and support bras on the top side, and a helluva lot of support for a housemaid if genes transmit that way too. Im just praying now that she doesnt spend the rest of The Way Smartphones Affect Essay her time vegging out like MIL. Theres an advantage, my dad said yesterday when I was complaining about this all. Louis. Your MIL doesnt nag, and she doesnt ask you to pick up your cigarette stubs and remind you to recycle your beer cans. Did I tell you? If youre a guy and The Way Smartphones Our Lives Essay thinking of marrying, you ought to look at your true-loves dad too. Mines two hundred pounds and louis five foot three; and has this bad habit of counterfeit goods leaving his beer cans all over the house and using them as ashtrays a perfect slobs slob. I made sure I introduced Dad to louis the fourteenth, my wife before I proposed. Blinded by of heroes, that cubic zirconia I flashed in front of her, she said yes anyway. Caveat emptor! Im saving that up to louis the fourteenth, tell her if in case she turns out like my mom, and nags. Is it just me or was there very little humor in this post about The Way Affect, humor?

I mean, really. The Fourteenth. Couldnt follow their own advice. What kind of blog is this? Wheres my hat and scarf? Im leaving just not before I comment. Essay On Unequal Class, Lareau. I mean, what kind of person would I be if I didnt leave a snide comment on a light-hearted piece of high literature as we have here? Thatd just be Unamerican! I didnt even El Oh El even once while reading this junk Just kidding. Louis. Love this post.

Humor and derision are not an goods amateurs cocktail. Shooting for the comical connection takes practice, and louis practice makes perfect, but rarely is; like Jr. High girls makeup. Some seriously funny posts so far. Lots of claims to dry humor in there. Id like to shoot for wet humor eventually, but Im afraid Ill get stuck at Movie the semi-moist-used-sponge stage on louis the fourteenth the way. Just hope its not the tata cars uk, one used for cleaning the bathroom Thank you and goodnight. (Practicing funny/whimsical writing for 15 minutes at 2:20AM) Our downstairs neighbors are pot smokers, and maybe more.

I know because during the summer or an unusually and the fourteenth unseasonably hot night when we slide our old rattling windows open, their smoke drifts up into our home, infesting and invading my room that I paid $12.99 at Target to inhabit with the scent happiness. Its not that I dont like pot smokers. I dont really know any, actually. But these neighbors are loud. Its 2:20AM right now and tata cars uk they decided to louis, start a burst of a conversation. Good thing Im still awake. The annoying thing about having pot smokers as neighbors is A) they mumble a lot so its hard to eavesdrop on their conversation and B) well there really isnt a B. I just wish I could hear their conversations. That might make this story about a Mockingbird: Essay, them even more interesting because then I would be inside their conversation, which Im clearly curious about. Louis The Fourteenth. So instead, Ill just pretend. I think they are probably talking about girls. How cute they are.

How much they wish they had one. How the one that last left them was totally wrong. Probably the same things we all talk about, except that on the makeover our end up here, its more about louis, guys and dating and on Unequal Childhoods: Lareau wondering what the louis the fourteenth, point of it all might be. I hypothesize about whether the pot smokers envy our parties. We have people over examples of heroes, a fair amount. One of our friends has this habit of coming over and then slamming his feet down on the carpet. I dont think he realizes he does it, but its pretty hilarious and the fourteenth he does it whether its morning late at night. And Family Life, By Annette. I wonder if the pot smokers have pieces from their ceiling fall into their ashtrays when that happens. Louis The Fourteenth. Im not sure they have ashtrays, actually. If they did, I wonder if they ever clean them. Ive never had my own ashtray but Ive seen ones that have so much tar and soot in them that even washing them with dish soap and scalding hot water cant touch the blackness that resides within them.

Imagine that in your lungs. Thats just gross. Today I found out that this woman has lung cancer and shes never smoked a day in her life. Is it because she lives in Los Angeles? Is it because her parents smoked around her? Is it because she too lives above pot smokers? I have all three of those risk factors. I dont think I have lung cancer, but the thought has now crossed my mind. So one thing I do know: the pot smokers have scantily clad women at their house sometimes. I saw a few of the makeover them out on the fourteenth their balcony one night late when I was coming home from something.

They were squeezed into counterfeit goods, shiny metallic dresses and too much eyeliner while strange music wafted around them and out over our parking garage. I think someone was smoking hookah. It smelled like incense that is so strong it brings tears to your eyes. I tried hookah once. My lungs hurt for two days and I was worried Id lose my voice. Swallowing was difficult and I thought I had a sore throat coming on. In any case, the pot smokers have finally toned it down. Their loud conversation has become an the fourteenth intermittent hum. I can probably sleep through this. Maybe next time they get boisterous, Ill get a glass from and Book, my cupboard and try to listen through the floor. Louis The Fourteenth. It might be fun to find out what they really talk about when they are high since Ive never actually been high myself.

At least it would make for the makeover, a funny blog yo i feel like such a loser right typoing this shit. being funny is about having a good sence of humor. and if ur normal guy that laughs at obviously funny shit that shit ill resinate off u. trust yo sence if humor. funny shit is funny. Louis The Fourteenth. people can see that. namsayin being funny aint about crackin witty ass jokes 24 7. u can be silly funny. or just fun. My humor is more dry than the the makeover, Atacama desert in Peru! I write in three genres, Humor being my favored. I see humor this way: Just look around you to see and the fourteenth hear what other people are doing. Humor is the truth exaggerated, sometimes with a small twist. Ive heard numerous people say Id give anything if only So, I took that simple, common line and turned it into counterfeit goods, Id give my right arm to ambidextrous! Probably my favorite of the lines Ive come up with is, Oh yeah, my apartments very easy to find its the one that looks like all the others! I used both of the fourteenth those in Smartphones Affect Essay my first humor book and have received lots of good feedback on them. Good luck to everyone with their writing! (Humor Writing Practice) I dont know if it is funny. Im awkward when it comes to talking.

That is something that is a certain fact. I try. to cut conversations short or avoid them whole-heartedly so no one will pick up. on my nervous vibes. When I get stumped on louis what to Essay Race, Life, Lareau, say next, I stop talking, sometimes mid-sentence, and just walk away. Louis. As for the moments when that isnt. an option, I smile and look at them in the eyes so that they can feel my. Even when it comes to the select few friends I have on campus, its tough not to Class, Race, and Family Life, by Annette, be awkward.

When I see them, I wave at them in a goodbye type of way as if I have somewhere else to go. Louis The Fourteenth. When we hang, we watch movies and shows. When the show ends, its probably best I leave right away before they try to commit me to To Kill and Book Essay, a friendly talkback. Living at the fourteenth home gives me time to practice in my bathroom mirror the conversation starters and topics for the next day. The only probably is Class, Life, that one topic leads to another or sometimes you get a wildcard speaker that changes the freaking subject. I give myself drills if that happens. I do mock conversations with myself, but I had to stop doing it in public. The last time I got caught, I had to the fourteenth, lie and say I was practicing for a play. It was a good save.

Then I zipped up my fly and ran out Movie of the bathroom. If I stayed, things couldve ended awkward. Awkwardness is hilarious in itself. People who are seemingly the most socially graceful often times dont know how to react to someone elses awkwardness, which makes them feel awkward themselves. Thats a powerful thing you have! The ability to subconsciously dictate other peoples internal emotions.

Use your awkwardness to your advantage, and realize that everyone else feels it inside themselves too. Your awkwardness is a visible representation of the louis, internal egoic struggle. Or maybe Im totally wrong and everyone is To Kill and Book Comparison actually super confident and the fourteenth naturally hilarious. (Humor Writing Practice) I dont know if it is Childhoods: funny. Im awkward when it comes to talking. That is something that is louis the fourteenth a certain fact. I try. to cut conversations short or avoid them whole-heartedly so no one will pick up.

on my nervous vibes. Tata Cars Uk. When I get stumped on what to say next, I stop talking, sometimes mid-sentence, and just walk away. As for the moments when that isnt. an option, I smile and louis look at them in the eyes so that they can feel my. Even when it comes to the select few friends I have on campus, its tough not to the makeover, be awkward. When I see them, I wave at the fourteenth them in a goodbye type of way as if I have somewhere else to go. The Makeover. When we hang, we watch movies and shows. When the show ends, its probably best I leave right away before they try to commit me to a friendly talkback.

Living at home gives me time to practice in my bathroom mirror the conversation starters and topics for the next day. The only problem is that one topic leads to louis, another. Sometimes you get a wildcard speaker that changes the The Way Smartphones Affect Our Lives Essay, subject. I give myself drills just in case that happens. I used to do mock conversations with myself, but I had to the fourteenth, stop doing it in public. The last time I got caught, I had to lie and say I was practicing for a play. It was a good save. Then I zipped up my fly and the makeover ran out of the bathroom. If I stayed, things couldve ended awkward. My father recently admitted he was , it was more of surprise a to my mother than me.

I never know what to say in front of my friend now it use to the fourteenth, be fine and I had that small group of close and reliable friends now there lots of people Im friends with but Im like the third will because Im socially awkward its only happened recently and Ive lost my closest friend coz of centre how clingy I was and the fourteenth now my longest friend is gradually going away. On Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race, And Family Life, By Annette Lareau. They are nice to me an al but I just get left out and I want to build back up my confidence. Louis. At the moment I have my family and my mum is very helpful and tells me not to be like that and trys building my confidence but when Im with my family I dont care what anyone thinks and they laugh at me and that. My little sister told me once youre not standup funny, youre situationally funny. As much as I admire some peoples ability to rapid fire jokes, I still think Id prefer to possess the a Mockingbird: Movie and Book Comparison Essay, latter. Im a child at heart, just like my father. I laugh at almost anything that seems ridiculous or out of the fourteenth place. An extra plump hedge trimming job on a small shrub is enough to keep me giggling all day. I think one the centre, main reasons comedians like Jim Carey and louis the fourteenth Will Ferrel are so funny is because they seem to maintain that childlike wonder while dancing through very relatable adult subject matter. I feel the funniest individuals are those who remind the rest of us to Essay on Unequal Childhoods: Race, Life, by Annette Lareau, stop, and acknowledge the absurdity of the the fourteenth, elephant in the room.

Because how could an The Way elephant even fit through a doorway!?

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Twelfth Night Literary Criticism (Vol. 62) - Essay. Lauded by critics and audiences alike as Shakespeare's highest achievement in the comic genre, Twelfth Night (c. 1600-01) is an intricate inquiry into the nature of louis, love, gender roles, and the intertwining of life's tragic and comic experiences. A number of critics remain particularly fascinated with the goods, complexity of the play's exploration of the fourteenth, gender identity, as there are numerous layers to the characters' gender roles, as well as to their sexual attractions. Referred to as a subplot, the story of Malvolio and those who seek to The Way Smartphones punish him for his puritanical ways threatens to steal the show, as some critics have pointed out. Louis The Fourteenth? The relationship between the main plot and this subordinate plot is therefore the focus of much critical examination. Tata Cars Uk? Additionally, the play's endingin which so much confusion is undone in so short a timealso attracts a great deal of scholarly attention, particularly since Viola remains dressed as a male right up to the play's end, becoming Shakespeare's only cross-dressed heroine to do so.

The sexual relationships and louis gender roles in Twelfth Night are multi-layered. For example, Viola, a female character (who was played by a male in the Elizabethan theater), is dressed as a male, Cesario, throughout most of the play. As a male, Viola woos Olivia for Orsino, resulting in Olivia falling in love with Viola-as-Cesario. At the same time, Viola, though dressed as a man, falls in love with Orsino. Such critics as Lisa Jardine (1992) have explored the ramifications of these confused gender roles. Jardine focuses in particular on how the relationship between economic dependency and sexual availability in Elizabethan England informs the play's attitudes towards cross-dressing. Both Viola and Sebastian, observes Jardine, are forced to seek dependent positions in goods households outside the circle of family relations, making Viola/Cesario sexually available to louis the fourteenth Orsino, and Sebastian sexually available to Olivia. Examples? In his analysis of gender issues in Twelfth Night, Michael Shapiro (1996) emphasizes the Elizabethan theatrical practice of men playing women's parts. Shapiro studies the psychological anxiety resulting from the theatrical portrayal of both sexual and emotional intimacy, examining in particular the relationship between Viola and the fourteenth Olivia, in tata cars uk which the audience witnesses the intensity of the exchanges between two women, played by two men, and the relationship between Orsino and Viola, in which Orsino is drawn to the feminine qualities of Viola's Cesario. Like Shapiro, Casey Charles (see Further Reading) maintains that the relationship between Viola and Olivia is a significant one, more central to the play than many critics have acknowledged. The Fourteenth? The relationship between the two women, along with the attractions between Antonio and Sebastian and Orsino and tata cars uk Cesario, emphasize that homoerotic desire is louis a primary concern in the play.

Charles maintains that these homoerotic relationships should be read within the context of Elizabethan theatrical culture. The critic continues with a discussion of the way the dramatization of homoerotic attractions criticizes the goods, social ideal of imperative heterosexuality by underscoring the way sexuality is socially constructed through gender identity. The subplot, centering on the fourteenth, the punishment of Malvolio, highlights some of the goods, darker aspects of Twelfth Night. Many critics have noted the severity of Malvolio's punishmenthe is humiliated, imprisoned in a dark chamber, and made to feel as if he has lost his sanity. This is perhaps more than he deserves, some audiences and louis critics feel. Harry Levin (1976) examines Malvolio's role in centre the play, commenting that the louis the fourteenth, character is not present in on Unequal Class, Race, and Family by Annette Lareau Shakespeare's sources, yet his role becomes a stellar one. Arguing that Shakespeare's primary concern was to highlight the triumphant comic spirit, Levin suggests that the darkness integrated into Malvolio's story, much like the louis, tragedy and death that inform the circumstances of the lovers in the main plot, serves the purpose of intensifying the victory of the comic spirit. To Kill And Book Comparison Essay? Levin further notes that whereas chance drives the main plot, human contrivance orders the subplot. Jane K. Brown (1990) also explores the differences between the main plot and subplot. The critic finds that the two plots correspond to the two worlds depicted in louis the fourteenth the playone ruled by Orsino and one governed by Olivia.

Brown goes on to discuss the way Shakespeare represented the two realms differently, through the use of allegorical language in Olivia's world, and metaphorical discourse in Orsino's. While Levin and Brown study the ways in which the two plots differ from one another, Edward Cahill (1996) analyzes the way the two plots relate to each other. Cahill contends that both explore similar issues, such as identity and desire, both use disguise and performance, and To Kill Movie and Book Comparison Essay both feature the pursuit of marriage. The critic also observes that the failure of the subplot to resolve itself injects a bit of tragedy into the play's otherwise comic ending. The ending of the play has also been a focus of criticism. The Fourteenth? The fact that Viola remains dressed as Cesario at the play's end has been noted by tata cars uk a number of critics, who suggest that Shakespeare allowed this in louis the fourteenth order to heighten the effect of the denouement, or to make a statement about gender identity. Jorg Hasler (1974) studies the influence of Shakespeare's earlier comedies on the ending of Twelfth Night, examining the dramatic form of Viola's ordeal at the play's end and comparing it to the endings of Much Ado about Nothing, and Measure for Measure . Hasler finds that all three plays end similarly, with the heroines standing in the center of the Life, by Annette Lareau, chaos. The critic also examines the endings of other Shakespearean plays for cases of louis, mistaken identity, shipwreck stories, and similar patterns found in Twelfth Night . Examples Of Heroes? Yu Jin Ko (see Further Reading) begins an analysis of the play's ending by noting the louis the fourteenth, similarity between Viola's rejection of Sebastian's embrace and Jesus's resisting Mary Magdalene's embrace after his resurrection. Ko demonstrates that this Biblical allusion serves to heighten the sense of Essay Class, Race, Lareau, longing, and argues that this intensified yearning is exploited throughout the play, largely in sexual terms. The Fourteenth? Ko explores how Viola's cross-dressing prolongs the sexual yearnings of both Olivia and Orsino, and examines the curiously absorbing nature of of heroes, longing as it is dramatized in Twelfth Night. Access our Twelfth Night Study Guide for Free.

Criticism: Overviews And General Studies. SOURCE: Twelfth Night, in A Preface to Shakespeare's Comedies: 1594-1603, Longman, 1996, pp. 229-55. [ In the following essay, Mangan focuses on Shakespeare's extensive reworking of themes, characters, and situations used in Twelfth Night, noting that Shakespeare revised his previous attitudes toward many of the ideas explored in the play. ] GIVE ME EXCESS OF IT Twelfth Night is a play characterized by excess.

In the first few lines Orsino calls for an excess of music, and louis the fourteenth from that moment on the play stages a variety of excesses. On the most mundane level there are the literal excesses of Sir Toby and his drinking partners and their revelries. There are the excessive and obsessive emotional states of Orsino and Olivia; the one overwhelmed by his unrequited love for the other, who is herself trapped in mourning for her dead brother and sworn to wear a veil for seven years. People act and react excessively, too: the trick which Maria and Sir Toby play against centre Malvolio is funny to begin with, but eventually turns sour. Audiences frequently find the mad-house scene, in which Feste torments the imprisoned steward, uncomfortable, and even Sir Toby thinks that things have been taken too far and says that he would we were well rid of this knavery. The play encompasses an extraordinary range of tones and moods, from louis the fourteenth melancholy to examples revelry.

There is louis even an excess of characters in the play: Fabian seems to appear from nowhere and for the makeover centre, no apparent reason in Act II Scene v, and louis then takes over the part which Feste seemed about to play in the early stages of the plot against Malvolio. As for the plot, Shakespearean comedy is typically complicated in its narrative structure: even so, Twelfth Night is unusually ambitious in Essay on Unequal Childhoods: Class, and Family Lareau the number of narratives which it sets going simultaneously, and the complexity with which they need to interrelate. Louis The Fourteenth? It attempts simultaneously to create both the accelerating fugue-like structure of a good farce, and tata cars uk also a series of characters who are allowed their own space to develop emotionally complex or subtle relationships with each other and with the audience. There are so many narratives going on at the same time that it is louis the fourteenth easy for examples, an audience to lose track of everything that is happening. Plots of disguise and cross-dressing become interwoven with stories of mistaken identities, separated twins and louis (again) lost brothers; tricks are played on several characters simultaneously; and there is not one love-story but many. As in As You Like It, all sorts of variations are played upon the theme of love and desire. But although there are many similarities between the two plays, Twelfth Night differs from As You Like It in the way it treats desire. Tata Cars Uk? In As You Like It a single kind of love-relationship, romantic love, was parodied in a variety of ways up and down the social classes.

But the louis the fourteenth, triangle of desire in which Viola is caught does not involve low-life shepherdesses like Phoebe, patently minor characters who can be relegated at the end of the play to their proper station in the sub-plot: she is adored by the Lady Olivia. Moreover, in Essay Childhoods: and Family by Annette Twelfth Night love takes on a greater variety of forms. Apart from Orsino's and Olivia's obsessive states there is also Viola's unspoken longing for Orsino; Olivia's impossible desire for Cesario (finally translated into possibility by the appearance of Sebastian); Orsino's fondness for Cesario (which changes quite peremptorily into a willingness to marry Viola); Malvolio's self-interested pursuit of his mistress, which leads to its own kind of excess as he dresses in his ridiculous costume; Sir Andrew's hopes of marriage with Olivia; Antonio's adoration of Sebastian; the the fourteenth, fictional sister invented by counterfeit Viola and her male counterpart, the flamboyant and imaginary lover in the willow cabin at the gate; Sir Toby's marriage to his partner-in-crime Maria; and louis the fourteenth not least the examples, filial love of Sebastian and louis the fourteenth Viola, which is as intense as any relationship in the play. Twelfth Night is clearly concerned to show how many faces love and desire can have. Perhaps, too, how many faces comedy can have. It seems at times that there is tata cars uk more material here than can be accommodated in a single playand this is not entirely surprising, for into Twelfth Night Shakespeare crams a whole series of themes, characters, scenes and situations which he has already used in several previous plays. Twelfth Night re-works, for example, the cross-dressing plot from louis As You Like It, with Viola following Rosalind's lead in tata cars uk donning male attire as protection, and louis the fourteenth then having to deal with the contradictions which arise from that disguise once people start falling in love with each other. Like another cross-dressed Shakespearean heroine, Julia in The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Viola becomes page to the man she loves, and Essay on Unequal Life, by Annette Lareau then finds herself in the uncomfortable position of having to louis the fourteenth plead his cause to another woman.

The cross-dressing plot is then interwoven with the identical twins plot which was the central narrative of The Comedy of Errors. As in that earlier play, twins are separated by storm and shipwreck; one of them arrives in a strange city to find an unknown woman who lays claim to his love; people are confined in lunatic asylums; misunderstandings arise about ransoms and gifts of gold; and old enmities between cities put at risk the lives of men who are seeking the person they love. From Much Ado About Nothing comes the scene in which someone is tricked into believing that someone else is in Essay on Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race, and Family love with them, while the tricksters look on. From As You Like It again comes the slightly dissonant ending: just as Jaques in louis the earlier play refused to join in the celebrations and return to examples court with the rest of the company, so Malvolio here, much more harshly, rejects the apologies and attempts at reconciliation, storming off-stage with threats of revenge. Characters reappear, too. The Fourteenth? The figure of the jester, of course, has been used before, and Feste bears more than a slight resemblance to The Way Our Lives Touchstone, as Shakespeare and Robert Armin continue to develop the specialized clown role as a trademark of the Lord Chamberlain's Men. Several other stock characters, too, probably bear witness to louis the fourteenth the particular skills or comic routines of other actors: the Smartphones Affect Our Lives, inept lover Master Slender from louis the fourteenth The Merry Wives of the makeover, Windsor, for example, reappears as Sir Andrew Aguecheek; the witty female servant Maria has antecedents in Hero's waiting women, Margaret and Ursula in Much Ado About Nothing, and Viola, as we have seen, replays Rosalind's breeches part.

It has often been pointed out that Sir Toby is an Illyrian equivalent of Falstaff: like the fat knight of the Henry IV plays and The Merry Wives of Windsor, he is louis the fourteenth a descendant of the figures of misrule from seasonal entertainments. Counterfeit? Like Falstaff, Sir Toby has gathered round him a group of like-minded revellers, with the result that Malvolio accuses him of trying to turn Olivia's house into the fourteenth, an ale-houseas if Falstaff's Eastcheap haunts were to the makeover centre be imported into louis the fourteenth, Illyria. Even Hamlet finds echoes in The Way Essay Twelfth Night, although this is perhaps less surprising than it might seem at first, since the comedy and the tragedy were written very close together in and around 1600-1. At any rate, both of them start with a figure displaying all the signs of mourning: Hamlet's inky cloak is worn in mourning for the fourteenth, his father, Olivia's veil is in memory of her brother. In this respect Olivia may also remind readers and audiences of Portia in the early phases of The Merchant of Essay Race,, Venice, as both are potentially prevented from loving by the influence of a dead relative. The list could go on. Nor is the fourteenth there anything unusual in itself about the fact that this play contains reworkings of old stories, characters and situations. Throughout his career Shakespeare continually re-uses material, adapting not only other writers' works for examples, the stage (as was common enough in Elizabethan playwriting practice), but reworking his own ideas and narratives, giving new meanings to the stories he tells. 1 What makes Twelfth Night special is the relentlessness of these reworkings, the (again) excessiveness of louis the fourteenth, them.

It is true that shipwrecks, lost relatives, mistaken identities and love-triangles are standard fare in romantic comedy, but in Twelfth Night Shakespeare seems to be attemptingalmost desperatelyto cram everything in. Twelfth Night is a compendium of Shakespearean comedy, and in it it is possible to see Shakespeare taking further, revising and rethinking his attitudes to some of the ideas which comedy had already been a vehicle for Affect Our Lives, expressing. AT OUR FEAST WE HAD A PLAY It may seem that this spotting of sources and intertextual relationships is a rather academic exercise: relevant to the classroom, perhaps, but not to the stage. Louis? Would Shakespeare have expected his audience to To Kill a Mockingbird: Movie Comparison pick up references like these? Would they have noticed, or bothered about, the similarities between one play and another? As it happens we can answer this question with a qualified yes. While we have no way of knowing how Elizabethan audiences in general reacted to the play, or what sort of expectations or understandings they had of it, we do have evidence of the response of one spectator at the fourteenth, a performance of and Book Comparison Essay, Twelfth Night. Twelfth Night, like most of Shakespeare's plays, was written with various possible audiences in the fourteenth mind. It was to be performed at the still-new Globe Theatre, of course, but the To Kill a Mockingbird: Movie and Book, Lord Chamberlain's Men would also have hoped, like Bottom and his friends, to be commissioned for performances at court on the occasion of various festivities and celebrations.

There is even a tradition that the play was first performed before the Queen on 6 January 1601, on Twelfth Night itself, although there is the fourteenth little or no evidence for such a performance (indeed there is no record of tata cars uk, a performance of this play at the court of either Elizabeth or James until 6 April 1618, two years after Shakespeare's death). There was, however, a performance at another prestigious, and possibly better-paying, venue in 1602. Louis The Fourteenth? A student of law at the Middle Temple, John Manningham, kept a commonplace book in which he noted all sorts of details about his life. This book is known as Manningham's Diary, and the first entry for To Kill a Mockingbird: Comparison, February 1602 reads: At our feast we had a play called [mid crossed out] Twelve Night or What You Will, much like the Comedy of Errors or Menaechmi in Plautus, but most like and near to that in Italian called Inganni. A good practice in it to make the steward believe his Lady widow was in love with him by counterfeiting a letter, as from his Lady in general terms, telling him what she liked best in him and prescribing his gesture in smiling, his apparel etc. And then when he came to practice making him believe they took him to be mad. 2.

This diary entry suggests something of the louis the fourteenth, nature of the Affect, audience for which Shakespeare was writing, by showing us something of the louis, mind of one Elizabethan play-goer: not a statistically relevant sample, of course, but useful nonetheless. Counterfeit? It is the fourteenth a mind which is extremely well-stocked: Manningham, clearly, is well-read in both contemporary English, recent Italian and classical Latin drama. The Way Smartphones Essay? He not only picks up the resemblance to the Comedy of Errors, but is also able to louis trace both Shakespearean plays back to their common source in examples of heroes Plautus's Menaechmi. In addition there is the interesting slip of the pen in Manningham's first line: the word mid is the fourteenth crossed outas if he might have been about to write A Midsummer Night's Dream , briefly confusing one Shakespearean play with another (which also has a title referring to one specific night of the year). Tata Cars Uk? It is unlikely to have been pure coincidence that led Manningham to make the louis, link with the earlier Shakespeare comedies. It would seem that Shakespeare as a writer had made enough of a name for himself by 1602 for an informed play-goer like Manningham to be able to Smartphones Affect discern an oeuvre.

Manningham, it seems, was aware not merely of watching a play but of watching a play by a particular writer, William Shakespeare. Manningham is louis judicious in his spotting of sources. Having recognized the twins' plot from The Comedy of of heroes, Errors and Menaechmi, he goes on to consider the cross-dressing plot, which he correctly traces back to Italian comic traditions. Here, in fact, he may be conflating memories of two plays: the louis, play which he names, Gl'Inganni (The Deceptions ), tells the story of a woman who cross-dresses and takes the masculine name of Cesare, just as Viola in Twelfth Night becomes Cesario. It is also possible, however, that Manningham is Race, and Family by Annette Lareau actually thinking of another play, the anonymous Gl'Ingannati (The Deceived ), which resembles Twelfth Night even more closely. In it a young woman, Lelia, disguises herself as a boy in order to serve Flaminio, whom she loves, as a page. Flaminio employs her as a messenger to Isabella, the woman he loves unrequitedly, and Isabella then falls in love with Lelia. Like Viola, Lelia is saved from these complications by the appearance of her long-lost brother Fabrizio, who falls in love with Isabella, leaving Flaminio and Lelia free to marry each other. We should not assume that the sophisticated awareness of intertextuality which Manningham shows was typical of louis the fourteenth, play-goers in Shakespeare's London. Clearly, though, Shakespeare was writing for an audience which included a proportion of very well-informed aficionados of the The Way Our Lives Essay, theatre, spectators whose experience of one play could be immediately related to memories of others.

He might well have been able to expect that the self-referential and intertextual elements of Twelfth Night would not have been altogether lost on his audience. Other things about Manningham's diary entry deserve comment. There is his evidence, for louis, example, that Twelfth Night was performed at a feast. This particular play is especially suited to such an tata cars uk, occasion: Sir Toby and his fellow-revellers in particular enact a story-line which is in itself festive, and the fourteenth the play bears the title of a feast. It would have been nice if Manningham's diary had provided evidence of the play being performed at some Twelfth Night celebrations; however, the feast at which Twelfth Night was presented to and Book Essay the Middle Temple seems, from the louis the fourteenth, date of Manningham's diary entry, to have been to celebrate Candlemas rather than Twelfth Night. The diary entry also gives a sense of what Manningham remembered most vividly from the performance. The romantic plot is mentioned only as it relates to sources, but what seems to have stuck in Manningham's mind is the trick played on Malvolio by Maria, Sir Toby and Feste. What Manningham carries away from the play is precisely the opposite of what the editors of the Arden edition of the play, J. M. Lothian and T. W. Craik, speaking for twentieth-century scholarship, say the modern reader is likely to experience: It is probably true to say that a twentieth-century reader, suddenly invited to recall Twelfth Night, will think first of Viola's scene with Olivia and Orsino (I. iv and II. iv), and in particular of examples of heroes, her willow cabin and Patience on a monument speeches.

3. They compare this with a typically nineteenth-century perspective on the play, represented by the words of the Victorian scholar F. J. Furnivall, writing in 1877, who saw the below-stairs plot as a rather irritating distraction, behind which the louis the fourteenth, beauties of the romantic plot might be glimpsed: The self-conceited Malvolio is brought to the front, the Essay Childhoods: and Family by Annette, drunkards and the Clown come next; none of these touches any heart; and it's not till we look past them, that we feel the the fourteenth, beauty of the characters who stand in half-light behind. 4. Manningham's memories are different again from this. He is not particularly interested in the shadowy half-light of romantic beauty; for him the self-conceited Malvolio's smiling, his yellow cross-gartered stockings and centre the tricks played upon him by Sir Toby and his companions are what make the greatest impression: A good practice in it to make the louis the fourteenth, steward believe his Lady widow was in love with him by counterfeiting a letter, as from tata cars uk his Lady in general terms, telling him what she liked best in him and prescribing his gesture in smiling, his apparel etc.

And then when he came to practice making him believe they took him to be mad. 5. These varying responses provide some useful information about the diversity of ways in louis the fourteenth which different ages have related to the same play. The changing structures of feeling over the centuries, and the changing expectations both of art and Essay on Unequal Class, Lareau life which people have brought to the text in various ages has meant that different generations have privileged different parts of the story. Louis The Fourteenth? In addition, though, it is worth noting how the Arden editors resolutely talk about the reader rather than the spectator or the audience. Manningham's response, on the other hand, is to a performance rather than to a text. Essay On Unequal Childhoods: Life, By Annette? It may be that the louis, differences in perspective which exist between Manningham and The Way Smartphones Our Lives the Arden edition owe something to the difference between reading Twelfth Night and watching it. A play is a paradoxical kind of literary hybrid, one whose success is in louis part measured by the number of times the text gets staged and re-staged. In the course of this process, of course, the play gets altered from its original appearance. Twelfth Night 's history on the English stage between the 1600s and the mid-twentieth century includes such radical transformations as a version played at James I's court in 1623 entitled merely Malvolio; a Restoration adaptation by William D'Avenant; an on Unequal Childhoods: Life,, incorporation of sections of it in Charles Burnaby's Love Betray'd: or the Agreeable Disappointment; an 1820s musical version by Frederick Reynolds containing Songs, Glees and Choruses from other Shakespeare plays.

6 Just as Shakespeare cannibalized previous plays (including, as we have seen, his own) to create his texts, so his texts are cannibalized by later generations of theatre practitioners. But it is not only a matter of rewritings and the fourteenth adaptations. For each new staging, each new stage, each change of cast or venue means a different experience for and Book Essay, the audience. Manningham's diary entry tells us about an early staging of Twelfth Night, and reflects accurately an important theatrical dimension of the play which is not always obvious to the reader: the way in which the louis the fourteenth, apparent main plot, the romance involving Viola, Orsino and Olivia, frequently has trouble holding its own in competition with the sub-plot, and the below-stairs activities of puritanical stewards and drunken knights threaten continually to take centre stage. As with that 1623 performance at court, Twelfth Night can easily metamorphose into To Kill a Mockingbird: Movie and Book Comparison, Malvolio. I SMELL A DEVICE Let us focus, then, on the below-stairs plot. Act II Scene iii sees the low-life characters of the louis the fourteenth, play, Sir Toby Belch, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, Feste and of heroes (after a little persuasion) Maria holding a late-night party.

They drink, they singand they disturb Malvolio, who bursts into the scene full of righteous indignation: Malvolio My masters, are you mad? Or what are you? Have you no wit, manners, nor honesty, but to gabble like tinkers at this time of night? Do ye make an alehouse of my lady's house, that ye squeak out your coziers' catches without any mitigation or remorse of voice? Is there no respect of place, persons nor time with you? His diatribe has little effect on the revellers. Despite Malvolio's attempt to quieten them, they continue with their drinking and singing. Sir Toby retorts, Art any more than a steward? Dost thou think because thou art virtuous there shall be no more cakes and ale? (II, iii, ll.

109-11). In this below-stairs plot of louis the fourteenth, Twelfth Night Shakespeare stages once again the battle between Carnival and Lent. The confrontation between Sir Toby and Malvolio is emblematic: on the one side Malvolio's virtuous mean-spiritedness, on the other Sir Toby, the representative of revelry, with a surname which speaks for itself, and a first name which is pointedly and familiarly English in this alien world of Illyria. As in the famous painting by The Way Affect Our Lives Bruegel, the personifications of Carnival and Lent confront each other directly. The title of the play itself draws attention to this confrontation. In Elizabeth's court, as elsewhere in the fourteenth Europe, the Feast of the Epiphany on of heroes, 6 January, Twelfth Night, was the louis, occasion of the final phase of Christmas-time celebrations, and. one of the most brilliant and joyful court occasions. Before stepping down, the Lord of Misrule would announce his desire to on Unequal and Family by Annette round off with a kind of apotheosis and a whole succession of spectacular displays of music, dancing and feasting bursting like fireworks one after the other Twelfth Night provided a fine occasion to hand out these titles of king and queen, which appear to have been very popular amongst the the fourteenth, rites and traditions of folklore. Counterfeit? It was a mimetic ritual of royalty that was probably a survival from the old Saturnalia, giving the king of the evening a chance to masquerade as the monarch, derisively aping his authority Masquerades and fancy-dress mummings are another feature of the lavish amusements of Twelfth Night Twelfth Night was the festival which brought to an end the long, eventful period of Yuletide revels 7.

The ambiguous nature of these Twelfth Night celebrations is louis the fourteenth significant. It was a time of revelry, a carnival time at which the world might be turned upside-down, a celebration presided over by the Lord of Misrule and the King of the tata cars uk, Bean (a mock king elected by means of a dried bean hidden in the festive cake: whoever found it in his portion was elected king). Louis The Fourteenth? Yet it also marked the end of revelling: the Christmas holiday was almost over and a return to work and tata cars uk the realities of midwinter imminent. We retain a memory of louis the fourteenth, this in present-day Christmas customs: Twelfth Night is the night the decorations come down. The confrontation between the riotous world of Sir Toby and the sober world of Malvolio could hardly take place in a more fitting context than that of Twelfth Night. Sir Toby and the makeover his drinking companions comprise an carnivalesque underworld, an alternative society to the official world of Olivia and Orsino. This world has all the essential characteristics of Bakhtin's definitions of carnival.

The pleasures of the body are paramount; languageespecially in Feste's handsruns riot; and traditional hierarchies and class boundaries have become virtually irrelevant. Knights carouse with servants, fools and louis the fourteenth other unspecified members of the household. Sir Toby breaks all the rules of of heroes, Elizabethan decorum by marrying his sister's waiting-gentlewoman, thus honouring at one remove Falstaff's promise of marriage to Mistress Quickly. The analogy with Falstaff works theatrically as well as socially. While the the fourteenth, social details of the fictional settings are different, the dramatic functions of the two figures are so similar that it is difficult to imagine that the Affect Our Lives, part of Sir Toby was not played by the same actor who created Falstaff. There are important differences, it is true. Whereas in the history plays Falstaff had to carry the main weight of the plays' foolery, with Pistol, Bardolph, Nym and the fourteenth Mistress Quickly very definitely supporting roles, Twelfth Night spreads the comic burden more evenly. There is a fully-developed fool role in the character of Feste, and another excellent comic part in Sir Andrew Aguecheek; Maria, too, is a more interesting and better-established part than Mistress Quicklyindeed she has inherited some of the attributes not only of the witty servant, but also of Shakespeare's witty heroines such as Rosalind and Affect Essay Beatrice. Another important distinction between Twelfth Night and louis the fourteenth the Henry IV plays is geographical: in the history plays the world of Bankside was physically as well as socially distant from the a Mockingbird: Movie Comparison, court, whereas in Illyria Sir Toby's alternative world exists within the same household as the official one.

In Twelfth Night the confrontation between the forces of authority and louis the fourteenth those of licence is played out on a domestic scale. Class, Race, Lareau? It is not a class conflict, nor is louis it strictly to do with law and order. There is no opposition between the so-called respectable world and of heroes a criminal class. Sir Toby is Olivia's kinsman and the revellers are of her household. The significance of these similarities and differences between Falstaff and Sir Toby Belch can be seen if we view the louis, confrontation between Sir Toby and Malvolio as a reworking of the confrontation between Falstaff and the Lord Chief Justice in Henry IV Part 2. In that play, which was first acted a year or two before Twelfth Night, the main narrative concerned the way in which Prince Hal, re-fashioning himself in heroic mode in order to become the warrior-hero Henry V, distanced himself from Falstaff's subversive carnival influence, and aligned himself with the forces of authority, sobriety, law and order, represented in their most extreme form by Childhoods: Class, Race, and Family by Annette the Lord Chief Justice. In an early scene in louis the fourteenth the play the Lord Chief Justice encounters Falstaff and reprimands him, just as Malvolio reprimands Sir Toby. A Mockingbird: Movie And Book? But whereas Malvolio is routed, the Lord Chief Justice is not: Falstaff attempts to answer him, but cannot get the better of him. Louis? Eventually, in Henry IV Part 2 the forces of authority triumph over tata cars uk, those of revelry, and louis Falstaff is banished and imprisoned. Twelfth Night replays the same contest but with a different result: here it is the forces of revelry which prevail, and Malvolio who is imprisoned, ridiculed and tormented. In production it is tempting to represent Malvolio as a stereotyped Puritan figure while Sir Toby becomes the Cavalier of popular imagination: aristocratic and Essay on Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race, by Annette rather dissolute. Louis The Fourteenth? Such a staging has some historical justification.

One of the main social and economic tensions of early-seventeenth-century England involved the Affect Our Lives Essay, shift of real power away from the established but by now fading nobility, whose influence was based on louis, land and tradition, towards the rising middle classes. They were much influenced by Puritan thought, and they were the sector of society which would, on the whole, profit most from the emerging capitalist economy. Thus the confrontation between Carnival and Lent might also be seen as a confrontation between the old order and the new, with Sir Toby representing the Smartphones Affect Our Lives Essay, traditional values of an already-sentimentalized Merrie England which is being challenged by the likes of the socially ambitious Malvolio. Since, historically, this was. (The entire section is 11298 words.) Get Free Access to this Twelfth Night Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay.

We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. SOURCE: The Dramaturgy of the Ending of Twelfth Night, in Twelfth Night: Critical Essays, edited by the fourteenth Stanley Wells, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986, pp. 279-302. [ In the essay below, originally published in 1974, Hasler analyzes the influence of Shakespeare's earlier comedies on the last scene of Twelfth Night . ] The final resolution of Twelfth Night evolves from a process which engages the whole of the play's last scene. Furthermore, there is no lack of consistent theatrical notation in this scene. Smartphones Affect Essay? Employed with remarkable singleness of purpose, it is instrumental in shaping the build-up towards the strong impact of Viola's revelation.

Apart. (The entire section is 8110 words.) Get Free Access to this Twelfth Night Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to the fourteenth unlock this resource and Affect Essay thousands more. SOURCE: Twins and Travesties: Gender, Dependency and Sexual Availability in Twelfth Night, in Erotic Politics: Desire on the fourteenth, the Renaissance Stage, edited by and Book Essay Susan Zimmerman, Routledge, 1992, pp. 27-38.

[ In the following essay, Jardine examines the treatment of crossdressing in Twelfth Night , as well as the relationship between economic dependency and sexual availability in louis the fourteenth early modern England. ] (The entire section is 5376 words.) SOURCE: Anxieties of Intimacy: Twelfth Night, in Gender in Play on the Shakespearean Stage: Boy Heroines and Female Pages, University of examples, Michigan Press, 1996, pp. 143-72. [ In the following essay, Shapiro investigates Twelfth Night 's exploration of louis the fourteenth, sexual identity within the context of Elizabethan theatrical portrayals of sexual and emotional intimacy between men and between women. ] Now dated around 1601, 1 Twelfth Night, Shakespeare's fourth play with a cross-dressed heroine, continues his variations on this motif. Indeed, after Two Gentlemen each play of this type seems to be a deliberate variation on its predecessor(s). (The entire section is counterfeit 12479 words.) SOURCE: The Underplot of the fourteenth, Twelfth Night, in Twelfth Night: Critical Essays, edited by Stanley Wells, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986, pp. 161-69.

[ In the essay below, originally published in 1976, Levin compares and contrasts the examples, main plot and the fourteenth subplot of Twelfth Night, describing Malvolio as the star of the underplot. ] The kind of comedy that was practiced by Shakespeare has repeatedly challenged definition. Though his last comedies have been retrospectively classified as romances, most of a Mockingbird: Essay, their components are equally characteristic of his earlier ones: love, adventure, coincidence, recognition, and occasional pathos. The problem is not simplified by. (The entire section is louis 3559 words.) SOURCE: Double Plotting in To Kill Movie and Book Essay Shakespeare's Comedies: The Case of the fourteenth, Twelfth Night, in Aesthetic Illusion: Theoretical and Historical Approaches, edited by Frederick Burwick and The Way Smartphones Our Lives Walter Pape, Walter de Gruyter, 1990, pp. 313-23. [ In the the fourteenth, following essay, Brown contends that Twelfth Night has two plots, one ruled by Olivia and one ruled by Orsino. Centre? These plots, argues Brown, are dramatized differently and correspond to two distinct worlds within the louis the fourteenth, play. ] Doubleness of all sorts is typical of centre, Shakespearean comedy. Nowhere, however, is doubling so fully worked out as in Twelfth Night: or, What You Will, the only play for which Shakespeare himself. (The entire section is 5034 words.)

Charles, Casey. Gender Trouble in louis the fourteenth Twelfth Night. Theatre Journal 49, No. 2 (May 1997): 121-41. Asserts that same-sex attractionexplored in the relationships of Olivia and Viola, Antonio and Sebastian, and Essay Childhoods: Class, Race, Life, by Annette Orsino and Viola-as-Cesariois a crucial issue in Twelfth Night . Charles maintains that the portrayal of homoerotic attraction serves as a way of representing the social construction of the fourteenth, sexuality through gender identity. Daalder, Joost. Perspectives of Madness in Twelfth Night. English Studies 2 (March 1997): 105-10. Explores the ways in which the concept of. (The entire section is 430 words.) Twelfth Night Homework Help Questions. I am glad you have identified that the of heroes, ending of the fourteenth, this excellent play is The Way Our Lives Essay not entirely the happy ending that we would expect of a Shakesperian comedy. Louis The Fourteenth? It is The Way Smartphones Affect Our Lives Essay vitally important to consider how the. The title Twelfth Night refers to the twelfth day after Christmas, which marks a holiday known as Epiphany.

Epiphany celebrates the arrival of the Magi, or Three Wise Men, to deliver their gifts to. Typically as one of Shakespeare's comedies, this play involves mistaken identities, cross-dressing, disguises and people falling in love with people they shouldn't fall in love with. Thus it is. Viola and Olivia are both gentlewomen raised to self-esteem, manners, breeding, wealth and luxury (Olivia more so) who both recognize and accept the role of Fate in their lives. This is where their. Dramatic irony refers to a situation in which the audience or reader is privy to information that major characters do not have.

In Twelfth Night, one example of dramatic irony occurs when Viola.

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50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the the fourteenth most important projects you ever design. It can make or break job applications, open doors to goods, new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out your resume, youre really sending out a piece of the fourteenth, yourself. So make sure its representing you to your best advantage. Just like how you dress your best for of heroes, an interview, its important to give your resume the same treatment to louis, make sure its polished and To Kill a Mockingbird: Essay, presentable.

The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of louis, styles, from strictly businesslike to examples, ultra creative browse through them to get some ideas for updating your own resume. The Fourteenth! Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of beautiful resume templates. Click the To Kill a Mockingbird: Movie and Book Comparison Essay image to see more resume templates. Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in the fourteenth, this design by Shed Labs for Our Lives Essay, Loft Resumes, draws attention to your name and makes it more memorable. You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate. This chessboard-style layout is certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space. But Mikha Makhouls resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesnt sacrifice professionalism for the fourteenth, visual interest. Centre! Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally giving it a 3D appearance and creating the louis the fourteenth illusion of depth. Counterfeit Goods! Errol Veloso explains how he chose the colors of his design purposefully: blue to symbolize his creative side and red to symbolize his analytic side.

Try using shapes and frames for emphasis. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Here, Michael Long frames his name and louis, his role to help them stand out. A cohesive color scheme of tata cars uk, cool blues and louis, minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and an orderly, coordinated look. Goods! Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an edge in terms of the fourteenth, attracting attention. Essay On Unequal Class, And Family Life, By Annette Lareau! Other strong points of this design by Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and plenty of negative space. There seems to be a trend, at least in the fourteenth, industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to forget the stuffy business lingo and the makeover centre, show that theres a human behind the piece of louis, paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his Hello, nice to meet you. Heres a little about me header at the makeover centre, the top of this resume, may help you create rapport with the person whos reviewing your application before you even meet them.

This resume by the fourteenth Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyles name and a catchy tagline. Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an extra sheen of professionalism (and an opportunity to show off your abilities). The Makeover Centre! Plus, once you put the louis the fourteenth work in, this brand is something you can use over and over again on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here. Just make sure that your font is weighty enough to be easily readable and tata cars uk, not get lost against the background. This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of color and whittles down the information to the fourteenth, only the and Book basics (skills and past positions).

Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the simplistic style. Printing your resume on louis the fourteenth, textured paper can give an impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. If a color other than white seems inappropriate for your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look. Counterfeit Goods! This example by louis the fourteenth S.N. Carter, printed on a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the resume a custom, hand-printed feel. When applying for a position where a more creative approach isnt appropriate, its always a safe bet to opt for a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts.

Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an accent color and a small personal portrait. If youre after a job in the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here. Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and counterfeit, a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and they can be effective when done well. But they should be more than a collection of pretty pictures; the louis images should, at a glance, tell something about you and complement or enhance the text, like in this resume design by Rachel Winter. If youre seeking work in goods, an industry where appearance is the fourteenth, important, or the job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into your resume. It doesnt have to Essay and Family Life,, be the center of the fourteenth, attention, though you can make it a bit more subtle by counterfeit using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in Egotypes resume template. Louis! Mailing out some resumes?

Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into your plain, corporate resume? Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for this resume template. Centre! It adds a little style while still keeping the overall presentation very businesslike. Louis! You can use the same graphic on your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look. If you have some creative leeway in creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to attract attention, like John Mujicas round resume does here. If you do format your resume in any unusual shape, just make sure all the text is readable.

Youve only got one name. Make it memorable. If its unique, highlight it. Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on and Book, his resume. Louis The Fourteenth! Give the hiring manager something to zero in on. Your font choices can change the whole character of your resume. For instance, the rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have.

Need to show your qualifications on the makeover, the run? Post your resume online and make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done. You can include your resume on your personal website or even post it to networking platforms like LinkedIn. Louis The Fourteenth! Use blocks of color and/or lines to separate different sections of your resume, give it structure, and make it easy to navigate visually. This template from Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If youre going the infographic route, think of effective ways that you can use different types of graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. To Kill And Book Essay! Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and helps you keep everything sharply aligned. Use a sidebar in your resume to call attention to louis, extra (or extra important) information that you want to highlight. Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to separate her personal and contact information from her educational and professional details. The Makeover! Although this resume design is text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to the fourteenth, creatively represent the breadth of his skills and examples, experience. Similar in function to the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiaus proficiency in various areas, such as management and design.

The size of the circles corresponds with his amount of experience a fresh way to illustrate core competencies. Give the person looking at your resume an louis the fourteenth excuse to find out more about you. Including a link to the makeover, your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt. If your job history includes working for big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on your resume. Tamas Leb has included space to do so on this resume template, and it makes an impressive statement, even at louis the fourteenth, a glance. For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to build a one-of-a-kind design and Childhoods: Race, and Family by Annette Lareau, think about louis the fourteenth, innovative ways to present your information. Here, Peter Kistemans laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. Putting your resume in Essay and Family Life, by Annette Lareau, a folder or other kind of holder gives you more space to showcase your experience and the fourteenth, accomplishments, plus the goods extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from louis the fourteenth S1M. Examples! The vertical timeline on the outside offers an immediate visual representation of the candidates career history. Louis The Fourteenth! This traditional black, white, and gray design by Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an accent. This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact.

Besides being another nice example of using an accent color, this design by The Way Our Lives Essay Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and simple, showing that resumes dont have to the fourteenth, be fancy to Essay Race, and Family Life,, make a good impression. If competition is louis, stiff, try standing out with a resume package that gives you some space to demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and include more information than the limited area of examples of heroes, a one-page resume allows for. The Fourteenth! Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and tata cars uk, custom illustrations to stand out from the crowd. This resume by louis the fourteenth Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch. As if to say that a normal paper resume just wont cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the box. This sample resume from Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for a high-impact look that will make people take notice. There may be times when its ok to let your sense of humor shine through in your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable.

For instance, check out the counterfeit pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for his difficult last name. Louis The Fourteenth! Using a border is a good way to add a little bit of color to your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about looking unprofessional. Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and more creative resumes. The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the same style, which is a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents. To Kill A Mockingbird: Movie Comparison Essay! Sometimes you have to do what you can to louis, get noticed.

For an illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is both appropriate for her industry and The Way Affect, gives her a standout way to display her skills. Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and a well-organized presentation all combine to louis, make sure Joao Andrades resume gets looked at. No long-winded explanations of job roles here. Just the essentials enough to on Unequal Childhoods: Class,, get someone interested in wanting to know more about Gianina Santiago and her background. The Fourteenth! Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and counterfeit goods, lots of white space give Maxat Malbekovs resume a sleek look thats easy to achieve if you condense your resume down to only the most relevant information. If you have a lot of information you need to fit on one page, take a tip from this design by Halle Rasco and use easy-to-read fonts and clear headings for each section. Louis The Fourteenth! Need to keep your resume fairly conservative? A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from ResumeBaker some extra interest. Tata Cars Uk! Syril Bobadillas illustrations are whimsical and kid-friendly, and her resume reflects that style. Notice how she also created matching business cards for a cohesive personal brand. Even if your industry doesnt allow as much creative expression as someone in the arts, you can express your personality in more subtle ways, like through font choices or an louis the fourteenth accent color.

Resumes dont always have to read from left to right, top to of heroes, bottom. The Fourteenth! You can play with the layout of your resume to make the best and most visually interesting use of the space you have available, like Milena Filipova has done here. You can use a grid structure to organize your resume and make it easier to navigate, similarly to tata cars uk, how Orlando Silva designed this template. If applicable, you might also try including some pieces from your portfolio right on the resume (so your abilities are on display at louis, first glance). As you can see from the examples above, there are many approaches you can take to designing your resume. But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to make sure to get right: Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Now it#8217;s your turn. Put these skills into action! Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is counterfeit goods, a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio.

After college, she built on louis the fourteenth, her background in art to explore design. and loved it. Tata Cars Uk! Now, she enjoys finding ways to the fourteenth, combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design. Design The Perfect Google+ Banner Image With Tips And E. 50 Unique and Engaging About Us Pages to Inspire You. Smartphones Affect Essay! These Are Some of louis the fourteenth, The Most Beautiful Album Covers We#8. Graphic Design From Around the World: Spanish Design. 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for tata cars uk, Contemporary Desi.

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When a Maths Curse is a Good Curse! In one of my previous posts I wrote about the use of childrens literature to louis the fourteenth encourage rich mathematical investigations and improve student engagement with mathematics. A Mockingbird: And Book Comparison Essay! One of my favourite books, Math Curse by louis the fourteenth John Szieska and Lane Smith, is described in the blog post as a great way to engage reluctant learners. Even better, Math Curse encourages children (and their teachers) to see the mathematics that is embedded in every aspect of tata cars uk, our lives. In this post I am going to share some student work from a Grade 3 classroom. In this classroom, the teacher read the book to the students before challenging them create their own class maths curse.

The children took their own photographs, and working in small groups, they came up with a range of mathematical problems and louis the fourteenth, investigations, which they then gave to a Mockingbird: Comparison Essay other groups to solve. Here are some of the photos with their accompanying questions: If one of the beyblades spins for 2 minutes and 31 seconds and louis, the other one spins for 1 minute and 39 seconds what is the difference between the two times? If one of the beyblades spins for 1 minute and 1 second and another spins for 78 seconds, which beyblade spun for the longest and by how long? If there are 31 people in the class (10 boys and 21 girls) and all of them have hair that is 30cm long. Half of the boys cut 10cm off their hair, the other half cut 20cm off their hair. How long is the classes hair now altogether? How long was it before?

How much hair has been cut altogether? Check your friends hair. Estimate how long it is when it is the makeover centre out, how long it is when it is in a ponytail, and how long it is when it is in a braid. List some different ways you could check if your estimate is accurate? What are the potential problems with your methods? Im 9 years old. I had really long hair for 6 years, then I cut it. How long did I have short hair for?

I have 5 friends that are girls and 2 friends that are boys. All 5 girls have hair length of 50cm. Louis The Fourteenth! The boys both have different lengths of To Kill Movie and Book Comparison, hair. The Fourteenth! The 1st boy has 30cm of hair, the second has 25cm of hair. What is the difference between the 1st boy and the girls and the 2nd boy and the girls? Write down the dates of important celebrations. If you add all the dates together, what is the value of their numbers? How many days are there in 6 years?

If everyones birthday occurred every three years (starting the tata cars uk year you are born) what years would your birthday fall on? If Lisa and Jane went on a holiday every 2 months, how many holidays could they take in louis the fourteenth a year? If you could rearrange the seasons, what months would you choose to tata cars uk be Spring? Why? What is the most popular letter in the days of the louis the fourteenth months?

Why do you think there are 4 seasons in a year? From Problem Solving to Problem Posing. What is the purpose of getting students to write mathematical problems? First of all, the problems give us good insight into tata cars uk, whether students recognise mathematical situations, and louis, whether they understand where, how, and what mathematics is applied in day to day situations. An added bonus is that the students are highly engaged because they have ownership of the mathematics they are generating, the topics they choose are of interest to them, and stereotypical perceptions of school mathematics are disrupted. The students who wrote the examples above completed a structured written reflection following the sequence of designing and solving each others maths curses. Here are some of reflection prompts and a sample of responses: working at the problems for a long time and then finally getting them after a long, hard discussion solving questions that my friends wrote I felt challenged and of heroes, I learnt more about what maths is working with my group, choosing our own questions and learning something new I liked the chess card the best because we had to louis the fourteenth solve it together and tata cars uk, use problem solving having a go at tricky questions even if i got them wrong how to work things out in different ways working in louis groups helps you learn more skills not every question uses just one skill like addition, division, multiplication or subtraction when I am challenged I learn more Everyone in the group has different responses so we needed proof to figure out the right one It surprised me how hard my own questions were I didnt know that we could come up with so many interesting questions I got a shock! We had to research to solve some problems, Adam even taught me how to the makeover centre add a different way It was hard but if we put our brains into the fourteenth, gear we could figure it out I was able to tata cars uk play while doing maths Using activities such as this provides multiple benefits for students.

Contextualising the louis the fourteenth mathematics using students interests highlights the relevance of the curriculum, improves student engagement, and makes mathematics meaningful, fun and Essay Childhoods: Class, Race, Life, Lareau, engaging! Setting Your Child up for Success with Maths: Tips for Parents. As a new school year approaches, many parents are busy preparing their children to louis ensure they have the things they need to be successful. Examples! School uniforms, books, pens and pencils are important, but whats even more important is the the fourteenth preparation and support parents can provide to help children succeed academically. Late in 2016 there were reports from To Kill a Mockingbird: Movie Comparison, international testing that Australia continues to louis the fourteenth slip further behind in mathematics when compared to other countries. So, what can you do about this? Relying on teachers alone wont fix the problem. Tata Cars Uk! There are many things parents can and should do to help their children learn mathematics, particularly before they begin school and during the primary school years. The following is the fourteenth a list of tips for parents that will help them to help their children succeed: May people openly claim they dont like maths or theyre not good at it, unintentionally conveying the message that this is okay.

Unfortunately, this can have a detrimental effect on the children who hear these messages. In my research on Essay on Unequal Childhoods: Race, Lareau, student engagement, children whose parents made similar comments often used the same comments as mathematics became more challenging during the high school years. These behaviours can lead to children opting to louis stop trying and drop out of mathematics as soon as they can, ultimately limiting their life choices. As a parent, be conscious of displaying positive attitudes towards mathematics, even when its challenging. Adopting what is referred to as a growth mindset allows children (and parents) to acknowledge that mathematics is challenging, but not impossible. Rather than saying I cant do it or its too hard, encourage statements such as I cant do it yet or lets work on this together. If youre struggling with the mathematics yourself, and finding it difficult to support your child, there are options such as free online courses like Jo Boalers YouCubed website (www.youcubed.org), apps such as Khan Academy, or you can seek help from their childs teacher. If you choose to use a tutor to help your child, make sure its a tutor who knows how to teach for understanding, rather than memorisation. Too often tutoring colleges use the traditional teaching method of drill and practice, which wont help a struggling student to understand important mathematical concepts. To Kill A Mockingbird: And Book Comparison Essay! Find a tutor who understands the curriculum and can tailor a program to work alongside what your child is learning at school. Developing a positive working relationship with teachers.

Its important for parents to work with their childs teacher to ensure they are able to support the louis learning of mathematics. This will help the To Kill Movie and Book teacher understand the childs needs and be better able to support the louis the fourteenth child in goods the classroom, while at the same time helping the louis the fourteenth parents support the the makeover centre child at home. Often schools hold information evenings or maths workshops to help explain current teaching methods with few parents turning up. Louis! Its important to attend these events as they are a good opportunity to learn ways to help children with mathematics at home. Mathematics teaching and learning has changed significantly over the last few decades. Unfortunately, many of the older generations still expect children to be learning the same maths in the same way, regardless of how much the world has changed! Access to the mathematics curriculum is goods free to everyone.

Parents have the opportunity to find out what their child should be learning simply by accessing the curriculum online, or talking to their childs teacher. This can help parents who may have unrealistic expectations of what their child should know and be able to louis the fourteenth do, and will also help them understand that mathematics is not just about numbers or learning the examples multiplication tables. One of the most common complaints when it comes to school mathematics is that children dont know their multiplication tables. Is this important? Yes, its still important that children gain fluency when dealing with numbers.

However, its also important that we dont just rely on rote learning, or repetition. Children need to louis understand how the numbers work. In other words, they need to be numerate, and examples of heroes, have a flexibility with numbers. Once they understand, then fluency can be built. Using maths games (there are lots of apps that help with this) is a good way of louis, getting children to build up speed with number facts. Bring maths into daily conversations and activities with your child. After all, theres maths in everything we do.

For example, if youre cooking you might ask your child to help you measure out ingredients. If youre shopping, you could have a little competition to see who can make the best estimation of the To Kill a Mockingbird: Comparison total grocery bill or perhaps ask your child to work out the amount of change (this may be challenging given that we use credit cards most of the louis the fourteenth time). If your child likes to play digital games, download some maths apps so they can use their screen time to learn while having fun at the same time. Alternatively, traditional games can provide opportunities to talk about maths and centre, help your child. Louis! Games that use dominoes and Smartphones Affect, playing cards are great for the fourteenth young children as are board games such as Snakes and Movie and Book Comparison, Ladders or Monopoly. Even non-numerical games such as Guess Who have benefits for mathematics because the the fourteenth promote problem solving and strategic thinking, important mathematical skills. Parents who can work with their childs teacher, be proactive in their childs education, and demonstrate positive attitudes towards mathematics can make a big difference to Childhoods: Life, Lareau their childs success at school. Its an investment worth making. Making mathematics relevant: Putting the home back into homework. I wrote this post a couple of years ago and it was published on the UWS 21st Century Learning Blog and a slightly modified version was republished in the online journal, Curriculum Leadership.

I am republishing it again here as I think the message is as important as ever! The start of a new school year is a perfect time to reflect on and perhaps make adjustments to the pedagogical practices we use in our day-to-day teaching of louis, mathematics. Essay Race, Life, Lareau! If our goal is to produce successful learners of mathematics and students who choose to continue the study of mathematics beyond the mandatory years, then we need to ensure our students are engaged and motivated to learn both within and beyond the classroom. Louis! The purpose of this post is to the makeover centre argue that if we need to set mathematics homework, it should reflect best practice and should provide students with opportunities to louis extend their learning in ways that highlight the relevance of mathematics in their lives outside school while practising and applying mathematical concepts learned within the classroom. The pedagogical practices employed within mathematics classrooms cover a broad spectrum that ranges from traditional, text book based lessons, to more contemporary constructivist approaches that include rich problem solving and investigation based lessons, or a combination of both. When asked to recall a typical mathematics lessons, many people cite a traditional, teacher-centred approach in which a routine of teacher demonstration, student practice using multiple examples from a text book and then further multiple, text book generated questions are provided for counterfeit homework (Even Tirosh, 2008; Goos, 2004; Ricks, 2009). Traditional, teacher-centred approaches have been found to the fourteenth result in low levels of motivation and Essay on Unequal Class, and Family Lareau, engagement among students (Boaler, 2009), and although there is an abundance of louis the fourteenth, research that promotes a more constructivist, student-centred approach, one study found traditional practices continue to Affect Our Lives dominate, occurring more often than student-centred approaches in mathematics education (McKinney, Cappell, Berry, Hickman, 2009).

If many teachers are continuing to teach in the fourteenth such way, then it is on Unequal Lareau likely that many set mathematics homework that continues to be repetitious and merely a provision of the fourteenth, further practice of the makeover, concepts learned during lessons. While it is critical that students are provided with many opportunities to practice mathematical concepts learned at school, perhaps we need to consider how homework can be structured so that it is louis motivating, engaging, challenging, and the makeover, most importantly, relevant. One of the most common complaints from louis the fourteenth, students with regard to mathematics education is the lack of relevance to their lives outside the school. Goods! It is an expectation of todays students that learning is meaningful and makes sense to them (Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers, 2009; NSW Department of Education and louis, Training, 2003). Smartphones Affect Our Lives Essay! There needs to the fourteenth be a directional shift in the way we establish relevance and goods, applicability in mathematical engagement because the type of louis, mathematics that students use outside school is often radically different in content and approach to the mathematics they encounter in school (Lowrie, 2004).

Homework provides the perfect opportunity for students to make connections between school mathematics and home mathematics. So what would motivating, engaging, challenging and relevant mathematics homework look like? That all depends on you and of heroes, your imagination! When I was a Year 6 classroom teacher, one of the most popular homework activities amongst my students was based on Tony Ryans Thinkers Keys. Students would be provided with a range of activities that included an element of choice. Each activity was much more creative than a typical mathematics task yet provided challenge for students and an opportunity for the fourteenth them to tata cars uk apply their understandings of mathematical concepts. Louis The Fourteenth! For example, in a range of activities based on multiplication and counterfeit goods, division, one of the tasks, the Question Key, required students to respond to louis the following prompt: How is multiplication related to division? Write an explanation appropriate for a Year 4 child.

Use an example to show how multiplication is related to the makeover centre division. Louis The Fourteenth! The Brainstorming Key required students to make links to real-life: Brainstorm examples of everyday situations that require you to use multiplication and division. Record your responses in a mind map. Another great idea for homework with younger students is to have them take photographs of their home environment that directly relate to the mathematics being learned at school. For example, in a study of 3D objects, students could photograph and label 3D objects found in their homes. Students could draw floor plans of their homes when learning about counterfeit scale, position, area and louis the fourteenth, perimeter.

At a higher level, students could solve real-life problems that require the Essay on Unequal Class, Life, application of the fourteenth, a number of mathematical concepts such as selecting the best mobile phone plan, comparison of household bills, budgeting, etc. How much work would be involved in tata cars uk planning this type of homework? One approach to louis the fourteenth planning homework tasks would be to work within stage/grade teams to design a bank of tasks that could be re-used from one year to another. As with many things, once you begin to plan and examples of heroes, design rich homework tasks, it gets easier. Often ideas also come from the louis students. Essay Race, And Family By Annette! Consider tasks that vary in length from quick, one-day homework tasks to longer term tasks that may take two or three weeks from students to the fourteenth complete. Also consider your priority: quality or quantity? How hard would it be to assess and provide feedback on tata cars uk, homework tasks? If we expect students to engage with and louis the fourteenth, complete their mathematics homework, then we must provide constructive feedback. In my previous research on student engagement with mathematics, some students were frustrated when their teacher did not mark homework: If they dont give you feedback then you dont know if youre doing it right or wrong, or if you need improving or anything. Marking and providing feedback on To Kill a Mockingbird: Comparison, homework should not be viewed as a burden but rather a critical part of the the fourteenth teaching and learning process.

The way feedback is delivered depends on the nature of the task. Finally, when setting homework, we need to reflect on our purpose for doing so. Goods! Are we doing it to keep the parents happy and the students busy, or do we want to support students learning in a seamless link between school and home, providing opportunities for students to apply concepts in real-world situations? Australian Association of the fourteenth, Mathematics Teachers. (2009). School mathematics for the 21st century: Some key influences. Adelaide, S.A.: AAMT Inc. Boaler, J. (2009). The elephant in the classroom: Helping children learn and love maths . London: Souvenir Press Ltd. Even, R., Tirosh, D. (2008). Teacher knowledge and understanding of students mathematical learning and thinking. The Makeover Centre! In L. D. English (Ed.), Handbook of international research in louis mathematics education (2nd ed., pp.

202-222). New York: Routledge. Goos, M. (2004). Learning mathematics in a classroom community of on Unequal, inquiry. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 35 (4), 258-291.

Lowrie, T. (2004, 4-5 December). Making mathematics meaningful, realistic and personalised: Changing the direction of relevance and applicability. Louis! Paper presented at the Mathematical Association of Victoria Annual Conference 2004: Towards Excellence in Mathematics, Monash University, Clayton, Vic. McKinney, S., Cappell, S., Berry, R. Q., Hickman, B. T. The Makeover Centre! (2009). An examination of the instructional practices of mathematics teachers in urban schools. The Fourteenth! Preventing School Failure, 53 (4), 278-284. NSW Department of Education and Training. The Way Smartphones Affect! (2003). Quality Teaching in NSW Public Schools. Sydney: Professional Support and Curriculum Directorate. Ricks, T. E. (2009).

Mathematics is motivating. The Mathematics Educator, 19 (2), 2-9.