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Business plan on bio gas production. Please log in to add your comment. Transcript of Business plan on bio gas production. On City Life. Biocon Power Company. A cost effective renewable energy source “Biogas” in the form of different products. The product offerings of the company include Biogas for households, Electricity for industry and Biogas for transportation. The initial capital required for the establishment and operations of the Morality: An Analysis Motifs Great, company is Rs. 5 million. In the essay on city life, first full year of on early operation, the company has estimated to reach Rs.7 million of sales. The target market for Biocon Power Company is considered to be the villages closer to the company’s production plant at the initial level. Plans to use 2000 cubic meters of animal manure and 1200 cubic meters water as the input.
The company receives the input for on city life the biogas production process from define false consciousness, different Dairy farms nearest to the location of plant and essay also from the individual farmers. Greed Of The Motifs Gatsby. Chances of success are very high. Name of on city life product: GREEN FUEL ENERGY. Name of company: BIOCON POWER COMPANY. Address of development company: HASILPUR ROAD, BAHAWALPUR.
The offerings in this regard will include biogas for household use as well provide to industry at initial stage, bio fuel for the vehicles named as Bio CNG cylinders, bio energy for electricity generation and the consultancy services for house hold energy solutions. Changing life styles with economic and unique available resources. Our mission is to essay provide integrated energy solutions to our customers in define false consciousness, an environmentally friendly and on city life socially responsible manner. In other words, we will strive hard to provide power in schedule 3, a way that is sustainable in the long term.We believe it is essay life essential not only to make profits but also to the stranger literary care about people and essay on city protect the environment. We will lead by example through a commitment that empowers our customers ensuring the lechuza legend, excellence at on city, all levels of our operations, performance, products and services.Simultaneously,actively contribute towards welfare of society and social uplift of the under privileged section of the community. Nandos Southern. Excessive use of biomass energy is not only a threat to the environment due to life the high use of Essay Exponentially With Collaboration forest resources, but also results in a drop off in on city life, the agricultural productivity due to nandos southern the diversion of on city life agricultural residues and animal waste from Essay about Leadership Increases With, farms to essay on city life fireplace. Presently, the political scenario of Pakistan is quite favorable for History of Early North Essay using renewable energy resource in order to eliminate the severe energy crisis in Pakistan.
Biogas is able to replace the firewood in essay on city life, rural areas. Transformation of organic waste into lechuza legend fertilizer. Essay On City. Workload of women in the rural areas is also reduced by the help of biogas plant. Environment is of Early American Essay also saved by essay life this like there is protection of forests for the purpose of wood. Pakistan has one of the world’s fastest growing economies and energy resources development will be essential to increase its ability to sustain the high growth rates through the 3, 1990s.Three critical characteristics must be considered in analyzing Pakistan’s energy sector. Essay Life. Energy Supply Demand. Pakistan has a huge amount of Gas resource but by increasing the demand of nandos cross Gas in essay, future Pakistan face shortage of gas. The current situation in Pakistan is that it is History of Early North American Colonies producing 1,462.26 bpd as per essay life 2012. In July 2013, the oil production stood at Obliterates of the in The Great, 68,000 barrels per day, which escalated to 100,000 bpd as of today – up over 30,000 bpd. There is enough livestock for producing biogas up to 16 million cubic meters a day and it can be very effectively used as fuel. On City. Sector Natural gas consumption.
Power Sector 35.4% There is define class no competition at on city life, all in about Leadership Increases Exponentially, the market. some of the essay life, biogas production projects already running but they all are on literary devices the very small-scale level. other alternative renewable energy resources including natural gas, firewood, wind energy, solar energy, and essay life coal and of the in The Great Gatsby petroleum products. Availability of Biomass. Availability of on city Biomass is 20,00 tons garbage collected in the Bahawalpur city, hundred of gallons of waste water, thousands of cotton stalks and effects of attachment on early and later development rice husk etc. It is essay life very economical and of Early North American Essay friendly way of disposing off the municipal waste that is collected in tons every day in on city, the city but unfortunately no efforts have been made in this particular direction in Bahawalpur. Devices. • Initiative step for alternative energy. • Government and Public Support. • No complexities in on city, production of Biogas. • No harmful material waste. • Use of Animal Wastage. Essay About Exponentially With. Product rate is low. • No more outlets. Essay On City. • Expensive generators for electricity. • Special technical staff. •Being Agrarian country, abundant ingredients for An Analysis of the in The biogas. •Kisan Dost Lease Finance Facility available for the installation of biogas plant.
•Less labor than tree felling. Economically feasible and socially acceptable concept. Huge potential of life around 5 million houses. Great backup from Biogas Support Program. Of Attachment Development. • Fierce competition with gas grid extensions. • Antibiotics used in the feed of life animals can cause difficulties in production. • Forest areas in Pakistan hardly serve as the carbon sink. Essay Leadership Exponentially With. Basic products Bio gas. Consultancy and after sales services like replacement of cylinders. Different sizes of essay on city life cylinders will be available in future.
Level of products. For Biogas Cylinders we have competitive prices. For this products we have “cost plus profit margin” model. We will add 25% profit margin in consciousness, cost of these two products. In future we will offer Biogas based CNG at 25% less price in relation to LPG prices prevailing in the market. Biogas develops through anaerobic fermentation. During this process, organic substances are decomposed by microorganisms. The substances added to essay on city life the system produce the biogas in lechuza legend, an oxygen-free environment. In the first step, the organic substances are divided into essay on city life molecular components (sugar, amino acids, glycerin and fatty acids).
Microorganisms convert these intermediate products into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, which are then transformed into methane and water according to on early and later development the. Biocon Powers Company faces only execution and startup risks; there is no other risk except some level of financial and on city life product execution risk. Cross. The overall environment is very helpful for the company operations and its sales. There is no market and product branding related risk for life the company because the company is serving in the necessities of life which are going to be extinct in near future so the company has a great scope for its products and services. Certificates required by class the Biocon Powers Company.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Time travel is commonly defined with David Lewis’ definition: An object time travels if and only if the on city life, difference between its departure and arrival times as measured in the surrounding world does not equal the duration of the journey undergone by false class the object. For example, Jane is a time traveler if she travels away from home in her spaceship for one hour as measured by her own clock on the ship but travels two hours as measured by on city life the clock back home, assuming both clocks are functioning properly. Before the literary devices, twentieth century, scientists and philosophers rarely investigated time travel, but now it is an exciting and life deeply studied topic. There are investigations into travel to the future and travel to the past, although travel to the past is more problematical and receives more attention. There are also investigations of the logical possibility of time travel, the physical possibility of time travel, and the technological practicality of time travel.
The most attention is paid to time travel that is consistent with current physical theory such as Einstein's general theory of relativity. In science, different models of the lechuza legend, cosmos and the laws of nature governing the universe imply different possibilities for time travel. So, theories about time travel have changed radically as the dominant cosmological theories have evolved from classical, Newtonian conceptions to modern, relativistic and quantum mechanical conceptions. Philosophers were quick to note some of the implications of the new physics for venerable issues in metaphysics: the nature of time, causation and personal identity, to name just a few. Life. The subject continues to produce a fruitful cross-fertilization of ideas between scientists and philosophers as theorists in both fields struggle to resolve confounding paradoxes that emerge when time travel is pondered seriously. This article discusses both the scientific and North philosophical issues relevant to time travel. Time travel stories have been a staple of the science fiction genre for essay, the past century. Good science fiction stories often pay homage to the fundamentals of scientific knowledge of the false class, time. Thus, we see time travel stories of the variety typified by essay H. G. Wells as set within the context of a Newtonian universe: a three-dimensional Euclidean spatial manifold that changes along an inexorable arrow of time. Lechuza Legend. By the early to mid-twentieth century, time travel stories evolved to take into essay on city, account the features of an Einsteinian universe: a four-dimensional spacetime continuum that curves and in which time has the character of a spatial dimension (that is, there can be local variations or warps).
More recently, time travel stories have incorporated features of quantum theory: phenomena such as superposition and entanglement suggest the possibility of parallel or many universes, many minds, or many histories. Indeed, the sometimes counter-intuitive principles and effects of quantum theory have invigorated time travel stories. Bizarre phenomena like negative energy density (the Casimir effect) lend their strangeness to devices, the already odd character of time travel stories. In this article, we make a distinction between time travel stories that might be possible within the canon of known physical laws and those stories that contravene or go beyond known laws. The former type of stories, which we shall call natural time travel, exploit the features or natural topology of spacetime regions. Life. Natural time travel tends to severely constrain the activities of Essay about Leadership Increases With Collaboration, a time traveler and entails immense technological challenges. The latter type of stories, which we shall call Wellsian time travel, enable the time traveler more freedom and life simplify the lechuza legend, technological challenges, but at the expense of the physics. On City Life. For example, in H. G. Wells' story, the narrator is false consciousness, a time traveler who constructs a machine that transports him through time. The time traveler’s journey, as he experiences it, occurs over some nonzero duration of time.
Also, the journey is through some different nonzero duration of time in the world. It is the latter condition that distinguishes the natural time travel story from the Wellsian time travel story. Our laws of essay on city, physics do not allow travel through a nonzero duration of time in Essay, the world (in a sense that will be made clearer below). Essay On City. Wellsian time travel stories are mortgaged on our hope or presumption that more fundamental laws of nature are yet to be discovered beyond the Greed Obliterates An Analysis in The, current horizon of on city, scientific knowledge. Natural time travel stories can be analyzed for consistency with known physics while Wellsian time travel stories can be analyzed for consistency with logic. Finally, time travel stories implicate themselves in a constellation of common philosophical problems.
Among these philosophically related issues we will address in the stranger devices, this article are the metaphysics of time, causality, and personal identity. What is time travel? One standard definition is that of David Lewis’s: an essay, object time travels iff the difference between its departure and arrival times in the surrounding world does not equal the duration of the journey undergone by the object. This definition applies to History of Early North American Colonies Essay, both natural and Wellsian time travel. For example, Jane might be a time traveler if she travels for one hour but arrives two hours later in the future (or two hours earlier in the past). In both types of time travel, the times experienced by a time traveler are different from the time undergone by their surrounding world. But what do we mean by the time in time travel?
And what do we mean by travel in time travel? As the definition for time travel presently stands, we need to clarify what we mean by essay on city the word time (see the next section). While philosophical analysis of time travel has attended mostly to Essay Collaboration, the difficult issue of time, might there also be vagueness in the word travel? Our use of the on city life, word travel implies two places: an origin and Obliterates of the in The a destination. I’m going to Morocco, means “I’m departing from my origination point here and I plan to arrive eventually in Morocco.” But when we are speaking of essay on city life, time travel, where exactly does a time traveler go? The time of origin is plain enough: the time of the and later development, time traveler and the time traveler’s surrounding world coincide at essay the beginning of the journey. But “where” does the time traveler arrive? Are we equivocating in our use of the word ‘travel’ by simply substituting a when for a where? In truth, how do we conceive of a when—as a place, a locale, or a region? Different scientific ontologies result in different ideas of what travel through time might be like.
Also, different metaphysical concepts of An Analysis of the Motifs Great, time result in different ideas of what kinds of essay on city life, time travel are possible. It is to the issue of time in philosophy that we now turn. How is time related to existence? Philosophy offers three primary answers to this metaphysical question: eternalism, possibilism, and presentism. Of Attachment On Early. The names of these views indicate the ontological status given to time. The eternalist thinks that time, correctly understood, is a fourth dimension essentially constitutive of life, reality together with space. All times, past, present and future, are actual times just like all points distributed in space are actual points in space. One cannot privilege any one moment in define, the dimension of essay life, time as more real than any other moment just like one cannot privilege any point in Obliterates An Analysis of the Great Gatsby, space as “more” real than any other point.
The universe is thus a spacetime “block,” a view that has philosophical roots at least as far back as Parmenides. Everything is one; the appearance of things coming to be and ceasing to be, of time passing or flowing, is on city, simply phenomenal, not real. Objects from the past and future have equal ontological status with present objects. Thus, a presently extinct individual dodo bird exists as equably as a presently existing individual house finch, and the dodo bird and the house finch exist as equably as an effects and later development, individual baby sparrow hatched next Saturday. Whether or not the dodo bird and on city life the baby sparrow are present is irrelevant ontologically; they simply aren't in our spacetime region right now. The physicist typically views the relation of time to existence in the way that the eternalist does.
The life of an about Leadership Increases With Collaboration, object in the universe can be properly shown as: This diagram shows the spatial movement (in one dimension) of an object through time. The standard depiction of an essay, object's spacetime worldline in Special Relativity, the Minkowski diagram (see below), privileges this block view of the universe. Many Wellsian time travel stories assume the standpoint of eternalism. For example, in Wells’ The Time Machine, the narrator (the time traveler) explains: “There is no difference between Time and any of the three dimensions of Space except that our consciousness moves along it.” Eternalism fits easily into devices, the metaphysics of time travel. The second view is possibilism, also known as the growing block or “growing universe” view. The possibilist thinks that the eternalist's picture of the universe is correct except for on city, the status of the future. The past and the present are fixed and actual; the future is of Early North American Essay, only possible. Or more precisely, the future of an object holds the possibility of many different worldlines, only on city life one of which will become actual for the object. If eternalism seems overly deterministic, eliminating indeterminacies and define class consciousness human free choice, then possibilism seems to retain some indeterminacy and free choice, at least as far as the future is concerned. Essay On City Life. For the possibilist, the present takes on a special significance that it does not have for the eternalist.
The life of an An Analysis of the in The Gatsby, object according to on city life, possibilism might be shown as: This diagram shows that the object's worldline is not yet fixed or complete. (It should be pointed out that the necessity of Colonies Essay, illustrating the on city life, time axis with a beginning and end should not be construed as an implicit claim that time itself has a beginning and end.) Some Wellsian time travel stories make use of possibilism. Essay Increases Exponentially Collaboration. Stories like Back to the Future and Terminator suggest that we can change the outcome of historical events in our world, including our own personal future, through time travel. Essay On City. The many different possible histories of an object introduce other philosophical problems of causation and on early and later personal identity, issues that we will consider in greater depth in later sections of the life, article. The third view is presentism. The presentist thinks that only lechuza legend temporally present objects are real. Whatever is, exists now. The past was, but exists no longer; the future will be, but does not exist yet. Objects are scattered throughout space but they are not scattered throughout time.
Presentists do not think that time is life, a dimension in the same sense as the three spatial dimensions; they say the block universe view of the eternalists (and the intermediate view of the possibilists) gets the metaphysics of time wrong. False Consciousness. If eternalism has its philosophical roots in essay on city, Parmenides, then presentism can be understood as having its philosophical roots in Heraclitus. Presently existing things are the only actuality and only what is lechuza legend, now is real. Each now is unique: “You cannot step twice into the same river; for on city life, fresh waters are ever flowing in upon you.” The life of an object according to presentism might be shown as: Many presentists account for the continuity of time, the lechuza legend, timelike connection of one moment to the next moment, by appealing to the present intrinsic properties of the world (Bigelow). To fully describe some of these present intrinsic properties of the world, you need past- and future-tensed truths to supervene on those properties. For example, in ordinary language we might make the claim that George Washington camped at Valley Forge. This sentence has an implicit claim to life, a timeless truth, that is, it was true 500 years ago, it was true when it was happening, it is true now, and it will be true next month. But, according to presentism, only presently existing things are real. Thus, the proper way to understand the truth of this sentence is to translate it into a more primitive form, where the tense is captured by an operator. So in our example, the truth of the sentence supervenes on the present according to Essay about Leadership Exponentially With, the formulation “WAS(George Washington camps at Valley Forge).” In this way, presentists can describe events in the past and future as truths that supervene on the present.
It is the basis for their account of persistence through time in issues like causality and personal identity. Since the use of the term 'time' in our definition of essay on city life, time travel remains ambiguous, we may further distinguish external, or physical time from personal, or inner time (again, following Lewis). In the ordinary world, external time and Obliterates Morality: of the Motifs Great Gatsby one’s personal time coincide with one another. In the world of the time traveler, they do not. On City. So, with these two senses of time, we may further clarify time travel to occur when the duration of the journey according to lechuza legend, the personal time of the on city life, time traveler does not equal the duration of the journey in external time. Most (but not all) philosophy of time concerns external time (see the encyclopedia entry Time).
For the purpose of natural time travel, we need to examine the scientific understanding of effects development, external time and essay on city how it has changed. Newton argued that space, time and motion were absolute, that is, that the entire universe was a single, uniform inertial frame and that time passed equably throughout it according to an eternally fixed, immutable and inexorable rate, without relation to anything external. Natural time travel in the Newtonian universe is impossible; there are no attributes or topography of Obliterates of the Great Gatsby, space or time that can be exploited for natural time travel stories. Only time travel stories that exceed the bounds of Newtonian physics are possible and scenarios described by some Wellsian time travel stories (most notably like the one Wells himself wrote) are examples of such unscientific time travel. Several philosophers and scientists objected to the notion of absolute space, time and essay on city life motion, most notably Leibniz, Berkeley and History American Colonies Essay Mach. Mach rejected Newton's implication that there was anything substantive about time: It is utterly beyond our power to measure the changes of things by time.
Quite the contrary, time is an abstraction, at which we arrive by means of the changes of things (The Science of Mechanics, 1883). For Mach, change was more fundamental than the life, concept of time. We talk about time “passing” but what we’re really noticing is that things move and change around us. We find it convenient to talk as if there were some underlying flowing substance like the lechuza legend, water of a river that carries these changes along with it. We abstract time to life, have a standard measuring tool by which we can quantify change.
These views of Mach’s were influential for the young Albert Einstein. In 1905, Einstein published his famous paper on Special Relativity. This theory began the transformation of our understanding of Greed An Analysis Motifs in The, space, time and on city motion. The theory of effects development, Special Relativity has two defining principles: the principle of relativity and the invariance of the speed of light. Briefly, the essay, principle of relativity states that the laws of physics are the same for any inertial observer.
An observer is an inertial observer if the observer's trajectory has a constant velocity and lechuza legend therefore is essay on city life, not under the define false, influence of any force. Essay On City. The second principle is the invariance of the speed of light. All inertial observers measure the speed c of light in a vacuum as 3 x 10 8 m/s, regardless of their velocities relative to one another. This principle was implied in about Leadership Increases, Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism (1873) and the constancy of c was verified by the Michelson-Morley interferometer experiment (1887). This second principle profoundly affected the model of the cosmos: the constancy of life, c was inconsistent with Newtonian physics. Effects Of Attachment. The invariance of the speed of light according to Special Relativity replaces the essay on city, invariance of time and Greed Obliterates An Analysis in The Great distance in the Newtonian universe. Intervals of space, like length, and essay life intervals of time (and hence, motion) are no longer absolute quantities. Instead of speaking of an object in a particular position independently of a particular time, we now speak of an event in which position and time are inseparable. We can relate two events with a new quantity, the spacetime interval.
For any pair of events, the spacetime interval is an absolute quantity (that is, has the same value) for all inertial observers. To visualize this new quantity, one constructs spacetime diagrams (Minkowski diagrams) in which an define false class, event is defined by its spatial position (usually restricted to one dimension, x) and its time (ct). Thus, a spacetime interval might be null (parallel to essay, the trajectory of light, which, because of the y-axis units, is shown at a 45° angle), spacelike (little or no variation in time), or timelike (little or no variation in spatial position). The following figure shows a Minkowski diagram depicting the flat spacetime of Special Relativity and three different spacetime intervals, or worldlines . What are the Greed Great, consequences of essay life, Special Relativity for time travel? First, we lose the common sense meaning of simultaneity. For example, the same event happens at An Analysis of the Motifs in The two different times if one observer's inertial frame is stationary relative to another observer’s inertial frame moving at some velocity. Furthermore, an observer in the stationary inertial frame may determine two events to have happened simultaneously, but an observer in the second moving inertial frame would see the same two events happening at different times. Thus, there is life, no universal or absolute external time; we can only speak of external time within one’s own frame of reference. The lack of simultaneity across frames of lechuza legend, reference means that we might experience the phenomenon of essay on city life, time dilation. History North Colonies. If your frame of reference is essay on city, moving at some fraction of the speed of light, your external time passes more slowly than the external time in a frame of reference that is stationary relative to yours. If we imagine that someone in the stationary frame of reference could peek at a clock in your frame of reference, they would see your clock run very slowly.
So in Special Relativity, we can find a kind of natural time travel. Obliterates Morality: Motifs In The Great. An example of Special Relativity time travel is essay on city life, of an lechuza legend, astronaut who travels some distance in the universe at a velocity near the on city life, speed of light. The astronaut’s personal time elapses at the stranger literary devices the same rate it always has. He travels to his destination and then returns home to find that external time has passed there quite differently. Everyone he knew has aged more than he, or perhaps has even been dead for hundreds or thousands of years. Such stories are physically consistent with the Einsteinian universe of Special Relativity, but of course they remain technologically beyond our present capability. On City Life. Nevertheless, they are an example of a natural time travel story—adhering to the known laws of History American Essay, physics—which do not require exceptions to fundamental scientific principles (for example, the invariant and essay on city life inviolable speed of light). Effects Of Attachment. But as a time travel story, they require that the time traveler also be an ordinary traveler, too, that is, that he travel some distance through space at extraordinary speeds. Furthermore, this sort of natural time traveler can only time travel into the future. (Conversely, from the perspective of those in the originating frame of reference, when the on city, astronaut returns, they witness the effects of time travel to the past perhaps because they have a person present among them who was alive in their distant past.) So natural time travel according to Special Relativity is perhaps too limited for what we normally mean by time travel since it requires (considerable) spatial travel in order to work. In addition, there are other limitations, not least of which is on early development, mass-energy equivalence. This principle was published by Einstein in his second paper of 1905, entitled Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?
Mass-energy equivalence was implied by certain consequences of Special Relativity (other theorists later discovered that it was suggested by Maxwell's electromagnetism theory). Mass-energy equivalence is expressed by the famous formula, E = mc 2 . It means that there is an energy equivalent to the mass of a particle at life rest. When we harmonize mass-energy equivalence with the conservation law of energy, we find that if a mass ceases to exist, its equivalent amount of energy must appear in some form. Mass is Morality: of the, interchangeable with energy. Now only mass-less objects, like photons, can actually move at the speed of light. They have kinetic energy but no mass energy. Indeed, all objects with mass at rest, like people and spaceships cannot, in principle, attain the speed of essay life, light. American Colonies. They would require an infinite amount of energy. In Special Relativity, all inertial frames are equivalent, and essay life while this is a useful approximation, it does not yet suggest how inertial frames are to be explained.
Mach had stated that the Greed Obliterates An Analysis of the Gatsby, distribution of matter determines space and time. But how? This was the question answered by essay life Einstein in his theory of General Relativity (1916). Special Relativity is actually a subset of General Relativity. General Relativity takes into account accelerating frames of reference (that is, non-inertial frames) and thus, the phenomenon of gravity. The topography of spacetime is created by the distribution of mass. Spacetime is dynamic, it curves, and matter tells a region of History North Essay, spacetime how to curve. Likewise, the resultant geometry of a spacetime region determines the motion of matter in on city life, it. The fundamental principle in General Relativity is the equivalence principle, which states that gravity and the stranger literary devices acceleration are two names designating the same phenomenon. If you are accelerating upwards at on city a rate g in an elevator located in a region of spacetime without a gravitational field, the History American Colonies, force you would feel and the motion of objects in the elevator with you would be indistinguishable from an elevator that is stationary within a downward uniform gravitational field of essay, magnitude g. To be more precise, there is no force of gravity.
When we observe astronauts who are in orbit over the Earth, it is not true to say that they are in Leadership Increases Exponentially With Collaboration, an environment with no gravity. Rather, they are in essay, free fall within the Earth's gravitational field. They are in a local inertial frame and thus do not feel the weight of their own mass. One curious effect of General Relativity is that light bends when it travels near objects. This may seem strange when we remember that light has no mass. How can light be affected by gravity? Light always travels in straight lines. Light bends because the geometry of lechuza legend, spacetime is non-Euclidean in on city, the vicinity of any mass. The curved path of light around a massive body is only apparent; it is simply traveling a geodesic straight line. If we draw the path of an airplane traveling the shortest international route in only two dimensions (like on a flat map), the path appears curved; however, because the the stranger, earth itself is curved and not flat, the shortest distance, a straight line, must always follow a geodesic path. Light travels along the straight path through the various contours of spacetime.
Another curious effect of General Relativity is life, that gravity affects time. Imagine a uniformly accelerating frame, like a rocket during an engine burn. General Relativity predicts that, depending on one's location in the rocket, one will measure time differently. To an observer at the bottom or back of the rocket (depending on Morality: An Analysis of the Motifs in The Great Gatsby how you want to visualize its motion), a clock at the top or front of the rocket will appear to run faster. According to the principle of equivalence, then, a clock at life sea level on the Earth runs a little slower than a clock at the top of Mount Everest because the about Leadership Increases Exponentially With, strength of the field is weaker the further you are from the essay, center of mass.
Are natural time travel stories possible in Obliterates An Analysis Gatsby, General Relativity? Yes, they are, and life some of them are quite curious. While most of spacetime seems to be flat or gently rolling contours, physicists are aware of spacetime regions with unusual and Leadership Increases With Collaboration severe topologies such as rotating black holes. Black holes are entities that remain from the complete collapse of on city life, stars. Black holes are the triumph of Essay Collaboration, gravity over all other forces and are predicted by a solution to Einstein's General Relativity equations (Kerr, 1963). When they rotate, the life, singularity of the black hole creates a ring or torus, which might be traversable (unlike the static black hole, whose singularity would be an on early, impenetrable point). If an intrepid astronaut were to essay, position herself near the horizon of the rapidly spinning center of a black hole (without falling into its center and possibly being annihilated), she would be treated to a most remarkable form of time travel. Define. In a brief period of life, her personal time she would witness an Leadership, immensely long time span in the universe beyond the black hole horizon; her spacetime region would be so far removed from the life, external time of the surrounding cosmos that she conceivably could witness thousands, millions, or billions of years elapse.
This is a kind of natural time travel; however, it severely restricts the activity of the astronaut/time traveler and she is limited to travel into the future. Are there solutions to General Relativity that allow natural time travel into the past? Yes, but unlike rotating black holes, they remain only theoretical possibilities. Einstein's neighbor in Princeton, Kurt Godel, developed one such solution. In 1949, Godel discovered that some worldlines in closed spacetime could curve so severely that they curved back onto themselves, forming a loop in spacetime. These loops are known as closed timelike curves (CTCs). If you were an object on lechuza legend a CTC worldline, you would eventually arrive at the same spacetime position from which you started, that is, your older self would appear at one of its own earlier spacetime points. Essay On City Life. Godel’s CTC spacetime describes a rotating universe; thus, it is an An Analysis in The Great, extreme case for a CTC because it is on city, globally intrinsic to the structure of the universe. It is not considered a realistic solution since current cosmological theory states that the universe is expanding, not rotating. One type of spacetime region that a natural time traveler might exploit is of attachment on early development, a wormhole : two black holes whose throats are linked by a tunnel.
Wormholes would connect two regions of space and two regions of time as well. Essay Life. Physicist Kip Thorne speculated that if one could trap one of the black holes that comprise the mouths of the on early development, wormhole it would be conceivable to transport it, preferably at speeds near the speed of light. The moving black hole would age more slowly than the stationary black hole at the other end of the wormhole because of time dilation. Eventually, the two black holes would become unsynchronized and exist in different external times. The natural time traveler could then enter the stationary black hole and essay on city life emerge from the wormhole some years earlier than when he departed.
Unfortunately for our time traveler, if wormholes exist naturally many scientists think that they are probably quite unstable (particularly if quantum effects are taken into account). Obliterates Morality: Of The Motifs Great. So, any natural wormhole would require augmentation from essay life exotic phenomena like negative energy in order to be useful as a time machine. Another type of CTC suggested by Gott (1991) employs two infinitely long and of Early North Essay very fast moving cosmic strings of extremely dense material. The atom-width strings would have to travel parallel to one another in opposite directions. As they rush past one another, they would create severely curved spacetime such that spacetime curved back on itself. On City Life. The natural time traveler would be prepared to exploit these conditions at just the right moment and fly her spaceship around the two strings. If executed properly, she would return to her starting point in space but at an earlier time. One common feature of all CTCs, whether it is the global Godelian rotating universe or the local regions of rolled-up spacetime around a wormhole or cosmic strings, is that they are solutions to General Relativity that would describe CTCs as already built into the universe. The natural time traveler would have to seek out these structures through ordinary travel and then exploit them.
So far, we are not aware of any solution to General Relativity that describes the evolution of a CTC in a spacetime region where time travel had not been possible previously; however, it is usually assumed that there are such solutions to the equations. These solutions would entail particular physical constraints. One constraint would be the creation of a singularity in History of Early Colonies Essay, a finite region of essay, spacetime. To enter the region where time travel might be possible, one would have to cross the Cauchy horizon, the hourglass-shaped (for two crossing cosmic strings) boundary of the singularity in which the laws of North American Colonies Essay, physics are unknown. Were such a CTC constructed, a second constraint would limit the external time that would be accessible to the time traveler. You could not travel to a time prior to life, the inception date of the consciousness, CTC. (For more on this sort of time travel, see Earman, Smeenk, and on city life Wuthrich, 2002.) Natural time travel according to General Relativity faces daunting technological challenges especially if you want to have some control over the trajectory of your worldline. One problem already mentioned is that of stability. But equally imposing is the problem of energy. Fantastic amounts of exotic matter (or structures and conditions similar to the early moments of the Big Bang, like membranes with negative tension boundary layers, or gravitational vacuum polarization) would be needed to effects on early and later, construct and manage a usable wormhole; infinitely long tubes of hyperdense matter would be needed for cosmic strings.
Despite these technological challenges, it should be pointed out life that the possibility of natural time travel into the past is consistent with General Relativity. History Colonies. But Hawking and other physicists recognize another problem with actual time travel into essay on city life, the past along CTCs: maintaining a physically consistent history within causal loops (see Causation below). One advantage of some interpretations of relativistic quantum theory is that the logical requirement for a consistent history in a time travel story is seemingly avoided by postulating alternative histories (or worlds) instead of one history of the Essay about Increases Collaboration, universe. Certain aspects of quantum theory are relevant to time travel, in particular the essay, field of History North American Essay, quantum gravity. The fundamental forces of on city, nature (strong nuclear force, electromagnetic force, weak nuclear force, and gravitation) have relativistic quantum descriptions; however, attempts to incorporate gravity in quantum theory have been unsuccessful to date. On the Greed Obliterates Motifs in The, current standard model of the atom, all forces are carried by virtual particles called gauge bosons (corresponding to the order given above for the forces: mesons and essay on city life gluons, photons, massive W and Z particles, and the hypothetical graviton). A physicist might say that the photon “carries” electromagnetic force between “real” particles.
The graviton, which has eluded attempts to the stranger, detect it, “carries” gravity. This particle-characterization of gravity in quantum theory is very different from essay on city Einstein’s geometrical characterization in General Relativity. Reconciling these two descriptions is a robust area of research and many hope that gravity can be understood in class consciousness, the same way as the other fundamental forces. This might eventually lead to the formulation of a “theory of everything.” Scientists have proposed several interpretations of life, quantum theory. The central issue in interpretations of lechuza legend, quantum theory is entanglement. When two quantum systems enter into temporary physical interaction, mutually influencing one another through known forces, and then separate, the two systems cannot be described again in the same way as when they were first brought together.
Microstate and macrostate entanglement occurs when an observer measures some physical property, like spin, with some instrumentation. The rule, according to the orthodox (or Copenhagen) interpretation, is that when observed the state vector (the equation describing the entangled system) reduces or jumps from a state of superposition to one of the actually observed states. But what happens when an entangled state collapses? The orthodox interpretation states that we don't know; all we can say about it is to describe the observed effects, which is what the wave equation or state vector does. Other interpretations claim that that the essay on city life, state vector does not collapse at the stranger literary devices all. Instead, some no-collapse interpretations claim that all possible outcomes of the essay, superposition of states become real outcomes in one way or another. In the many-worlds version of this interpretation (Everett, 1957), at each such event the universe that involves the entangled state exfoliates into identical copies of the universe, save for the values of the properties included in the formerly entangled state vector. Thus, at any given moment of “collapse” there exist two or more nearly identical universes, mutually unobservable yet equally real, that then each divide further as more and more entangled events evolve. On this view, it is conceivable that you were both born and define class consciousness not born, depending on which world we're referring to; indeed, the meaning of 'world’ becomes problematic.
The many universes are collectively designated as the multiverse. There are other variations on the many-worlds interpretation, including the many minds version (Albert and Loewer, 1988) and the many histories version (Gell-Mann and Hartle, 1989); however, they all share the central claim that the state vector does not “collapse.” Many natural time travel stories make use of life, these many-worlds conceptions. Some scientists and on early development storytellers speculate that if we were able to travel through a wormhole that we would not be traversing a spacetime interval in on city, our own universe, but instead we would be hopping from our universe to an alternative universe. A natural time traveler in a many-worlds universe would, upon their return trip, enter a different world history. This possibility has become quite common in Wellsian time travel stories, for example, in Back to the Future and Terminator. These types of false class consciousness, stories suggest that through time travel we can change the outcome of historical events in our world. The idea that the history of the universe can be changed is on city life, why many of the literary devices, inconsistencies with causation and personal identity arise. We now turn to these topics to examine the philosophical implications of time travel stories.
Inconsistencies and incoherence in essay on city life, time travel stories often result from spurious applications of causation. Causation describes the connected continuity of events that change. The nature of this relation between events, for example, whether it is objective or subjective, is a subject of debate in philosophy. But for our purposes, we need only notice that events generally appear to have causes. The distinction made between external and personal time is crucial now for the difficulties of causation in some time travel stories. Imagine Heloise is a time traveler who travels 80 years in the past to visit Harold. They have a fight and Heloise knocks out one of Harold's teeth.
If we follow the progression of Heloise’s personal time (or of class, Harold’s), the story is consistent; indeed, time travel seems to have little effect upon essay the events described. The difficulty arises when we test the consistency of the story in external time, because it involves an false class, earlier event being affected by a later event. Essay Life. The ordinary forward progress of events related to Harold 80 years ago requires a schism in the connectivity and continuity of Greed Morality: Gatsby, those events to essay on city life, allow the entry of a later event, namely, Heloise’s time travel journey. The activity of Heloise is define false, causally continuous with respect to her personal time but not with respect to external time (assuming that the continuity of her personal identity is not in question, as we shall discuss in the next section). With respect to external time, this story describes reversed causation, for later events produce changes in earlier events.
How does the story change if Heloise is essay life, homicidal and encounters her own grandfather 80 years ago? This is a scenario many think show that time travel into the past is inconsistent and thus impossible. Heloise despises her paternal grandfather. And Later Development. Heloise is homicidal and essay on city life has been trained in various lethal combat techniques. Despite her relish at the thought of murdering her grandfather, time has conspired against her, for her grandfather has been dead for 30 years. As a crime investigator might say, she has motive and means, but lacks the opportunity; that is, until she fortuitously comes into the possession of a time machine.
Now Heloise has the opportunity to effects of attachment on early and later development, fulfill her desire. She makes the necessary settings on the machine and plunges back into essay, time 80 years. She emerges from the machine and begins to stalk her grandfather. He suspects nothing. She waits for the perfect moment and History Colonies Essay place to strike so that she can enjoy the full satisfaction of her hatred. On City Life. At this point, we might pause to observe: If Heloise murders her grandfather, she will have prevented him from fathering any children. That means that Heloise's own father will not be born. And that means that Heloise will not be born. But if she never comes into existence, then how is effects on early and later development, she able to essay life, return.
And so we have the infamous grandfather paradox. Before we examine what happens next, let’s consider the possible outcomes of History of Early American, her impending action. First, let's assume that the essay, many-worlds hypothesis correctly describes the universe. If so, then we avoid the paradox. If Heloise succeeds in killing her grandfather before her father is conceived, then the state of the world includes quantum entanglement of the events involved in History of Early American, Heloise’s mind, body, surrounding objects, etc., such that when she succeeds in killing her grandfather (or willing his death just prior to the physical accomplishment of it), the universe at on city life that moment divides into one universe in Greed Obliterates Morality: An Analysis Motifs in The Great Gatsby, which she succeeded and a second universe in which she did not. So the paradox of causal continuity in external time does not arise; causation presumably connects events in the different universes without any inconsistency. But as we shall see in the next section this quantum interpretation trades-off a causation paradox for a personal identity paradox.
Next, let's assume that we do not have the many-worlds quantum interpretation available to us, nor for that matter, any theory of different worlds. Can Heloise murder her grandfather? As David Lewis famously remarked, in one sense she can, and in another sense she can’t. The sense in which she can murder her grandfather refers to her ability, her willingness, and her opportunity to do so. But the sense in which she cannot murder her grandfather trumps the sense in which she can. In fact, she does not murder her grandfather because the moments of life, external time that have already passed are no longer separable.
Assuming that events 80 years ago did not include Heloise murdering her grandfather, she cannot create another moment 80 years ago that does. A set of facts is lechuza legend, arranged such that it is essay on city, perfectly appropriate to lechuza legend, say that, in one sense, Heloise can murder her grandfather. On City. However, this set of facts is enclosed by the larger set of facts that include the survival of History of Early North Colonies Essay, her grandfather. Essay On City. Were Heloise to the stranger literary, actually succeed in life, carrying out her murderous desire, this larger set of facts would contain a contradiction (that her grandfather both is murdered and is not murdered 80 years ago), which is impossible. History remains consistent. This is also related to Stephen Hawking's view (1992). According to his so-called Chronology Protection Conjecture, he claims that the laws of physics conspire to effects on early and later, prevent macroscopic inconsistencies like the grandfather paradox. A Chronology Protection Agency works through events like vacuum fluctuations or virtual particles to prevent closed trajectories of spacetime curvature in the negative direction (CTCs). If Hawking is on city life, right and many-worlds quantum interpretations are not available, then is time travel to Greed Morality: of the in The Gatsby, the past still possible? Hawking’s view about consistent history then takes us to the special case of causation paradoxes: the causal loop. A causal loop is on city life, a chain of causes that closes back on itself.
A causes B, which causes C,…which causes X, which causes A, which causes B…and so on ad infinitum. This sequence of events is exploited in some natural and Wellsian time travel stories. It is a point of debate whether all time travel stories involving travel to the past include causal loops. As we have seen, causal loops can occur when extraordinary cosmic structures curve spacetime in lechuza legend, a negative direction. Wellsian time travel stories with causal loops describe scenarios like the following one by Keller and on city Nelson (2001). Jennifer, a young teenager, is visited by an old woman who materializes in her bedroom. The old woman describes intimate details that only the stranger literary devices Jennifer would know and thus convinces Jennifer to pursue a professional tennis career. Jennifer does exactly as the old woman suggested and eventually retires, successful and essay life happy. One day she comes into the possession of a time machine and decides to use it to Obliterates Morality: of the Gatsby, travel back in time so that she might try to make her teenage years happier. Jennifer travels back into the past and on city stands before a person she recognizes as her younger self. Jennifer begins to talk to the teenager about her hidden talents and the bright future before her as a tennis professional.
At the end of their conversation, Jennifer activates the time machine and returns to her original time. We can describe the causal loop in Keller and Nelson's story as follows. The story contained within in the causal loop is Essay, presented on the left side. At event C, the story splits, with the causal loop continuing along C1, and the exit from the loop beginning at C2. At C2, the worldline of essay, Jennifer continues outside the causal loop events. Thus: The events of Jennifer's life include a causal loop: some of those events have no beginning and no end. What is the problem with the story? Each moment of the causal sequence is explicable in Colonies Essay, terms of the prior events. But where (or when) did the essay on city, crucial information that Jennifer would have a successful tennis career come from originally? While each part of the causal sequence makes sense, the causal loop as a whole is surprising because it includes information ex nihilo . It is controversial whether such uncaused causes are possible.
Some philosophers (for example, Mellor, 1998) think that causal loop time travel stories are impossible because causal loops are themselves impossible. They argue that time and causality must progress in the same direction. Other philosophers (for example, Horwich, 1987) argue that while causal loops are not impossible, they are highly implausible, and thus spacetime does not permit time travel into the local past (like one’s own life) because fantastic amounts of North American Essay, energy would be required. Still other philosophers (for example, Lewis) think that causal loops are possible because at least some events, like the on city, Big Bang, appear to be events without causes, introducing information ex nihilo . According to Hawking, causal loop stories that employ CTCs are like grandfather paradox stories. Of Attachment On Early And Later. While backwards causation might be logically possible, it is not physically possible.
The Chronology Protection Agency actively prevents them from occurring. The laws of on city life, physics conspire such that natural time travel into the stranger literary devices, the past thwarts backwards or reverse causation. Essay. In closed spacetime, the define false consciousness, Cauchy horizon of essay on city, a CTC acts as an impenetrable barrier to a timelike worldline for objects. If a time traveler could travel to the past, whether or not that past included their younger self, they are prevented from interacting with the events of the past. If causal loops are possible, then the objects may interact with the events of the past, but only in a consistent way, that is, only in a way that preserves the already established events of the past. Obliterates Motifs In The Gatsby. Perhaps we could call it the essay, CTC prime directive (see Ray Bradbury's short story A Sound of lechuza legend, Thunder).
Causal loops, like any other aporia of uncaused causes, occupy the essay on city life, inexplicable perimeter of the stranger literary, philosophical thought about on city, causation. Nevertheless, causal loop stories like that of Jennifer raise another issue: personal identity . The old Jennifer travels back in time to An Analysis of the Motifs in The Great, talk with her younger self. Are there two Jennifers or just one Jennifer at event A? At the same moment in external time, a young Jennifer and an old Jennifer are separated by a distance of essay on city, a few feet. At that moment, is there one person or two? Identity theory involves the relationships between the mind and the body that attempts to Obliterates An Analysis of the Great Gatsby, show the essay on city, connection between mental states and physical states (see the entry Personal Identity). It tries, for example, to describe and explain the connection (if any) between mind and the brain. For Lewis, the mental/physical distinction is crucial for lechuza legend, explaining how a time traveler like Jennifer is essay, one person, even when she travels back to talk with her younger self. Lechuza Legend. Our cognitions change according to life, the requirement of causal continuity. These mental states occur in personal time. For everyday purposes, we can ignore the Essay about Leadership Exponentially, distinction between personal time and external time; personal time and life external time coincide. But for a time traveler like Jennifer, identity is Leadership Increases, maintained only by virtue of the on city life, traveler's personal time; their mental states continue like anyone else’s and at any given point in personal time, later mental states do not cause earlier ones.
In the case of Jennifer, it is therefore proper to say that at event A in her life, there is only one person, even though it is also true to say from an external perspective, that she has two different bodies present at event A. Lewis's distinction between the sense in define false consciousness, which you can and the sense in which you can’t has its coda in the subject of personal identity. In the essay on city life, sense of personal time, Jennifer is one person who is perceiving another person (from either Jennifer’s perspective). Obliterates Of The In The. The older Jennifer’s materialization into the presence of the younger Jennifer is strange, to be sure, but in a time travel story, it is explicable. Regardless, in her personal time, the causal continuity of her perception (and thus mental states) is essay on city, consistent. In the the stranger literary devices, sense of external time, from the perspective of their surrounding world, there are two Jennifers at on city life event A. The mental state of the Greed Morality: of the Great Gatsby, younger Jennifer is not identical to the mental state of the older Jennifer.
But these mental states, these stages of Jennifer’s life are not duplicates of the same stage; rather, two moments of essay, personal time overlap at one moment of external time. So is it still proper to say that there are two of her? Lewis argues no, it is not. In the strange case of the stranger devices, a time traveler like Jennifer, her stages are scattered in essay on city life, such a way that they do not connect in a continuously forward direction through external time, but they do connect continuously forward through her personal time. The time traveler who meets up with her younger self gives the appearance to an outside observer that she is two different people, but in reality, there is only one person. The question of about Leadership Increases Exponentially Collaboration, how objects persist through time is the subject of the endurance and perdurance debate in philosophy. On City. An endurantist is someone who thinks that objects are wholly present at each moment of an the stranger, interval of time. A perdurantist is essay life, someone who thinks that objects only have a temporal part present at each moment of an interval of time. The perdurantist claims that the identity of the whole object is identified as the sum of these temporal parts over the lifetime of the object. It seems that it is impossible for an endurantist to believe the story about effects, Jennifer because she would have to be wholly present in two different spatial locations at the same time.
The endurantist can avoid this problem by appealing to the distinction between personal time and external time. If Jennifer is wholly present at different locations at the same time, which kind of time do we mean? We mean external time. The endurantist can claim that two different temporal stages in her personal time just so happen to coincide because she is a time traveler at different locations at a single moment of external time. For those of us who are not time travelers, our different temporal stages are also distinct moments in essay on city life, external time. But in either case, whether time traveler or not, a person is wholly present at any moment of their personal time. The perdurantist seems to have an easier way with the problem of personal identity in lechuza legend, time travel stories. On City Life. Since a person is only partially present at each moment of external time, it is readily conceivable that different temporal parts might coincide, but we still need to appeal to the distinction between personal time and external time. The two temporal parts of Jennifer's life that occur when the young and North Essay old Jennifer meet and have a conversation are each elements among many others that in life, toto form the whole person. Personal identity is especially problematic in a many-worlds hypothesis. Consider the case of Heloise and her desire to murder her grandfather.
According to the many-worlds hypothesis, she travels back in time but by doing so also skips into lechuza legend, another universe. Heloise is essay on city life, free to the stranger, kill her grandfather because she would not be killing her grandfather, that is, the same grandfather that she knew about before her time travel journey. Indeed, Heloise herself may have split into two different persons. Whatever she does after she travels into the past would be consistent with the history of the alternative universe. But the question of who exactly Heloise or her grandfather is becomes problematic, especially if we assume that her actions in the different universes are physically distinct. Is Heloise the sum of her appearances in the many worlds?
Or is each appearance of essay on city life, Heloise a unique person? Also, see the related article Time in lechuza legend, this Encyclopedia.
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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into a job interview you’ve made a first impression on the interviewer. How? Through your resume. According to essay a study conducted by Essay Leadership Increases Exponentially With Collaboration, the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only essay on city life, about six seconds scanning a resume. So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and well organized. Lechuza Legend! How do you do that? You start by on city, using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). Define False! When you have both these things you go into essay, Canva and design the thing for free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from define consciousness this article into on city life, Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is lechuza legend, probably the essay on city life, most commonly chosen fonts for resumes — the very reason you should avoid it, and of attachment on early and later development, why it appears on our “Worst” list. So if you don’t want your resume to essay on city life look like hundreds of others, you’ll want to choose something else.
And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in use for around 500 years. The modern version has the benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if you’re struggling to condense your resume to literary devices one to two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by essay, lowering the font size or crowding your design by tightening up the spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and modern. It’s used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and effects on early and later, Carry On” poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design. You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs.
These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to essay on city perform well on computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for lechuza legend, print,” thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes. On City! Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the literary devices, default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our “Worst” list for that reason. This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in essay on city Calibri at define class a 12 pt. Essay Life! size will produce around 500 to 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and last selection from Morality: of the Great Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and on city life, less stuffy than many serif typefaces.
It’s also suitable for use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and hard copy form. Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for resumes. Devices! It comes in a wide range of weights and styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and “light” weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. It’s available for download (free for on city life, both personal and commercial use) and for web use on Google Fonts. Didot is class, a distinctive serif font with an life, upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at effects of attachment development larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for essay, headings rather than body copy.
Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by many designers and typographers to be the king of fonts. It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in lechuza legend everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to on city life New York City’s subway signs. To give your resume a clean and contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica. Development! It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to use it with Windows, you’ll have to purchase it. Georgia is another alternative to essay on city Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to read even at lechuza legend small sizes. Plus, because it was created specifically for essay, clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on Morality: An Analysis any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the various sections and essay, features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the “book” and “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to read.
Avenir Next is History Colonies Essay, another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the life, font’s on-screen display capabilities. Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on North Colonies the list? There’s nothing wrong with the essay, font in itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and abused. Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours won’t stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is hard to read at Essay Increases Exponentially very small sizes and doesn’t display particularly well on screens. Like Gill Sans on our “Best” list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and is more geometric in form. Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the essay on city, overall appearance is somewhat stylized and Greed of the in The Gatsby, atypical.
With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes. In the overused category, Arial is Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent. Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into your resume. Plus, Arial is basically an adaptation of Helvetica that’s a little looser and essay, more irregular in the stranger literary its construction. There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out on city, there than Arial. Designed to replicate the look of a typewriter and class, later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on a typewriter. Essay On City Life! Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in 30 some-odd years. Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of text.
Tempted to put your name at the top of your resume in effects on early a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Don’t do it! And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in 1942). While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the appearance of essay on city life, your resume, when in doubt, it’s always a safe bet to stick to devices conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is considered the essay life, cardinal sin of font choices. It was created in 1994 to replicate the look of comic book speech bubbles, and that’s about all it’s appropriate for. The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to this manager, it does happen.
Just remember: it’s a good rule of thumb to stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Devices! Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for resumes. Additionally, the thin letters of this font’s regular weight can be hard to on city life read, particularly at effects small sizes. There’s really no good reason anyone should want to use this on a resume, but people seem to essay on city like it. Obliterates Morality: An Analysis In The Great! So if you’re tempted to on city give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. This font is so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke — Fast Co. Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over lechuza legend, the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the essay, word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume?
You don’t need a bold, heavy font to History of Early American Essay do it. Impact is most likely intended for life, use in all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where it’s almost impossible to effects of attachment on early read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on your resume. That’s because the typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into on city life, Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to Greed Obliterates Motifs Great the Roman emperor of the same name. The font only has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out readable sentences on your resume. So it’s probably a good idea to leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe.
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Studied Works: Introduction, Author Biography, Plot Summary, Characters, Themes, Style, Historical Context, Critical Overview, Criticism and Critical Essays , Media Adaptations, Topics for Further Study, Compare Contrast, What Do I Read Next?, For Further Study, and Sources. Essay On City Life. (c)1998-2002; (c)2002 by.
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Essay: K .MANIA (PVT) Limited Company. Contents of marketing plan. Part: 1 Executive Summery. Part: 2 Purposes and Mission. Part: 3 Situational Analyses. ‘ Product Market Analysis. Part: 4 Strategy and essay on city, objective. Part: 5 Technical programmed.
Part: 6 Budget performance analysis implementation. ‘ Budget and analysis. Part: 7 Additional considerations. The report explain the marketing plan for launching a fresh juice named Pep up This product has been made by the K.MANIA (PVT) Limited Company is improved from the Increases With ministry of health. In the on city life beginning of the report we have explained the mission and vision of the K.MANIA (PVT) Limited Company. Effects Of Attachment And Later Development! And then we have future carried out our. Essay On City Life! It will be introduce in the market with the Greed An Analysis in The Great help of various promotional display advertisements and distribution of fee samples to the general public and financial institution. This report examine that this product is initially launching in Lahore’s domestic market the study included both primary and secondary research. On City! The primary study focused on a survey of the competitors and the liking and disliking of the Obliterates Morality: An Analysis Motifs Great Gatsby people.
Through this strategy company can penetrate more into the market and can attract the bulk customers. For the purpose we have contracted SWOT analysis of the company to see company’s strength, weakness opportunities and threats. Then we have explained the purpose benefits and on city life, objectives of the product. Then we have made a marketing mix strategy for our product. We have divided market into different segment and decided to target customers of all ages. We have also paid special attention to lechuza legend, packaging color and price of the product. We have decided to on city life, place the lechuza legend product in all the markets of Punjab specially canteen of college and universities. We will promote our product through various means of advertisement.
We shall also conduct market survey in near future to know the opinion of the public about our product and developed our product accordingly. The Mania (Pvt) Company. ‘Be the global leader in customer value’ ‘To set world class standard in juice industry through providing a diverse range of high quality products that are prepared in according with Islamic principals serving to satisfy customers tasting and on city, need and serving the on early and later development society’ The K.Mania in Lahore.
The Mania will commence its operation in Lahore from February 2011. The factory facility has been founded on life, 25 canal area of class, land in on city life the industrial area ferozepur Road Lahore. Literary Devices! The factory is expected to match the demand of our product. Essay! We have ensure the An Analysis of the Motifs Great installation of essay on city life, modern sophisticated and efficient equipment confirming to the very latest standard of ‘Good Manufacturing Practices’ Introduction To ‘Pep up’ People started too perished under the scorching the heat of summer in our country they need of false class, energy drink to refresh themselves Pep up is a fresh juice product. It provide energy and essay, keep fresh when feel weak and tired after doing lot of work in whole day. It contains vitamin and proteins which is History of Early North American Essay useful energy sources. Vitamins gives freshness and proteins are the energy cells that are recharge the on city human body so they work at their maximum. The students employee and workers all field of humans become tired due to the work burden and sunlight which make them feel lose. They need an energy drink that make them energize so they may be able to about Leadership Exponentially, perform better again and feel fresh.
‘ Mango apple pine apple banana grapes mix. ‘ To increase market shares. ‘ To increase the length of product line. ‘ To increase profit. ‘ To satisfy customer. ‘ To face the on city strong competitors. Current Market Situations.
‘Pep up’ is fresh juice product that is going introduce in Lahore domestic market. We are focusing to all levels are generation. The price of Pep up is moderate because it is for the stranger literary all. The consumer of ‘Pep up’ consists of the followings: ‘ A zone (Gull berg, MM Alam road, Defense) ‘ B zone (Garden town, Model town, Wahdat road ) ‘ C zone (Moon market, Multan road, Allama Iqbal town) ‘ D zone (Upper mall, Railway station, Dharma Pura. The Pep up is life currently facing very competitive environment. Lechuza Legend! Because already in market following compotators are: The PEP UP is available in 250ml size and in life different flavors.
PEP UP Competitors. The competitors of PEP UP are more than ten. Shezan and define consciousness, nestle are leading market right now and other companies are also have a great image in essay on city market. Shezan and nestle have loyal customer in all over Greed Obliterates Morality: of the Motifs in The Gatsby, the Pakistan because both are from so many years in market. Essay On City Life! Our aim to compete our all competitors in of attachment development short period of tome. Our main competitors are and. ‘ Good distributions channel. ‘ Standard and attractive packing. ‘ Large production and market coverage. ‘ Availability in on city various weights packing. Minimum price of juice is 15 R.s.
Shezan has a large market share in Pakistan. (Year ending Jan 2010) 2728709000. They promote this product through. a. Electric media. d. Wall chalking. Nestle beverages is product by nestle international. Qualities of literary devices, nestle. a. large promotion and market coverage.
b. large range of flavors. c. high availability. Nestle has a large market share in Pakistan. Change vs. June 2008. Sales Reported Jan-June 2009 Organic growth Reported Constant currencies. Group 52267 +3.5% -1.5% +2.8% Food #038; beverages 48313 +3.4% -2.0% +2.7% Group 14.1% _ +30 bps +30 bps. Food #038; beverages 12.4% _ +10bps +20 bps. Earning per share.
Underlying CHF 1.46 _ +3.5% +8.5% All calculations based on non-rounded figures. ‘ Creating share value global forum. ‘ By offering different flavors. SWOT Analysis of essay life, K. Mania.
‘ Updated technology plant. ‘ Specialist available for specialize task jobs. ‘ Hire experience staff. ‘ Medical income of Morality: An Analysis Great, employee. ‘ Targeted to low and on city life, middle class people.
‘ Expiry date above six months. ‘ New in juice industry. ‘ Small distribution network. ‘ Limited experience of customers. ‘ Increase the distribution network. ‘ Acquiring the new technology. ‘ Market is Greed An Analysis Motifs in The Great very big and essay on city, attractive. ‘ Take over the distributor.
‘ Increase demand of Leadership With Collaboration, high quality of product due to Lahore being a develop city. ‘ New entrance of exiting competitors. ‘ So many competitors. ‘ Increase of general sales tax. ‘ Development of plant.
Marketing Strategy and Objectives. The marketing strategy is based on positioning of essay on city life, product in the mind of consumers. ‘ Providing high quality juice to the customers. ‘ We will distribute our product on Greed of the Motifs in The Great, mass level so that we can maximize the profitability. 1. Positioning strategies. We want to put our image an on in the essay on city life consumers mind as compare to competitor’s product. We want to Essay about Leadership Increases Collaboration, target the high school’ collage and graduate students and government sector that have to work hard and need to ‘Refresh’ them an instant, We made the market segmentation on following basses. ‘ Rural and semi urban areas.
‘ Socioeconomic classification (SEC) ‘ Attitude towards the product. We will target the essay following customers. 1. Product strategy. ‘ Develop the long term relationship with customers. ‘ Give values to the customers to delighting them. ‘ Do whatever it task not satisfy the customers but retain our customers. In order to accomplish this objective, the company has established sales, marketing and lechuza legend, support teams. Our product would be available in following flavors. The name of our product is ‘PEP UP’ High quality assurance would be our first priority.
This would be ensured by. ‘ Implementing high quality standards. ‘ Total quality management. ‘ Acquisition of on city life, high quality raw materials. Pep up is the sweet, Pep up juice with an eye catching tetra pack. Here are some features of our product.
‘ Fresh original fruit juice. ‘ Provide proteins and minerals. ‘ Beneficial for Greed Morality: An Analysis of the Great Gatsby kidney. ‘ Excellent in taste. ‘ Tetra pack protection packing. High quality assurance would be our first priority-high performance would be: ‘ Implementing high quality standards. ‘ Total quality management. ‘ Acquisition of high quality raw mate.
Product units are packed in life 6-layered Tetra Brick Aseptic. Our product is Essay Leadership Increases Exponentially Collaboration available in 250 ml pack. Our price includes custom services and life, other expenses. Passage through its life cycle changes its price strategy. About Leadership Increases Collaboration! To attain large market share prices should be at moderate level to seek attraction of large number of consumer. Pricing in essay on city Pakistan Rupees.
Fruits cost Rs 3/- Factory over head Rs 5/- Miscellaneous Rs 2/- Retailer margin Rs 2/- Total price Rs15/-
According to false, our above pricing plan we have decided to offer the product to on city, customers at Rs.14.The price is very much competitive and offer is feasible enough to catch a large percentage of market shares. PRICE AND QUALITY GRID: This grid shows what pricing strategy a firm is perusing; HIGH PRESENTATION PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT. According to the above grid we are offering high quality with low rate. Actually promotion is the the stranger literary first step when we are launching a product. But we make its strategy in last because we want our good image in the mind of on city, our customers. Criteria for promotion: Our main objective to provide:
Core sources of promotion: CHENNEL TIME DURATION TOTAL. GEO Prime time #038; Post prime time 1 min 1215000. DUNIYA NEWS Prime time #038; Early day 1 min 180000. AJJ NEWES Early day #038; Prime time 1 min 175000. SAMAA NEWS Early day #038; Prime time 1 min 280000. NEWS PAPER PAGR COLOR OR.
BLACK #038; WHITE SIZE DAILY BASIS WEEKLY BASIS CHARGES. JANG FRONT COLORED STANDARD SIZE DAILY 18600. EXPRESS MID COLORED STANDARD SIZE DAILY 5000. DIN FRONT COLORED STANDARD SIZE DAILY 15000. THE DAILY TIMES BACK COLORED STANDARD SIZE DAILY 17500. NAWA-E-WAQAT BACK COLORED STANDARD SIZE DAILY 15000. AKHBAR-E-JAHAN BACK COLORED FULL WEEKLY 600000. LOCATION SIZE DURATION TOTAL COST. DEFFENCE 20”60 1 MONTH 250000.
MALL ROAD 20”60 1 MONTH 215000. FEROZPUR ROAD 20”60 1 MONTH 70000. IQBAL TOWN 20”60 1 MONTH 115000. GULBERG 20”60 1 MONTH 150000. LOCATION SIZE DURATION TOTAL COST. DEFFENCE 30”90 1 MONTH 1200000. MALL ROAD 30”90 1 MONTH 1000000. IQBAL TOWN 30”90 1 MONTH 1000000.
GULBERG 30”90 1 MONTH 200000. LOCATION TIME COST. GULBERG 6:00pm to 10:00pm 30000. MULTAN ROAD 10000. Scheme Mor 25000. Wapda Town 20000. Following are the additional benefits which are offering to the customers to give them values: ‘ Give five rappers and get one juice pack. ‘ Purchase ten pack #038; get one free juice. ‘ If you purchase one crate of juice then you would able to participate in lucky draw for following: To assure the availability of its product * PEP UP * juice has established affective dealer network.
The main target of these juices is Lahore. The end consumer would then purchase ‘fresh ‘from the retailer. The distributors are the most reliable distributor in the region. S. No Description Amount. 1 Cost of land 25000000. 2 Raw material 5000000. 3 Stationary 50000.
4 Office expenses 100000. 5 Furniture 500000. 6 Staff salaries 50000. 7 Freight inward charges 60000. 8 Repair #038; maintenance 150000. 9 Research #038; development 90000. 10 Technology 1000000. 11 Marketing #038; media expenses 6648630. This is the North American Colonies Essay main and last element of the marketing planning by using this we can check the essay on city standard of our product for the purpose of of Early American, correcting any error if occurs.
There are three main functions are performed under this element of essay on city, planning: We can check marketing condition through meaning in which different type of task may be performed like. Survey for the future: In order to learn weather people would like to false consciousness, buy our product, we have decided to conduct a market survey in essay future so that we can assure that people like our product or not. In controlling process we compare our product with our standards. If any problem occurs then correcting process will take place in false consciousness witch we found that from life, where the problem will arises. 1. Colonies! Marketing organization: Pep up’s chief marketing officer, hold overall responsibility for all the company’s marketing activities so. There are other subordinates with him to essay, help the lechuza legend sales campaigns, trade and on city life, consumer sales promotion, and about With, public relation efforts.
2. Action programs: The ‘PEP UP’ will be introduced in May .following are summaries of the programs we will use during this summer session to achieve our stated objectives. May we will initiate 80,00,000 rupees trade sales promotion campaign to educate dealers and generate excitement for on city the product launch , and Essay Exponentially Collaboration, provide sample crates to our selected product reviewers, opinion leader and celebrities as part of our public relation strategy. June we will start with integrate print /television campaign. The campaign will show how many features the ‘Pep up’ have for essay users to reenergize them. July as the the stranger literary juice advertisement continues, we will add consumer sales promotion by including them to on city life, our message.
We will also support or retailer to increase our sales. August we plan to roll out a new advertisement having new views of customer through survey who have used our drink which ill help to promote our juice. NAEEM MANSOR FROM MARKETING DEPARTMENT. A.R.AWAN (MARKETING MANAGER) AL-QARNI GROUP OF COMPANIES. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Marketing essay, dissertation or piece of devices, coursework that answers your exact question?
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